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The American 
Review of Reviews 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



Volume XXXVIII. July-December, 1908 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY 
NEW YORK: 13 ASTOR PLACE 



I 






COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



INDEX to THE THIRTY-EIGHTH VOLUME OP 



THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

JULY-DECEMBER, 1908. 



Attention is called to the following headings in this Index, under which are grouped 
\rticles that might be searched for first under other titles: Aerial Navigation, Balkan Situ- 
itton^ Canada, Education, Financial, France, Germany, Great Britain, Political Affairs, 



Abbot. Willis J. The new Bryan, 41. 
AbduMlamid II., Sultan of Turkey. (511. 
Academic, The, and the practical, 747. 
Aerial navijration : 

la the conquest of the air worth while? 472. 

Edison's conception of a flying machine, 321. 

Progress in, ir>2. 310. 

Wright Brothers, Flights of. 402. 

Zeppelin, Count, Triumph of, 152. See also 
under Zeppelin. 
Alaska. Coal resources of, COO. 
Alaska's railroad developments 003. 

Alcohol. Delusions concerning, (HO. 

AlUn. William II. New York's first budget ex- 
hibit. f;8i>. 

Allison, Senator William B., Death of, 274. 

Alps. A canal over the. 227. 

America. Four French appraisers of, 381. 

Anwrira— What is it worth? (JOl. 

Amerioans: Are they lovers of the dollar? 222. 

Anabaptists. Austrian, in America, 243. 

An«lt>rsoo. William F., Bishop, 72. 

.\imK Climbing the, by Miss Annie S. Peck, 488. 

Animals. F^ect of domestication on, 245. 

Art. Industrial, and good taste. 748. 

Art: Winfllow IIoraer*s rank in American paint- 
injj, 102. 

Australia. Some political, geographical, and eco- 
nomic facts about, 342. 

Antbority rcrjwa sympathy, 742. 

Bich. Ww monument to, in lieipzig, 232. 
Baedt'ker of the jruitle-books, 104. 
Halkan situation The: 

.Austria-Hungary formally annexes Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, 520, 534. 

AuHtrian view of Balkan situation, 535, 740. 

Halkan situation, in November. (MM). 

Knlkans and Turkey (map), 530. 

Balkans, The real trouble in, 520. 5,37. 

Balkans. The men who count in the. .503. 

Berlin Tn^aty thirty years after, 5:^2. 533. 

Bulgaria declares independence, 530. 554, 50r». 



Bulgaria. < Growth of, 531. 

Bulgaria's agent. Slight to, 520. 

Bulgars, Ferdinand I., (^zar of, 5.54. 

Crete proclaims herself Greek, 535. 

Germany's program in the matter. 530. 

(ireat Britain's action and opinion, 538. 

Italy's interests in the Balkans, 5^^ 

Ori«*ntal Railway strike, 521K 

Servia and Montenegro, Stake of, 530. 

Turk, Steady retreat of, 537. 
Bank deposit guarantee plan. 395, 528. 
Barnard. George Gray : a virile American sculp- 
tor. 4580. 
Barnard. Kate, of Oklahoma. 403. 
Belgium annexes the Congo. 405. 
Bolivia and its president, 572. 
Books, New, The, 121, 253, 383, .508, (>32, 75(5. 
Brazil and her navy. 608. 
Brasil : Report on coffee valorization, 278. 
Briatol, Frank* 7a 



Bryan, The New (William J. Bryan), 41.. See 

also under Political affairs. 
Bulgaria : See under Balkans. 
Btilow, Prince, German Chancellor, 733. 
Burmah, Women of, lOG. 
Butler, Nicholas Murray. Daniel C. Gilman : 

Builder of universities, 552. 
Business conditions, 134, 145, 404, 407, 527. 

Campbell, W. A. A national corn exposition, 714. 
Canada : 

Affairs in; Forest fires; Rebuilding of Quebec 
Bridge: Newfoundland fisheries question; 
Strike on Canadian Pacific Railway; Que- 
bec Tercentenary celebration, 270. 

Elections in, 25-20, 540, 059. 

Grain harvest of, 743. 

Notes on affairs in, 20. 

Political campaign in, 270. 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. 40. 
Cartoons, a5. 150, 287, 410, 545, ($75. 
Castro: tyrant or liberator? 482. 
Catholic Eucharistic Congress in Ix>ndon, 410. 
Central American notes, 25, 147. 
Chafin, Eugene Wilder, Presidential nominee of 

Prohibition party, 302. 
Champlain, de, Samuel, Character of, 352. 
Chase. Frederick II. Alaska's railroad develop- 
ment, 0S)3. 
Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy Railroad, l>evel- 

opment work of, 501. 

China : 

American interests in, 0(»0. 

I>eath of the Emi)eror and the Empress, 007. 

Is a new China being bom ? 2.*V). 

Political parties in, 02(>. 

Twenty years of C^hinese history, (>(»7. 

Cleveland, (i rover, as a public man. 188. 

Cleveland, ( 5 rover, at Princeton, 185. 

Cleveland street-railway tangle, 737. 

.Coal resources of Alaska, OIW). 

Cobalt mining district, Romance of, 00. 

Cocoa, Production and consumption of. (»17. 

Cohn, Adolphe. Why M. Fallit>res is an ideal 
French President, 45. 

Colombia : Redistriction of country, 277. 

Colonization, The new principle in, 00.5. 

Coman, Katharine. The railroad as an advance 
agent of prosperity, 501. 

Congo annexed by Belgium, 405. 

Congress, Proceedings in. Chronological RtH'ord. 
30: Senate changes, 300: Work done in first 
session of, 10-20; Treaties ratifieil by the Sen- 
ate in the recent session, 20; Appropriations 
for year 1008-1000. 

Convict-lease system in Georgia, 403. 

Co-operative trading in England, 022. 

Copp^'e. Fran(;ois, The work of. 110. 

Corn Exposition, A national. 714. 

Crete proclaims herself (Jreck. .5,35. .5,30. 

(^rimes of violence in Chicago and New York, 3.59. 

Oops, (Jood outlook for, 2X, 40\. 

Cuba. Affairs in, 147. 



Tor: 



Ok M 



iv THE AMERICAN REI/IEW OF REVIEWS. 

Cuba, Elections in, 277. 660. Germany's isolation. Sir Edward Grey on, 279. 

Cnshing, George U. A practical campaign for Germany's financial dilemma. 734. 

smoke prevention, 62. Germany's outposts in Russia, 362. 

Gilman, Daniel C. : Builder of Universities, 552. 

Daniels, Josephus. Bryan's third campaign, 423. Gilman, I^awrence. The season's musical outlook 
Darwinism,— Is it played out? 477. (1908-9), 557. 

Debs, Eugene V., 298. Gold production in its relation to trade. 499. 

Denmark, Financial corruption in, 406. Government receipts and expenditures, 67. 

Desert, The, as a generator of spiritual forces. Graves, John Temple. The mission of the Inde- 

480. pendent party, 307. 

DeWeese, Truman A. On the other side, 82. Government ownership of the telephone in West- 
Dickie, Samuel. The Prohibitionists and their em Canada^ 628. 

case, 300. Gray, George, as a Presidential candidate, 89. 

Duel, Driving out the, 495. Great Britain : 

Cromer, Lord, predicts European war. 279. • 
Education, American, Curse of, 602. Daylight-saving bill, 153-154. 

Education : I>ack of teachers in Germany, 240. Licensing bill. Common sense about, 92. 

Education- Manual training: Is it worth while? Parliamentary and other affairs in, 278-279. 

113. , Patent law. New, 410. 

Education : Public schools, EflSciency of. 473. Naval supremacy of Great Britain. 661. 

Education: Ruskin College: An experiment, 368. Notes on affairs in. 148. 
Educating our bovs, 241. Suffragette demonstration in London, 148. 

Eidward VIL, of England, visits the Czar, 27. Unemployed in England, 661. 

Bhiropean balance, — Is it disturbed? 406. Gregg, William C. What are the Japanese doing 
"Evangeline," Ix)ngfellow's, Evidence of Swedish in Formosa? 193. 

influence in, 732. Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason, and his work in 

Labrador, 679. 
Falli^res, M., an ideal French President, 45. Guy, George H. Real navigation of the air, 310. 
Falli^res, President, in England, 26. Gyroscope, The, and its use, 205, 209. 
Farwell, Arthur. National movement for Ameri- 
can music, 721. Hal^vy, Ludovic, 225. 
Ferdinand L, " Czar of the Bulgars," 554. Halstead, Murat, a great American journalist, 
Financial : 191. 

A French choice of American stocks, 376. Hanford, Ben, 299. 

After the profit, — what? 251. Harger, Charles Moreau. The AVest's return to 

American railroads and English investors, 248. confidence, 467. 

A money-saving fact, 752. Harmon, .Tudson, as a Presidential candidate, 90. 

Atchison, The, A railroad well managed, 507. Harris, Joel Chandler. 214. 

Bonds, Buying, in small amounts, 119. Hawke, p]dward G. The Olympic games in Lon- 

Financial recovery. Signs of, 23. don. 78. 

Financial troubles of half a century, 478. Hayes, M. A. Gautemala's transcontinental rail- 
How to go after increase in value, 629. road route, 200. 

Industrial bonds. Consensus of opinion on. 377. Health organization, national. Need of, 217. 

Inventions, Investing in. a bad mistake, 631. Hitchcock. Frank Harris. Chairman of Republi- 

Investment. personal. Benefits of, 751. can National Committee, 439. 

lusestors. Education of, 23. Hobson, Richmond P., as a war prophet. 3«>6. 

'Xooking over a bond bargain. 753. Holland : Ten years of Queen Wilhelmina, 405. 

Mortgage security. Four elements of, 506. Homer, Winslow, Rank of, in American Art, 102. 

Mortgage bonds. The making of, 252. Hughes. Edwin Holt. Bishop. 73. 

Panic, Recent, as affecting railway traffic, 400. Hunter, Robert. Socialist candidate for New York 

Securities are paying for their keep, 503. I-iCgislature. 26,*{. 

Stocks for investment. 116. Hunter, Rot)ert. The Socialist party in the prea- 

Street-railway bonds. Advantages of. 118. ent campaign, 293. 

Surplus, The, — Optimistic or real? 504. 

What stocks and bonds are worth, 379. Immigant, Studving and aiding the, 154. 

Fire losses in the United States, 403. Insurance for old-age and disability in Italy, 746. 

Fire protection. High-pressure. 703. Ireland. General progress in. 740. 

Floods in Georgia and Carolinas. 403. Italv, Seven thousand new acres won for. 230. 

Folk. Joseph W., as a Presidential candidate. 89. Ivory hunting, its romance and realities. 239. 
Forest fires in Canada and the United States, 

403, 528. Japan. American relations with. 670. 

Forest fire prevention by law. 403. Japan, Ministry, New, and its problems. 150-151. 

Formosa, The Japanese m, 193. Japan, Retrenchment in. 411. 

France: -^o> Japanese. Commercial morality of, 237. 

Absinthe, Campaign against, 149. Japanese in Formosa, 19.S. 

Affairs in, 27. Japan's welcome to the .\merican fleet, 539-540. 

Campaign against immoral literature, 476. Joachim III., of the Orthodox (Jreek Church. 597. 

Casablanca incident, 665^666. Johnston, John A., as a Presidential candidate, 90. 

Pans, Revolutionary strike m, 280. jones, Guernsey. Old-age pensions in England, 

Western Railway, Government purchase of. 149. 345 
Francis Joseph of Austria, Sixtieth anniversary 

of accession of, 29. Keane, Augustin C. San Francisco's plague war, 
Frechette, Louis, " Poet of Canada," 221. 561. 

Kem, John Worth, Democratic candidate for 
Ganges, A defense of the, 233. Vice-President, 171. 

Guatemala's transcontinental railroad route, 200. Knaufft, Ernest. George Gray Barnard : a virile 
Georgia, Conrict-lease system in, 403. American sculptor. 689. 

German schools, I^ck of teachers in, 240. Kuropatkin*s secret history of the war with 
Germany : Affairs in, 29. Japan, 481. 

Germany, Economic and financial^ in 1908, 114. Labor in the Presidential campaign. See under 
Germany : Kaiser William's interview in the IjOU- Political affairs. 

don Daily Telegraph of October 28, 662-665. Labor : Unemployed labor and land. — Can they be 
Germany, Growth of chemical industry in, 500. brought together? 111. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXVUI. 



Labrador, Indian tribes of, 358. 

Lalo@, Jeanne, first woman candidate for the 
Paris municipal council, 220. 

Lawlessness aud crime, 657. 

Leading Articles of the Month, 88, 216, 347, 470, 
600, 732. 

Le^ia, Au^usto B., President of Peru, 576. 

Lewia, O. F. Society's warfare against tuber- 
culosis, 323. 

Lewis, Wilson Seeley, Bishop, 73. 

Life and periodicity, 241, 

Lincoln memorial, A proposed, 274, 334. 

Lindsay, Samuel McCune. Loans on salaries, 725. 

Liquor problem: Does prohibition pay? 91. 

IJquor problem : Englisn liceusing bill, !)2. 

Liquor problem: Local option in Oregon, 21. 

Loans on salaries and wages, 725. 

LoDgfellow's ** Evangeline," Evidences of Swedish 
influence in, 7^. 

Lotheranism, German, and radicalism, 367. 

McCleary, James T. What shall the Lincoln me- 
morial be? 334. 
McGrath, P. T. Grenfell of I^brador, 679. 
Mclntyre, Robert, 73. 
McKelway, St. Clair. Grover Cleveland as a 

public man, 188. 
Macedonian question. New developments of, 101. 
Machine-gun m the United States army, 7*'{9. 
Maps and diagrams: 

Alaska and the Canadian Yukon region, 692. 

Alaska, Distribution of coal deposits in, 700. 

AusU'alia, Transcontinental railways in, 342. 

Balkans and Turkey, showing their geograph- 
ical relations to Europe, 530. 

Caisson, pneumatic. Sinking a, 580. 

Canada, Eastern, 727: resource map of. 729. 

Cocoa, Production and consumption of, 618. 

Elevator plunger. Working of, »81. 

Flying machine, Edison's, sketch of, 321. 

CJyroscope movement, 208. 

Labrador and Newfoundland, Showing scene of 
Dr. Grenfeirs labors, 684. 

New York City, showing location of high-pres- 
sure water mains, 70S. 

New York Citv ; Skyline of west side of lower 
Broadway, 604. 

Political map of the T'nited States, showing 
Taft and Bryan States of 1908, 652. 

Political maps of United States, showing re- 
sults of campaigns of 18!i2, 1896, 1900 and 
1904. 

Rome, modern, Sketch-plan of, 487. 

Traction elevator. Working of. .^>82. 

United States and Great Britain, geograph- 
ically compared, 510. 
Marx, Karl, as a world force. 108. 
Meats. The Government's in8i)ection of, 587. 
Medical science. The marvelous in, 36li 
Menkel. William. Welfare work on American 

railroads. 449. 
Methodist bishops. New. 72. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance building, New York 

City, 5KJ. 
Mexico, Insurrection in, 147. 
Mississippi River problem. The, 216. 
Missouri, T'nivcrsity of. New president of, Dr. 

Albert Ross Hill. 404. 
Mitchell. (luy Elliott. Coal resources of Alaska, 

699 ; The government's inspection of meats. .^»87. 
Moffett, Samuel E. Mr. Bryan's convention, 178. 
Money, Soiled paper, not dangerous, 3(>5. 
Montenegro, Nicholas I.. Prince of, 595. 
Montes, Ismael, president of Bolivia, 572. 
Morocco, German Kaiser and, 406. 
Moslem women in Northern Africa, 373. 
.Mother, Rights of the, 750. 
Moving-pictures ad tiaiweam, 744. 
Municipal supervision of architecture, ^tr*. 
Murder trials. Sentimentality in. 607. 
Music, American. National movement for, 721. 
Mosic season of 1908-9, Outlook for, 557. 



Nathan, Ernesto, Rome's Jewish mayor, 484. 
Navy : Voyage of the fleet. 150, 275, 411. 498, 539. 
Negro governments in the North, 471. 
Newspaper: Is an honest one possible ?• 600. 
New York City : Mayoralty contest decision, 144. 
New York's first budget exhibit. 686. 
New Zealand. Some facts about, 342. 
New Zealand's Alpine tunnel. 372. 
North-Sea Agreement, A Dutch view of, 242. 
Nuelsen, John Lewis, Bishop. 72. 

Obituary, 34, 158, 286, 415. 544, 674. 
Ogg, Fre<leric Austin. John Worth Kern, 
IXemocratic candidate for Vice-President, 171. 
Old-age pensions in f^glund, 345. 
Olympic games in London, 78, 145. 
Orator, Campaign, A cartoonist's view of, 369. 
Oregon election and issues involved, 20-21. 

Panama, New president of (Jos^ Obaldia), 147. 

Panama, Presidential election in. 24-25. 

Paraguay, Revolution in, 146. 

Paris, *' lievolutionary strike " in, 280. 

Patagonia reclaimed, 246. 

Peck, Annie S., climbing the Andes, 488. 

Penology : Punishment that does not fit the crime, 

244. 
Persia, Revolution in, 105. 152. 
Peru and its President, 572. 
Philadelphia, Founder's week in, 404. 
Philippines, Church and State in, 624. 
Plants, Sleep movements in, 224. 
Pole, South, Problem of, 371. 

Political affairs: 

Bank deposit guarantee issue. 395, 528. 

Bryan, William J., in the Presidential cam- 
paign, 3-6. 88, 259, 393, 423. 517, 520, 655. 

Bryan's speech of acceptance, 269. 

Campaign, An undemonstrative. 51.5. 

Campaigning in England and America, 349. 

Campaign management. 139-140. 259. 

Campaign organizations. National, 396. 

Campaign, Shaping of the, 3. 

Conditions after the election, 643. 

Contributions to party funds, 261, 524, 525. 

Courts, The, in the Republican platform, 11. 

Democratic campaign organization. 2()1. 

Democratic candidates for the Presidency, 88. 

Denver convention, 134. 178. 

Democratic platform. Comments on. 136-1.'^. 

Direct nomination system. Working of. 272. 

" Extravagance " charges in the campaign, 518. 

Florida Democratic primaries. 22. 

Forake'r and Taft in the campaign. .^22. 

Foraker, Senator, and Mr. Hearst's Standard 
Oil charges. 398-399, .521. 

Forecasts of the result, 526. 

Graves. John Temple, Independence party can- 
didate for Vi("e-President, 2<W. 

Harmonious trend of American opinion. 2G6. 

Haskell in<ident, .521, .522. 

Hearst party in the campaign of 1JM)S, 26.5, 307. 

Hearst's attacks, .521. 

Hisgen, Thomas L., candidate of Independence 
party for President, 267. 

Hughes, (iovenior (of New York), and the Re- 
publican party. 388. 

Hughes vvrsU'S Chanler in New York State. .520. 

Illinois: Primary election for I'nited States 
Senator and State oflScers in. 272. 

Independence party and its mission. 2tir>. .'^07. 

Injunction question in the campaign, 9-11, 131. 

Iowa, Primary election in, 22. 271. 

Iowa senatorship contest, 27.*{. 

Issues in the campaign not partisan. I'M. 

Kansas, Direct nomination for United States 
Senator in, 271. 

Kern, ,Tohn Worth. Democratic candidate for 
Vice-President. 171. 

Labor in the campaign. 131. 470. <J4."i. i\h\. 

I^nbor questions. Taft and the. <^15. 

Labor's choice Ijetween the parties, 3AT» 



vi 



THE AMBRICAht kEl^lE]V OP REk'/EU^S. 



Maine election, ddS. 

Missouri, Direct nomination election in» 271. 

Negroes in this year's campaign, 14. 

New York, Boss>ridden democracy in, 390. 

New York, Convention versus primary in, 273. 

New York State : Passage of anti-race- track 

gambling bills, 22. 
New York State polities, 387-392. 
North Carolina, Prohibition victory in, 22. 
Notification affairs, 202. 
Olney, Richard,— Why he is for Bryan, 393. 
Oregon election and issues involved, 20-21, 271. 
Party feeling, Decline of, G44. 
Platform buncombe, 136. 
Platforms — Are they binding? 269. 
Policies and the parties, 133. 
Populist party in the campaign of 1908, 303. 
Post-election comment on campaign issues, VAH. 
Presidency as a job, 132. 
Primary elections in various States, 21, 270, 

399. 
Prohibitionists, The, in the campaign, 143, 264, 

300. 
Publicity in the campaign, 139, 140, 142. 
Races and parties. 649. 

Republican campaign committee personnel. 2(U). 
Republican national convention, Organization 

of, 7-10. 16-18. 
Republican platform, Comments and criticisms 

on, 12-16. 
Republican victory after a panic, (>48. 
Roosevelt and his party, 6. 
Roosevelt and the third term, 12. 
Roosevelt, President, in the campaign, 523. 
Sheldon as Republican treasurer, 140. 
Sherman, James S., chosen as Republican Vice- 
Presidential nominee, 17-18. 
Smaller parties in the campaign, 18. 143, 6;T). 
Socialists in this year's politics, 263-2(»4. 
South Dakota Republican primaries. 22. 
South, The, and the parties. 15. 
South, Why it keeps solid. 649. 
Southern political contentment, 644. 
Southern Representation, Reduction of, 649. 
Standard Oil letters. The, 521. 
State elections, 526. 651, 652. 653, 654. 671. 
States, Affairs in various, 144. 
Taft campaign. The. 43, 516. 
Taft on the stump, 395. 
Taft's speech of acceptance, 268. 
Taft's speei'hes and personality, 517. 
Taft stands on his record, 2.19. 
Tariff outlook. The, 5ia 
Tariff— the real platform. 136. 
Tariff changes. Notice of. 134. 
Trusts and the candidates. 396. 
Trusts, — Would Bryan prosecute? 519. 
Vermont election, 398. 
XiCf-Presidential candidates. 135. 
Voters, new. Organizing the. 260. 
Votes — can they be changed? 142. 
Watson. Thomas E.. Populist candidate for 

President, 1908, 264. 
Wisconsin, Primary election in. 271. 
Wisconsin in the Republican convention, 16. 

Portraits : 

Abdul Hamid II., Sultan of Turkey, 281. 490. 

Aerenthal. von. Baron. 533. 

Aglipay. Bishop Gregorio, 624. 

Abmed-Riza. Editor of Mechveret, 609. 

Alderman. Edwin A., 97. 

Allison, William B.. 258. 

Amundsen. Captain Roald. 382. 

Anderson. William F., 72. 

Asquith. Herbert Henry, 532. 

Atwood. John H.. 429. 

Bach monument in Leipzig, 232. 

Baedeker. Karl. 104. 

Baldwin. J. W., 320. 

Baldwin. Thomas S., 3ia 

Barnard, Kate, 493. 



Barnes, William, Jr., 38a 

Bauer, L. A., 53, 56. 

Bazan, Emilia Pardo, 621. 

Bell, Theodore A., 181. 

Benedict, Francis G., 53. 

Biggs. Hermann, 326. 

Bleriot, M., 310. 

Blue, Rupert, 561. 

Boss, Lewis, 53. 

Bristol, Frank M., 73. 

Bristow, Joseph L., 271. 

Brown, Joseph M., 32. 

Bryan, Charles P., 428. 

Bryan, William J., 6, 40, 130, 262, 395, 519. 

Bryan, William J., Mrs., 137. 

Bryan, W. J., and Charles F. Murphy, 134. 

Bryan, William J., and grandchildren, 137. 

Biyce, John, and Mrs. Bryce, 31. 

Billow, von. Prince Bernard, 532, 662. 

Burrows. Julius C, 10. 

Burton, John R., 429. 

Burton, Theodore A., 15. 

Campannini, Cleofonte, 559. 

Carmack, E. W\, 658. 

Carpenter. Olive, 437. 

Castro, Cipriano, President of Venezuela, 4i 

Chafin, Eugene Wilder. 301. 

Champlain, de, Samuel. 74. 

Chanler, Lewis Stuyvesant, 391, 392, 520. 

Chandler, Walter M., 756. 

Chun, Prince, 667. 

Clark, John B., 614. 

Clayton, Henry D., 181. ^ 

Cl^menceau, Georges, 532. 

(Cleveland. (Jrover, 18<». 189. 

Conant. Charles A.. 125. 

Converse, G. M., 561. 

Copp^e, Francois, 110. 

Cosgrave, John O'Hara, 496. 

Creasy, Sir Edward, 760. 

Creel, R. H.. 561. 

Culberson, Charles A., 428. 

Cummins, Albert B., 6,'»4. 

Curtiss. Glenn H.. 313, 319. 320. 

Dahiman, James C, 183. 

Darlington, Thomas, 217. 

Day, Arthur L., 53. 

Deakin, Alfred. 342. 

Debs. Eugene V., 295, 526. 

de Medici, Catherine, 637. 

Depew, Chauncey M., 14. 

Destinn, Emmy. 557. 

Devine, F^lward T., 328. 

Dippel. Andreas. 558. 

Dominguez, Zeferino, 719. 

Draga, Queen, of Servia, 255. 

Dudley, Earl, 343. 

Duncan. Norman. (534. 

Dunn, Ignatius. 138. 

DuPont, T. Coleman, 437. 

Edward VII., King of England, 26. 

Ellis. Wade, 11. 

Elman. Mischa, 543. 

Enver Bey. 491. 

Fagan, J. ()., 635. 

Fallit^res. Ch»mont-Armand, President. 26.4.5,^ 

Fallit'^res. Madame. 47. 

Farman. Henry. 317. 

Farrar. Geraldine, 557. 

Ferdinand 1.. "Czar of the Bulgars," 554. 

Fernald. Bert M.. 398. 

Ffolks. Bruce. 5(;i. 

Fie<ller. Max. i'»59. 

Foelker. Otto. 33. 

Fox. Carroll. 5<n. 

Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, of Austria-Hi 

gary. 749. 
FrMiotte. Louis. 221. 
Funk. R I).. 7ir,. 
Garden, Mary. r>,")7. 
Garneau. J. George, 220. 
Gatti-Casazza, Giulio, 558. 



INDEX TO yOLUME XXXyill. 



v« 



German Empress, 642. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 553. 

Gomez, Gen. Jos^ Mieuel, 660. 

Gompers, Samuel, 347, 646. 

Gore, Senator, 183. 

Graves. John Temple, 300. 

Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason, 681, 682. 

Griffuelhes. *' Citiien," 280. 

Hadley. Herbert S., 271, 053. 

Hale, George E., 53. 

Hal^vV, Ludovic, 225. 

Ilalstead. Murat, 191. 

Hammorstein. Oscar, 558. 

Hammond, John Hays, 14. 

Hanford, Ben, 297. 

Harmon, Jiidson, 653. 

Harmsworth, Alfred (Lord Northcliflfe), 543. 

Harris. Joel Chandler. 214. 

Haskell. Charles N., 157. 4;U). 

Hawkins, State Senator, of Minnesota, 14. 

Hawley, A. R., 320. 

Hayos, ,Tohn J., nn^eiving Marathon minlal, 283. 

Hearst. William R., 524. 

Heat on, .Tohn Menniker, 24. 

Hemenway, James A.. 14. 

Heney. Francis J.. fUiS. 

Herrick, Robert, 50S. 

Herrinp, A. M., 320. 

Hill, John Warren, 437. 

Hisjzren, Thomas L., 307. 

Hisgen, Thomas L.. and family, 267. 

Hitchcock, Frank H., 9, 141, 397, 433. 441. 

Hobson, Richmond Pearson, 367. 

Holden, P. <}., 716. 

Hopkins, Albert J., 13. 

Hopkins, Henry, 415. 

Hopkins, H. H., 561. 

Howard. J. L., 561. 

Hubbard. Mrs. Leonidas, Jr., 638. 

Hughes, Charles E., 389, 521, 522. 

Hughes, Edwin H., 73. 

Hunter, Robert, 264. 

Hurley, J. R.. 561. 

Isvolski, Count, 532. 

Iwai, Gov.-Gen. T.. 103. 

James, Ollie P., 182. 

Jameson, J. Franklin. 53. 

Joachim III., Patriarch of the East, 542. 

Johnson, E. S., 183. 

Johnson, John A., 653. 

Johnson, Tom L., 738. 

Kahlo. Dr., 183. 

Karger, Augustus. 435. 

Keller, Helen, 762. 

Kem, John W., 135, 173. 

Kern. John W^ Jr., 177. 

Kem, Julia, 177. 

Kem. Mrs, John W.. 175. 

Kem. William, 177. 

Kiamil Pasha, 535. 

Knight, George A.. 14. 

Kondratenko, Major-Genera 1. 123. 

Kuropatkin, Gen. Alexci Nikolaievich, 481. 

I^abia, Maria, 5.57. 

Lal«». .Teanne, 226. 

I^.^sc^-lles, Frank. 75. 

I^nrier, Sir Wilfred. 6.'>9. 

I>»e, (;en. Stephen I)., 34. 

I>epuia, Agusto B., President of Peru, 572. 

Lewis, Wilson S.,' 73. 

Lilley. George L., 412. 

Lincoln. Abraham. 334. 

Lodge. Henry Cabot. 10. 

Macartney. Sir Halliday, 255. 

McCleary, James T.. 274. 

McCurdy, J. A. D., 320. 

MacDougal, Daniel T.. 53. 

Mclntyre, Robert M.. 73. 

Mack, Norman E., 261. 425, 426. 

McTiean, H. C, Jr., 437. 

Manly, C M., 320. 



Mansfield, Erminia Rudersdorff (Mother of 

Richard Mansfield), 761. 
Martin, John L, 183. 
Marx, Karl, 109. 
Mason, Caroline Atwater, 635. 
Mason, Victor L., 437. 
Meyer, (ieorge von L., 141. 
Midhat Pasha. 490. 
Moffett, Samuel E.. 28.5. 
Montes, Ismael. President of Bolivia, 574. 
Moore, Fxhvard T., 437. 
Moore, R. A., 715. 
Moore, Thomas, 170. 
Morgan. E. M.. (158. 
Mulai Hafid, 407. 

Murphy, Charles F.. and W. J. Bryan, 134. 
Nathan. Ernesto. 485. 
New, Harry S., 10. 
Niazi Bey. 610. 
Nuelsen, John Lewis, 72. 
Obaldia, President, of Panama, 147. 
Oulahan. Richard V., 4;^>. 
Patterson, (iovernor. of Tennessee*. 144. 
Peck. Annie S., 488. 

Persia, Shah of, Mohammed Ali Mirza. 105. 
Piles, Samuel H.. 14. 
Potter, Henry Codman, 158. 
Prentice, A. I)., 5(>1. 
Prouty, (ieorge H., 3J>8. 
Quayle, William A., 72. 
Ridder. Herman. 428. 
Roberts. I»rd, 27(». 
Rockefeller, John !>., r),58. 
Roosevelt. Theodore, 523. 
Root. Elihu, at his desk, 657. 
Royce, Josiah. 12tJ. 
Rucker, Colby, m\. 
Ruhl, Arthur, (;39. 
Sankey, Ira D.. 28(5. 
Sardou, Victorien, (i73. 
Sargent, Dudley A., 615. 
Schmitt, L. S., 561. 
Selfridge. T. E., 320. 
Shearn, Clarence J., .524. 
Sheldon. George R., 141, 4.34. 
Sherman, James S.. 17. 136, 169. 203. 
Sherman, James S., Mr. and Mrs., 167. 
Sherman, Richard U., 170. 
Sherman, Sherrill, 170. 
Smith, Charles W.. 72. 

Spain, Queen Regent, Maria Christina, of, 361. 
Stansfield, H. A., 561. 
Stephens, Alexander H., 122. 
Stevenson, Adlai E.. 272. 
Stewart, William M., 122. 
Stokes. J. G. Phelps Stokes, 264. 
Straus, Nathan, 428. 
Sullivan, Roger, 183. 
Taft, Henry, 14. 

Taft, William H., 2, 141, 389, 397, 516, 517. 
Taft, William H., Mr. and Mrs., and their son 

(^harles. 133. 
Taft, William II., speaking, (w6. 
Taggart, Thomas, 18.3. 
Taro Katsura. Viscount, 151. 
Thomas, P. M., 561. 
Tittoni. Signor, 533. 

Tolstoy, Count, 3»5, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448. 
Toscanino, Arturo, 5.^)9. 

Tsi-An. late Dowager Empress of China, 667. 
Upham, Fred W., 434. 
U'Ren, W. S., 21. 
Verone, Maitre Maria. 226. 
Vilas, William F., 414. 
Vogel, C. W., 561. 
Vorys, Arthur, 43.5. 
Wade. M. J., 183. 
Wales, Prince of, 146. 
Wallace, Henry, 715. 
Walling, William English, 254. 
Watkins, Aaron S., .S02. 

Watson, Thomas E., 30o» 



( 



VIU 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 



Watterson, Henry. 261. 428. 

Wattles, Gurdon W., 715. 

Weyer, G. A., 501. 

White. Horace. 388. 

WilhelmiDa. Queen of Holland, 405. 

William II., Emperor of Germany, 531, 663. 

Williams, Henry Smith. 619. 

Williams. James T.. 437. 

Williams. Samuel W., 306. 

W^oodruff, Timothy L.. 388. 

Woodson, TTrey. 183. 261. 

Woodward. Robert S., 51. 

Woolsey. C. H.. 5r,l. 

Wright, Carroll !>.. 5.3. 

Wright. Gen. Luke E., 30. 

Wright, Orville. 315. 

Wright, Wilbur. 315. 

Wu Ting Fang. 236. 

Yuan Shih-Kaim, Viceroy of Chili, 235. 

Zayas. Alfredo. 660. 

Zeppelin, Ferdinand. Count. 153. 737. 
Porto Ricans and American citizenship. 95. 
Porto Rico: Celebration of 400th anniversary of 
discovery : removal of remains of Ponce de 
Leon ; adjustment of church-property ques- 
tion. 277. 
Portuguese tonics of interest, 149. 
Post, Parcels, Extension of, 24. 
Postage, Two-cent, between United States and 

Great Britain, 24. 
Postal affairs : Prospects of reduction in rate to 

Germany, 494. 
Powell, E. Alexander. The men who count in 

the Balkans, 593. 
Progress of the World, 3. 131. 259, 387. 515. 643. 
Prohibition party : See under Political affairs. 
Prohibition : See under Liquor Problem. 
Pyramid of Gizeh, Proposal to duplicate, in De- 
troit, 357. 

QuaTle, William Alfred, Bishop, 72. 
Quebec, a fountain of American liberty, 219. 
"luebec, Britain's French empire in America, 727. 

fuebec tercentenary celebration. 25. 146. 

luebec, three hundred years after Champlain, 74. 

Railroad freight rates, — Should they be increased? 
144-145. 

Railroad as an advance agent of prosperity. 591. 

Railroads, American, Welfare work on. 449. 

Railroads : Circuit Court decision against "com- 
modities clause " of Hepburn rate bill, 401. 

Record of Current Events, 30, 154, 283, 412, 541, 
671. 

Religion of the sensible American, 223. 

Rome, Jewish mayor of. 484. 

Rome, Modern, Making of. 486. 

Root. Elihu, for the Senate. 657. 

Roosevelt and the financiers, 646. 

Roosevelt's plans and future. ()56. 

Roumania, Charles I., of, 593. 

Ruskin College: An educational experiment, 368. 

Russia : Duma. The, holding its own, 28. 

Russia, " Europeanization " of, 107. 

Russia, Germany's outposts in, 3(»2. 

Russia, Progress in, 149. 

Russian Empire, Happenings in, 280. 

Russian senate. Reform of. 745. 

Russo-Japanese treaty-making, " True inward- 
ness " of. 351. 

Sabin, Edwin L. Modern curative methods with 

tuberculosis, 330. 
San Francisco's plague war. 561. 
Sardinia, where colonists are wanted, 475. 
Scholarship and physique, 615. 
Sculpture: Work of George Grey Barnard, 689. 
Servant question, as viewed in Paris, 606. 
Servia, Peter I., of. 594. 
Sherman. James S.. Republican candidate for 

Vice-President, 166. 
Singer building, New York City, 5^4. 



Skyscraper, Limiting the. 602. 

Slavonians, Awakening of, 612. 

Smith, Charles W., Bishop, 73. 

Smoke prevention, A practical campaign for. 62. 

Smith, Snell. Sketch of Frank H. Ilitchcock, 439. 

Socialism and education. 614. 

Socialist party in the campaign of 1908, 293. 

Socialist Sunday schools for children. 112. 

South Carolina, University of: Dr. S. C. Mitchell. 
New president of, 404. 

South American notes, 25. 

South. The growing, 97. 

Spain: Maria Christina, Fiftieth birthday of, 361. 

Spain, Notes on affairs in, 149. 

Spanish woman and her influence. The. 620. 

Speare, Charles F. A year of business recovery, 
464. 

Springer, J. F. Some applications of the gyro- 
scope. 209. 

Springfield. Illinois. Riot and mobs at. 275. 

Stead, Alfred. Ferdinand I., "Czar of the Bul- 
gars," 554. 

Strachey, Lionel. Four French appraisers of 
America, 381. 

Sweden, Industrial development of. 363. 

Sydney, queen city of Australia, 228. 

Taft, Mr., Good-will toward,. 644; see also under 

Political affairs. 
Tall buildings and their problems, 577. 
Tariff: See under Political affairs. 
Tolstoy, Count, Eightieth birthday of, 29, 409, 443. 
Tolstoy, Literary estimate of, 501. 
Tuberculosis. Society's warfare against, 323, 330. 
Traveling in Europe, 82. 
Turkey, Renascence of. 489. 
Turkey, Revolution and constitution in, 280-281. 
Turkey, Sultan of. as he is, 611. 
Turkey, The Kaiser and the Turk, 408. 
Turkish affairs, International bearings of, 409. 
Turkish constitution, and its effect, 609. 
Turkish sultan— Will he be deposed? 408. 

United States Army, Machine-gun in, 739. 

van Dyke, Henry. Mr. [Grover] Cleveland at 

Princeton, 185. 
Van Norman. Ix)uis E. Quebec three hundred 

years after Champlain, y4 ; Quebec, Britain's 

French empire in America, 727. 
Venezuela. Affairs in. 148. 278. 405. 
Vilas. Ex-Senator William H., bequest of, to 

University of Wisconsin, 404. 

Washington University, new president of. Dr. 
David Franklin Houston, 404. 

Wade. Herbert T. High-pressure fireprotection, 
703; The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
49; Tall buildings and their problems, 57?. 

Watson, Thomas E. Why I am a Populist? 303. 

Webster, Arthur Gordon. The gyroscope and how 
we may make it useful, 205. 

Weed, William E. James S. Sherman. Republi- 
can candidate for Vice-President. l(iif>. 

Welfare work on American railroads. 449. 

WellmaUj Walter. The management of the Taft 
campaign. 432. 

AVilliams College ; Harry A. Garfield, New Presi- 
dent ol^ 404. 

Wisconsin, University of. Bequest of Ex-Senator 
William H. Vilas to, 404. 

Woman, Moslem, The, in Northern Africa. 373. 

Woman suffragist. Some prophecies of a, 94. 

Women and the Persian revolution. 374. 

Writing as a profession, — Does it pay? 496. 

Y. M. C. A., International work of, 154. 
Y. M. C. A., Railroad work, 449. 

Zeppelin, Count, the man, 73<>. (See also under 

Aerial navigation.) 
Zola's remains removed to Pantheon, 27, 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1908. 



Hon. WtUiam H. Taf t FrontiipiecA 

The Progress of the World — 

The Shaping of the Great Campaign 3 

Mr. Bryan, — Earlier and Later 3 

Bryan and Roosevelt in the Platforms 6 

Roosevelt and His Party 6 

Mr. Hitchcock's Able Management 7 

Orga-iziig the Convention 8 

Making tl^ Party Platform. 8 

The "Injunction^* Plank. 9 

Bryan's EzpresstKl Criticisms 12 

Roosevelt I^oliciet fn Noc 12 

Roosevelt and the Third Term 12 

Business Issues in the Platform 13 

Commitments on Railroads and Trusts 14 

The Taritf Next March 14 

Negroes in This Year's Campaign 14 

The South and the Parties. 15 

Representation in the C<Hivention 15 

Wisconsin in Evidence. 16 

Looking for the '* Running Mat^" 16 

Sherman Ajgreed Upon 17 

The Chief Figures 'This Month 18 

The Smaller Parties. 18 

What Congress Has Done. 19 

Tlie Senate and the Treaties 20 

The Oregon Election 20 

Direct Legislation 20 

Initiative and Referendum. 21 

Primaries North and South 21 

North Carolina Goes "Dry" 22 

Race-Track Gambling 22 

The New York Speaal Session 22 

Signs of Financial Recovery 23 

Crops May be Excellent 23 

Cheaper Ocean Postm This Year 24 

Extension of Parcels Post 24 

The Presidential Election in Panama 24 

Peaceful Central and South America 25 

The Celebration in Quebec and the Ejections. 25 

President Fallieres in England 26 

France, Zola, Dreyfus, Morocc j 27 

King Edward Visits the Czar 27 

The Duma Holdins Its Own 28 

German Topics of Interest 29 

Francis Joseph's Golden Jubilee 29 

With portraits and other UlustrationB. 

Record of Current Events 30 

with portraits. 

Some Political Cartoons of the Month 35 



The Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington 49^ 

By Herbert T. Wade. 
With portmits and other illuRtrations. 

A Campaign for Smoke Prevention.. 62 

By George H. Cashing. 

The Government as a Spender 67 

By Ernest G. Walker. 

The New Methodist Bishops 72 

• By Ferdinand Cowle Iglehart. 

With portraits. 

Quebec, Three Hundred Years After 
Champlain 74 

By Louis E. Van Norman. 
With portraits and ottier illustrations. 



The Olympic Games in London. 

By Edward G. Hawke. 



On the Other Side 

By Truman A. DeWeese. 



78 



82: 



The New Bryan 40 

By WUIis J. Abbot, 
with portrait. 

Fallieres an Ideal French President.. 45 

By Adolphe Cohn. 
with portraita. 



Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Democratic Candidates for the Presidency 69- 

\ Does Prohibition Pay? . 91 

Common Sense About the English Licensing 

BiU 9Z 

Some Prophecies of a Woman Suffragist 94 

Porto Ricans and American Citizenship 9S 

The Growing South 97 

Romance of die Cobalt Mining District 99* 

New Developments in Macedonia 101 

Winslow Homer *s I^nk in American Painting 102 

Baedeker of the Guide-Books. 104 

The Penian Revolution and the Anglo-Russian 

Asreement 105- 

The Women of Burmah. .\ 106 

The '* Europeanization ** of Russia 107 

Karl Marx as a World Force. .' 108 

The Work of Francois Coppee 110 

Can Land and Unemployed Labor Be Brought 

Together? Ill 

"Red** Sunday- Schools and Child Socialists.. 1 12 

Is Manual Training in Schools Worth While ? 113 

Economic and Financial Germany in 1908. . . 114 

With portraits and other illustrationa. 

Leading Financial Articles — 

Stocks for Investment I T6 

Advantages of Street-Railway Bonds 1 1& 

Buying Bonds in Small Amounts 119 

The New Books 121 

with portraits and othpr illustrations. 



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1 




HON. WILLIAM H. TAFT, OF OHIO. 

(Nominated at Chicago on June t8 as Republican Candidate for the Presidency.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

Vol. XXXVilL NEW YOUK, AULY, IW!>. No. 1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

TktSMugimg^ ^ the Democratic hosts are mar- men like Mr. Root, Mr. John Hay, and oth- 

51^^ shaling for their great quadren- ers of command inji ability, and he was com- 

mmuwm, ^^jj ^^jjy ^i^j^ ye^T, to be held in inj: before tlie people for re-election, witli 

the city of Denver, the people of the countr>' Governor Roosevelt, of New '^'ork, as his 

have already adjusted their minds to the work ** runninjr mate " on the ticket. Mr. McKin- 

of the National Republican Convention at ley had called William H. Taft from the 

Chicago, and art to some extent discounting bench to send him out to orj^anize and admin- 

the course that the campaign will follow. Mr. ister tiie Philippines, as the best evidence he 

Br}'an's candidacy for the Democratic nom- couM give the people of the high and serious 

ination has for a long time been predicated motives with which he was endeavoring to 

upon the belief that Mr. Taft would be his deal with tlie new problems entailed upon us 

upponentv and that the general outcome of by the extension of our Hag to regions beyond 

the Chicago convention would be practically- the continent of North America, 
that with which the country is now familiar. 

The delegates to the Chicago convention gave handicapped ^^^ ^^'^^^* obviously involved iix 

the country no surprises, and it is not likely in His Fight tliose new tasks of the era m/X) 

that the Dieoiocrats at Denver will be in any ^'^*'*'''«"^ff<'i„ ^y^^^]^ ^ ^^.^y tiim there was 

respects more spontaneous or mercurial. Their nothing practical to do but face them and 

candidate has been selected, — almo.st beyond try to give a good account of ourselves. Mr. 

the possibility of rejection, — for at least two Br>an himself had supported the war \vitl\ 

years past; and their platform, it is within Spain, and ii he had bt*en President by virtue 

bounds to assert, will have been even more of success in his campaign of i8v)() we should 

carefully prepared for them in advance than just as certainly have had tl-e war; and 

was that of the Republicans which, with surely no one can say that when it came t(» 

modifications, was adopted at Chicago. the final settlement we sliould not, even with 

Bryan in the White House, have felt it our 
¥r Srvoii— Four years ago the Democrats duty to administer the Philippine>. We 
earlier ai^ Went before the country with a should alm«)>t certainly have acinnred Porto 
candidate little known in his own Rico. And we couM scarcely have reorgan- 
State and wholly unknown to the countr>' at ized Cuba, and launched her upon hec new- 
large. This year both candidates are public career, with any less care for retention oi 
men in the broadest sense, whose careers are ultimate control for her assured well-being 
thoroughly familiar to the voters of all parties than we have uniler the existinir arrange- 
in every State, county', and hamlet, and who ments. The exigencies of public busine'^s, in 
have been seen and heard by millions of their other words, w ere such that the re-election ot 
fellow-countrymen. Eight years ago Mr. McKinley, the man at the helm, was a fore- 
Firyan made a brilliant and powerful cam- gone conclusion. Mr. Hr\an maile a cam- 
paign under great difficulties. \Vc had com- paign of great endurance and ptiwcr. b.-Kcd 
pleted a successful war, which had involved chiefly upon an attempt : t destructi\ e criti- 
us in the necessity' of assuming responsibilities cism of w hat he called our new pnlio nt *' im- 
for widely scattered insular territories. Mr. perialism." Hut tlie cnuntr\ wa^ «lealing 
McKinlcy's administration was strong and with conditions rather than with tlu«i:le';. 
pfjpular. He had surrounded himself with It was in no mood to dismiss ciin^tructi\e 

Cofyrirlit. t90S. by HtK Review jw Rrvikws C«>mianv 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEWS. 



men of affairs in order to substitute their 
destructive critics. If Mr. Bn'an had been 
elected in i8'/j he would have been com- 
pelled to wind up the Spanish war with some 
sort of positive prnuraiii involving the des- 
tiny of Spain's island empire. And he woul.l 
have found himself en};as;ed in the carrj'in,'; 
( ut of important polities at home having to 
do with the readjustment of the public rev- 
enues, the reorj;ani/,ation of the armv, and so 
on. Under such circumstances Mn Bryan 
would have been placed in the position of a 
man transacting [;reat affairs not yet com- 
pleted. The Republicans would have been 
forced into the position of destructive critics, 
and the country would probably have decided 
to keep -Mr. Bryan at the helm for four 
years more. In short, a party's attitude toward 
unfinished public business is obviously de- 
pendent upon the simple question whether 
or not it is in power. 

Kr Bruan I ^^^- ^^'^'^ "'^s furthcf handi- 
iii'timin capped eight years ago by his 
"" ' ' insistence upon the reaffirmation 
by his party uf everj' declaration of the 
famous Chicago platform of 1896, the chief 
doctrine of which was that of the free and 
unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio with 
gold of 16 to I. The business interests of 
the country felt that the sound-money vic- 
torj' of 1896 absolutely required for its firm 
establishment another defeat of Mr. Bryan. 
Thus, under the circumstances which sur- 
rounded him eight years aj; >. Mr- Bryan's 
fight, though foredoomed tn failure, must be 



regarded as one of the most plucky and re- 
markable exploits of campaigning in the his- 
tory of the country, and one which no other 
member of his party at that time could have 
equaled. It is not in accord, therefore, with 
the truth of political history to set Mr. 
Bryan down as a leader always destined to 
defeat. The silver fight of 1896 was based 
i:pon a. mistaken estimate of the conditions of 
the general bullion market, — that is to say, 
of the production of silver and gold as cor..- 
modities, — and a miscalculation of the effects 
that would have been produced fy opening 
the American mints to silver without con- 
current action by European mints. 

Twtii'i ^"^ there was nothing ignoble 
rtan since oT dishonest about the Chlcagci 
platform, which was adopted in 
a mood of intense conviction and sincerity 
by an unbossed convention of earnest men 
who were not tr)-ing to pay their debts in 
cheaper money, but were trying to establish 
what they thought to be a high rule of jus- 
tice. They were mistaken in their premises 
and in their stati.«tics. They have now 
learned that monetary systems cannot be 
based upon the idea of an unchanging ratio 
of value between two different metals. Mr, 
Bryan did not originate the free-silver move- 
ment, and Republicans as well as Democrats 
were responsible for its doctrines and its 
practical demands. He was simply put for- 
ward to lead the movement at a time when 
tu have adopted its proposals would have 
been hazardous in the extreme. It is twelve 















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I^KAiX 


% 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 




years since Mr. Bryan made that first great 
t-ampaign of i8g6. He was then thirty-six 
years of at^, and he is now forty-eight. In 
all these years he has not held public office, 
but he has been constantly before the people 
as a party leader and an expounder of ques- 
tions and issues from the standpoint of the 
so-caJled " radical " wing of the Democratic 
party. The very large recent output of gold 
has settled the money question in so far as 
ihe metallic standard is concerned, and Mr. 
Bryan accepts the settlement. 

g, ., Gradually the more conservative 
Prrunt Icadcrs of the Democratic party, 
p«p.iarii„. ^^j especially those of the East- 
em States, have come into cordial relations 
with Mr. Bryan; so that he is in a position 
of favor and good standing that he did not 
enjoy in the conventions of i8q6, 1900, and 
1904. In' those conventions the strain be- 
tivern the conservative and radical wings of 
the party was so severe that much of the 
energy was wasted in factional strife which 
should have been expended in wisely con- 
certed assault upon the opposing party. All 



these thinus are recalled to mind in order ti» 
bring out more clearly by contrast the very 
different position in which Mr. Bryan find* 
himself this year. His party will be more 
harmonious than in any previous political 
year since he has been identified with it. He 
has made steady growth in acquaintance and 
in popular good-will by virtue of the exer- 
cise of the two professions which he has now 
for a good while past been carrying on. His 
chief work has been that of a platform lec- 
turer, in which capacity he has been almost 
everywhere in the countr>- spealcini; to large 
audiences often upon subjects not of a con- 
troversial sort, and by his eloquence and tact 
dispelling that strong prejudice against him 
that had survived from the bitter fight 
against free silver. His other calling is that 
of an editor and writer, and his weekly paper 
has kept him in touch with large numbers 
of his political followers- He is ten times 
as widely acquainted with men in .ill walks 
of life as any other member of the Demo- 
cratic party. He is more in demand as a 
speaker than ever before, and his readiness 
and skill as an orator have greatly increased. 



THE AMERICAN REyi.E<V OF REVIEWS. 



^^M 


A^ 






Ui 


i 



(Mr. Jamrs J. llilL and Mr. .lobn Mllrlx-I) Id (1ii> rtnr.) 

fli-uBi. nnrf ^^^ "^"^ ""* know precisely 
«oos*"p/t '" \(hat the liryan platform con- 
' o jo™'- (gjnj until it is made public when 
presented to the Denver convention; but Mr, 
Br}'an lias expressed himself so constanth' 
upon current issues that the treneral trend 
(if the platform could doubtless be fairly well 
predicted by any experienced journalist or 
shrewd political observer. The work of the 
Republican convention at Chicago was nat- 
urally followed with the most careful inter- 
est by Mr, Bryan himself and by his trusted 
supporters and advisers, who were on the 
spot studiously noting every vulnerable item 
in the making up of the convention's record. 
The popularity of President Roosevelt, in 
association with those policies which he is 
considered as representing, constitutes the 
most valuable political asset that could pos- 
sibly enter into this year's campaign, S:i 
strongly has this been realized that the Re- 
publican leaders would have been either im- 
becile or false if they had not proposed to 
make over this asset with as little impair- 
ment as possible to the credit and strength of 
their new ticket and platform. The Demo- 
crats, on the other hand, were hoping that 
the Republican convention in spite of itself 
would be led by some of its entangling alli- 
ances into compromises, straddles, insinceri- 



ties, and a failure to ring true tor the best 
ideals, — which could be so exposed in the 
Denver platform and on the stump as to im- 
pair or perhaps to divert the Roosevelt asset 
in the process of its transfer. In other words, 
it will be seen that Mr, Bryan and the Den- 
ver platform will try to make it appear that 
they are better representatives of the so-called 
Roosevelt di.ctrire; and policies than are Mr, 
Taft and the Chicago platform: 

Rfie-tit ^' '^ ^" °P^" ^'^^'' "^ course, that 
. nnn the Roosevelt policies have had 
*' their strong Republican oppo- 
nents, and that these have been powerful in 
the councils of the ruling coteries of both- 
houses of Congress. As the preiimtnaiy 
work of finding a candidate proceeded, the 
distinction between the " progressives," led 
by the Roosevelt administration, and the so- 
called " reactionaries " became more sharply 
accentuated. But it was also clear that the 
Roosevelt element of the party represented 
the vast majority of the Republican voters. 
Mr. Taft's strength as a candidate was. due 
above all else to the kncm'ledge that Mr, 
Roosevelt was advocating his selection, and to ■ 
the further knowledge that, as a great mem- 
ber of the Roosevelt administration, Mr, 
Taft was thoroughly known both as to hi: 
views and also as to his remarkable qualifica- 
tions for the Presidency. Thus the real plat- 
form of the Republican party in this cam- 
paign is Mr. Taft himself as endorsed and 
guaranteed by Mr. Roosevelt. 

Taft Entiiita ^^''- Bryan and his supporters 
".*''}'" ^^'11 doubtless show great deftness 
and skill in criticising the resolu- 
tions as adopted at Chicago, and will point 
out what can be made to appear as serious 
inconsistencies. But when all this is done 
there will remain the great fact that Mr, 
Taft was easily nominated on the first ballot, 
securing 702 votes in a convention numbering 
980 delegates. Furthermore, this nomination 
was acquiesced in by the remaining members 
of the convention, nearly all of whom would 
glailly have voted for Mr, Taft on the first 
ballot if they had not been bound by instruc- 
tions to cast their votes for the so-called " fa- 
vorite sons " of their own States. Thus 
tnany of the New >'ork defecates who voted 
for Hughes openly stated that they desired 
to vote for Taft; and the entire delegation 
was heartily In sympathy with the nomination. 
Almost the same thing might be said of the 
Pennsylvania vote, which was cast for Senator 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 







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THE fW-lSEUM AT CHKAi 

Knox; the Illinois vote, which, by way of 
onnplinicnt, was announced for Spraker Can- 
non, and the Indiana vntc, which was accord- 
ed to Vice-President Fairbanks. Kven the 
Wisconsin vote, which was for Senator La 
Follette, was cast by men who Here warmly 
cordial to Mr. Taft. In short, the differ- 
ences between the so-called "reactionaries" 
and the main body of the convention did not 
cut deep enough to create any bitterness 
ai^ainst the uinning candidate. Mr. I'aft is 
as completely and heartily the accepted can- 
didate of his partj- as any man could possibly 
be. Seldom if ever has any American party 
had a finer candidate, or one upon whose 
choice it had better reason f<ir self -con [jratu- 

U,io„. .^,,,,, 

otu»t Control ^* ^^'"' R™>s*velt had contented 
•ftht himself with aliowinj; it to he 
c««-(,«. ^^^^^.^ that he did not seek a rc- 
nomination, and had not been active in help- 
ing (he party to reach a p re-convention agree- 
ment upon his successor, he would have been 
renominated at Chicago. Nothing could 
have prevented that result. But the prelim- 
inary canvass for Mr. Taft had been con- 
ducted with great thoroughness, and Mr. 
Roosevelt's prediction that the Secretary- of 



VVar would have ■jOi-> votes was fulfilled. 
The Taft managers, however, were some- 
what apprehenst\e until the contests between 
the rival delegations from the Southern 
States had been settled. The temporary ros- 
ter of the convention is made up by the Re- 
publican National Committee, consisting of 
one member from each. State, and this com- 
mittee met in Chicago several days before the 
opening of the convention to determine the 
contests. Two hundred and twenty-three 
seats were involved; and if the National 
Committee had been contnillcd by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Taft and had been disposed to 
take advantage iif its opportunity, a dear 
Taft majority might conceivably have been 
prevented. But regardless of it* prcdilci"- 
tions, the National Committee dealt fairly 
with the contests, and with hardly any ex- 
ceptions the Taft delegates were si>ati'd and 
the contestants rejected. 



,^ Most of these contCi 
trumped lip for the ; 



is had 



;erions title to consii 
he Tiift delegates, i 



ighness and can" and 



I regard for legal eviilence that the 



8 



THE AMERICAN REVlEy^ OF REVIEWS. 



members of the National Committee had 
never seen equated before. The critical busi- 
ness of managing these cases on behalf of Mr. 
Taft was in the hands of Mr. Frank H. 
Hitchcock, whose unbounded success lifted 
him at once to the position of the most influ- 
ential manager in the entire convention, and 
gave him a strong position in the conduct 
and in the councils of his party. The Hitch- 
cock method had worked so thoroughly that 
it was certain enough that the Credentials 
Committee of the convention itself would ac- 
cept the temporary roll and not attempt to 
diminish Mr, Taft's pre-established majorit)-. 

Ortaiiiing ^' '^ always difficult for a great 
tht convention of this kind to have 
a mmo and wjii or its own m 
matters of a routine character. It is of much 
consequence, therefore, that the National 
Committee, which arranges the preliminaries, 
should be made up of members responsive to 
the best sentiments of the party. AH such 
items of business as the selection of tempo- 
ran,- and permanent presiding officers and the 



chairmen of the principal committee! 
usually planned in advance by the Nai 
Committee. Thus, Senator Burrow 
Michigan, was made temporary chairm 
Chicago, and Senator Lodge, o^ Mass 
setts, was made permanent chairman. 
tor Hopkins, of Illinois, was chairm: 
the Committee on Resolutions, and Se 
Fultoil, of Oregon, chairman of the ' 
mittee on Credentials. The personnel < 
organization was not dashing, inspirin 
brilliaiir, and could not lift the great gi 
ing to the high levels of Republican idea 
but it was a "safe" and experienced 
sonnet, chosen to avoid antagonizing the 
actionaries " in matters of the less ess< 

MaMnaiiH '^^^ question of credentials 
ftirtiF ing been settled, Mr, 

nwnination was assured i 
something should happen to cause the r 
predicted stampede to Roosevelt, Th( 
great anxiety of the Taft men was to 
the situation in hand and expedite bu 




THE GENERAL SCENE 



The PkOGHESS OF THh WORLD. 




up to the time of the presenting of candi- 
ditei and the taking of the first halloC. De- 
1:^ wu threatened by a discovered difiiculty 
in agreeing about details of the resolutions 
to be adopted as the party's platform for the 
cainpaign. These party platforms are never 
]rft to be drafted on the spur of the moment. 
It it always the case that some one who has 
been designated by those most ciini.'erned 
comet to the convention with a platform that 
ka* been wTitten with care ami inspected as 
to its more crucial planks by those best en- 
titled to have an opinion. This draft, as a 
rule, forms the basis of discussion in the 
meetings first of the Sub-Committee on Reso- 
luti'oiu and afterward of the full commit- 
tee. In the case of last month's convention 
the draft was brought by Mr. Wade Ellis, 
Attorney-General of Ohio, who had prepared 
last jTar's Republican platform of his State. 



It had been approved by Sccretar\* Taft and 
had been submitted to President Roosevelt, 
who had read it with approval as regards 
sp''cific planks which he deemed important, 
altboii[;.i it is to be stated that the President 
had not read those parts of the platform 
which finely eulopKC his own services to the 
country and praise the work of his adminis- 
trntitin. Mr, Hopkins, though chairman of 
the committee, did not draft the platform, 
and was selected to present the resolutions 
to the convention by reason of his helonpn'; 
to the State and city where the convention 
was held. 

Tbt Only one plank in the platform 

" injMnction " caused a lonf; and serious con- 
troversy in the ri-sulutions com- 
mittee, and this plank is one which ha.s no 
relation to party differences and wliich is a 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REVIEWS. 






THREE rMPOBTANT OFFICIALS O 



KICAGO eONVENTIOM. 



<ltfficult [hing to deal with as a popular issue. 
The plank in question has to do with the 
defining or limiting of the power of the fed- 
eral courts to issue writs of injunction. The 
President, as is well known, has repeatedly 
asked Congress to pass an act that would 
prevent the undue and arbitrary use of the 
power of injunction, while not in any way 
impairing the normal authority of the courts. 
The plank as it stood in the original draft 
of the platform was a mild one which good 
lawyers and judges declared was in no way 
objectionable. But the so-called "conserv- 
atives " in the convention had been instructed 
to the effect that the judiciary of America 
is so sacred a thing that it is not only never 
to be criticised, but that it is even treason- 
able to suggest modifications of rules of court 
procedure. The demand for some regulation 
of the use of injunctions comes almost wholly 
from the leaders of organized l^ixir. We 
should not have heard of any objection to the 
President's proposal for a better regulation 
of the methods of procedure in the issuance 
of injunction writs but for the intensely bit- 
ter and persistent work of an important or- 
ganization of manufacturers which has un- 
dertaken to exterminate organized labor al- 
together. The President's position was the 
moderate, just, and fair one as between the 
contending interests, Every kind of pressure 
was used to secure his consent and Mr. 
Taft's to the dropping of the subject from 
the platform. But they refused to yield. 



^^ The plank as accepted by him did 

osm- not go nearly as far as the labor 

'"*'**' men would have wished, yet they 
would doubtless have accepted it under the 
circumstances. The Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion was determined that the platform should 
contain no allusion whatever to the subject. 
Neither of these two parties in interest be- 
longed to the one great political organization 
or lo the other; and the convention should 
not 'lave permitted them to force the injunc- 
tion question into undue prominence. A com- 
promise was finally ae;reed upon and accepted 
by the platt'^rm committee, the Administra- 
tion leaders at Washington, and the conven- 
tion itself. The plank relating to this sub- 
ject as adopted reads as follows: 

The Republican party will uphold at all times 
the authority and integrity of the courts, State 
and federal, and will ever itisist that their pow- 
ers to enforce their process and to protect life, 
liberty, and property shall be preserved inviolate. 
We believe, however, that the rulc.5 of procedure 
in the federal courts with respect to the issuance 
of the writ of injunction should be more accu- 
rately defined by statute, and that no injunction 
or temporary restraining order should be issued 
without notice, except where irreparable injury 
would result from delay, in which case a speedy 
hearing thereafter should be granted. 

As originally brought before the Commit- 
tee on Resolutions the plank was as follows: 

We declare for such amendments of the statutes 
of procedure in the federal courts with respect to 
the use of the writ of injunction as will on the 
one hand prevent the summary issue of such or- 
ders without proper cnn si deration, and on the 



\ 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



other will preserve undiminished the power of 
thecourtstoenforcetheifprocessto the end that 
justice may be done at all times and to all parties 

TftCsrru '^^^ American courts have never 
««# «a in any former period cxercise<l 
' *"■ authority in so many and such 
far-reaching directions as at the present time : 
and never has their position been better as- 
sured and more firmly grounded. This posi- 
tion could not possibly be altered without 
a.1 aircndment to the Constitution of the 
United States, The use of the writ of in- 
junction has multiplied greatly under new- 
conditions, and it is obvious that it can at 
times be made to work hardship against those 
put under restraint without notice and with- 
out opportunity to be promptlj' l-.eanl in their 
own behalf. The selection of wise, high- 
princip'ed, and broad-minded men for posi- 
tions on the bench is of course more vital 
than the details of court procedure. Thus, 
ihe next President of the United States will 
pnihably have to appoint three or four mem- 
bers of the Supreme Court. Those who 
ivouid regard Mr. Taft as better qualified 
til appoint Justices of the Supreme Court 
than -Mr. Br>an should be willing to defer 
somewhat to Mr. Taft's opinion as to a de- 
tail of court procedure to which great masses 
of voters attach importance. Mr, Gompcrs 
anil some of the other labor leaders denounce 
the plank as adopted at Chicago, and they 
will naturally count upon securing a more 





From the Jlcrald ISrw York 



(Who draftpd Ibe iilsttorin, 

sweeping form of words in the Democratic 
platform at Denver. But the Chicago plank 
at least means all that it says; and in view of 
the status of the injunction question in the 
session of Congress recently ended it is rea- 
sonable to believe that a Republican victory 
this year will be followed by the enactment 
of a law early next win- 
ter defining and limiting 
the use of the writ of in- 
junction, A moderate 
enactment will be a good 
starting point, and after 
experience of its work- 
ing it will be possible to 
amend it if it is not 
found satisfactory. 
However sweeping an 
anti-injunction plank 
might be adopted at 
Denver, there is not 
much likelihood that any- 
thing more than a very 
ni()derate and tentative 
measure could be enacted 
at Washington for some 
years to come. In onr 
opinion, the plank as 
adopted at Chicago 
supports the President's 
position in principle, 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REVIEWS. 




■rr;- 14. New. of Indiana. 
cbBirman at tbe Natloaal Com- 



riKJVENTlON, 



difficult thing to deal with as a popular issue. 
The plank in question has to do with the 
defining or limiting of the power of the fed- 
eral courts to issue writs of injunction. The 
President, as is well known, has repeatedly 
asked Congress to pass an act that would 
prevent the undue and arbitrary use of the 
power of injunction, while not in any way 
impairing the normal authority of the courts. 
The plank as it stood in the original draft 
of the platform was a mild one which good 
lawyers and judges declared was in no way , 
objectionable. But the so-called " conserv- 
atives " in the convention had been instructed 
to the effect that the judiciary of America 
is so sacred a thing that it is not only never 
to be criticised, but that it is even treason- 
able to suggest modifications of rules of court 
procedure. The demand for some regulation 
of the use of injunctions comes almost wholly 
from the leaders of organized Isbor. We 
should not have heard of any objection to the 
President's proposal for a better regulation 
of the methods of procedure in the issuance 
of injunction writs but for the intensely bit- 
ter and persistent work of an important or- 
ganization of manufacturers which has un- 
dertaken to exterminate organized labor al- 
together. The President's position was the 
moderate, just, and fair one as between the 
contending interests, Every kind of pressure 
was used to secure his consent and Mr, 
Taft's to the dropping of the subject from 
the platform. But they refused to yield. 



r*» "^^^ plank as accepted by him did 
c'ont- not go ntarly as far as the labor 
'™" **" men would have wished, yet they 
would doubtless have accepted it under the 
circumstances. The Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion was determined that the platform should 
contain no allusion whatever to the subject. 
Neither of these two parties in interest be- 
longed to the one great political organization 
or ID the other; and the convention should 
not 'lave permitted them to force the injunc- 
tion question into undue prominence. A com- 
promise was finally agreed upon and accepted 
by the platform committee, the Administra- 
tion leaders at Washington, and the conven- 
tion itself. The plank relating to this sub- 
ject as adopted reads as follows: 

The Republican parly will uphold at all times 
(he authority and integrity of the courts, State 
and federal, and will ever insist that their pow- 
ers to enforce their process and to protect hfc, 
liberty, and property shall be preserved inviolate. 
We believe, however, that the rule? of procedure 
in the federal courts with respect lo the issu.ince 
of the writ of injunction should be more accu- 
rately defined by statute, and that no injunction 
or temporary restraining order shonM be issued 
without notice, except where irreparable injury 
would result from delay, in which case a speedy 
hearing thereafter should be granted. 

As originally brought before the Commit- 
tee on Resolutions the plank was as follows: 

We declare for such amendments of the statutes 
of procedure in the federal courts with respect to 
the use of the writ of injunction as will on the 
rine hand prevent the summary issue of such or- 
ders without proper consideration, and on the 



\ 



■ 


^^Lv JM^^^t 




W/lt 


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mi! I 


I 


Eifli 



drafted 1l 



^ [I la (fori 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

odier will preserve undiminished the power of 
the courts to enforce theii: process to the end that 
justice may be done at all limes and to all parties 

T^^e»rru '^'^^ American courts have never 
««# «o in any former period exercised 
*' authority in so many and suCh 
far-reaching directions as at the present time: 
and never has their position been better as- 
sured and more firmly grounded. This posi- 
tion couid not possibly be altered without 
ail airendmcnt to the Constitution of the 
United States, The use of the writ of in- 
junction has multiplied greatly under new 
conditions, and it is obvious that it can at 
times be made to work hardship against thoje 
put under restraint without n;;tice and with- 
out opportunity to be promptly heard in their 
nun behalf. The selection of wise, high- 
principled, and broad-minded men for posi- 
tionf! on the bench is of course more vital 
ll-an the details of court procedure. Thus, 
the ne\t President of the United States will 
probably have to appoint three or four mem- 
ber* of the Supreme Court, Those who 
uould regard Mr. Taft as better qualified 
til appoint Justices of the Supreme Court 
than Mr. Brjan should be willing to defer sweeping form of words in the Democratic 
somewhat to Mr. Taft's opinion as to a de- platform at Denver. But the Chicago plank 
tail of court procedure to which great masses at least means all that it says; and in view of 
of I'oters attach importance. Mr. Gompers the status of the injunction question in the 
and some of the other labor leaders denounce session of Congress recently ended it is rea- 
the plank as adopted at Chicago, and they sonahle to believe that a Republican victory 
will naturally count upon securing a more this _vear will be followed by the enactment 

iif a law early next win- 
ter defining and limiting 
the use of the writ of in- 
j unction. A moderate 
enactment will be a good 
starting point, and after 
experience of its work- 
ing it will be possible to 
amend it if it is not 
found satisfactory. 
However sweeping an 
anti-injunction plank 
might be adopted at 
Denver, there is not 
much likelihood that any- 
thing more than a very 
moderate and tentative 
measure could be enacted 
at Washington for some 
years to come. In our 
opinion, the plank as 
adopted at Chicago 
supports the President's 
position in principle, 




IS 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



and the agreement reached was an honorable 
solution of the one matter upon which there 
was serious and protracted strain in the 
building of the platform. 

-^j_.^ This opinion of ours, to be sure, 
£xprtiatd disagrees absolutely with that 
crittciMi. ^[^j|,j^ j^.jj. Biyan has already ex- 
pressed since the Chicago convention in hi:* 
weekly paper, the Commoner, and again in 
extensive interviews. He declares that the 
Chicago plank merely reiterates the languai>e 
of the existing federal statute. But he ignores 
those words in the plank which say specifical- 
ly that " the rules of procedure in the federal 
courts with respect to the issuance of the 
writ of injunction should be more accurately 
defined by statute." It Is true that the Chi- 
cago plank is not strong or explicit ; but it is 
not correct to say that this plank docs not . 
call for changes in the existing law with a 
view to preventing the abuse of the writ of 
injunction. Mr. Bryan's uttfrances, of 
course, make it plain that the L>cnver plat- 
form will try to satisfy Mr. Gompers as 
respects this matter of court injunction^. 

ffooHHtt '^''^ platform opens with a sweep- 
Peiicita ing characterization 'of the accom- 
^" *'^' plishments of Mr. Roosevelt's ad- 
ministration, and then proceeds as follows: 

These are the achievpinents that will make for 
Theodore Roosevelt his place in history, but 
more than all tlse the great things he has done 
will he an inspiration to those who have yet 
greater things to do. We declare our unfalter- 
ing adherence to the policies thus inaugurated 
and pledge their continuance under a Republican 
administration of the government. 

This last sentence really sums up the plat- 
form, and it might have been adopted as suffi- 
cient in itself. For certainly it was an Ad- 
ministration convention, and it would have 
nominated Mr. Roosevelt in the twinkling of 
an eye if he had not succeeded in convincing 
the party that the best thing to do was to 
nominate Mr. Taft and elect him as a fore- 
most exponent of the so-called Roosevelt pol- 
icies. Mr. Roosevelt did not create the con- 
ditions under which these policies have taken 
form, nor did he originate what could not 
have been widely accepted if it had been the 
sheer doctrinaire creation of any one man's 
intellect. Mr. Roosevelt happens to possess 
great and unflagging energj', a flexible mind, 
a quick, firm grasp, and an almost unequaled 
power of courageous leadership. The poli- 
cies are not his, but are those of a progressive, 
well-ordered American civilization; and it 




Pbilndi^lpliJii S nqnir cr, June lU. 



has merely fallen to his lot to be a great 
leader in expounding those policies, in trying 
to get them expressed in the terms of states- 
manship, and in securing their acceptance. 

nixaiiiin ^' *^* sheer nonsense, therefore, 
and (*• to regard the Chicago convention 
*""' as dominated for his own pur- 
poses by the strong hand of a single man. 
Mr. Roosevelt's dominance has merely meant 
the intelligent and voluntary support of his 
leadership by countless thousands of men 
whose opinions and aims he has tried to repre- 
sent rather than to dictate. He is by nature 
didactic, and he is a great preacher of social 
ethics and political progress, as well as a 
statesman and leader of decision and power. 
The self-control and the firm judgment that 
led him to reject a renomination and effect- 
ually to prevent it show a strength of char- 
acter seldom equaled in the annals of politi- 
cal history. He is young, strong, without 
disheartenment, and with no sense of fatigue 
or of growing distaste for the great burdens 
of his office. The renomination would have 
been his inevitably if he had not made sure 
that it would go to some one else. Not only 
did he show great firmness and poise of char- 
acter in this renunciation, but the convention 
itself showed a high quality of self-control 
that may justly be regarded by thoughtful 
men of all parties as another reassuring evi- 
dence of our American capacitj' for self-gov- 
ernment. It was the belief of the convention 
that Mr. Roosevelt could carr\' every State 
that he carried in 1 904, and probably several 
Southern States in addition. Every delega- 
tion on the Hoor of that convention had rca- 



THE PROGHESS OF THE IVORID. 



lottt of Ereater or less strength for desiring 
an assured Republican success by sweeping: 
majorities, rather than a good fighting chance 
H-ithout certainty of victory. Yet the conven- 
tion resolutely took Mr. Roosevelt at his 
word, and proceeded to nominate Mr. Taft 
in a spirit of great good-will. There was no 
Un' or rule of any kind against ncininatln;; 
Mr. Roosevelt; and in the face of concrete 
conditions a mere custom or theory as to n 
third term seems to lose weight and sub- 
stance. Philosophical and broad-minded ob- 
seners like Ambassadors Bryce and Jusse- 
rand, sitting on the platform through the 
convention and watching its proceedings care- 
tuily.were deeply impressed with the strength 
it showed in holding itself steadfastly to it? 
program and in refusing to yield to its latent 
impulses. Mr. Roosevelt never stood out so 
splendidly before the world as in the moment 
of Mr. Taft's nomination, for he had secured 
a wise and suitable result by methods of ap- 
peal to public opinion followed by shrewd 
and skillful, but absolutely honorable, meth- 
ods in the great American game of politics. 

fci/wM iiiutt^^^ platform deals rather scan- 

I" (*• tily and feebly with the recent 

"'"' panic and the business depression 

that has followed it, and is more amusing 

than convincing when, as if making faces At 



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prom tbe HeraU i Wasblnglon 



its enemy, it actually boasts of "the recent 
safe passage of the American people through 
a financial disturbance," with respect to 
which it goes on to say that " if appearing 
in the midst of Democratic rule, or the men- 
ace of it, might have equaled the familiar 
Democratic panics of the past." The Dem- 
ocratic platform will, of course, show that 
Republican rule does not insure the country 
against financial panics and industrial de- 
pressions, and will find in the present busi- 
ness situation much reason for arraigning 
the party in power. The mere fact is that 
hard times foster political discontent and to 
that extent usually benefit the party out of 
power. The practical question for business 
men and for working men who want steady 
emploj-ment is easily stated. Would the 
election of Bryan do more to restore confi- 
dence and get the factories running at full 
time than the election of Taft? We have 
come through the sharp phases of the cur- 
rency stringency and the financial panic 
The banks have mote motvey \tv \\a.t\i "^mv 



THE AMERICAN REyiEiV OF RE^EIVS. 




From I^rt to Right: Mr. Geot^e A, Kalghl 
Senator 8«imn>l H. Piles, W«Bbtngton ; Mr. Jobn 
HemeitwBj'. Indiana: Mr. Bmrr TafC, New York, aoa 

ever before, and the country awai:.'i the set- 
tlement of political uncertainties and the 
maturing of the crops, and the gradual 
restoration of manufacturing and transpor- 
tatirni business, 

OtmmitmtHti '^^ Republican platform ought 
im KaiiraaUM to havc handled the whole sub- 
"'^'"** jcct more fully and frankly. 
Meanwhile, as respects future action, the 
'platform approves the recent emergency cur- 
rency law and promises a fully developed 
currency system in due time. As respects the 
Sherman Anti-Tnisr law, amendments are 
promised to give greater federal control and 
greater publicity in the case of interstate 
commerce corporations of the monopoly sort. 
An amendment is demanded to the Interstate 
Commerce law so as to give railways the 
right to make and publish traffic agreements, 
white maintaining natural competition be- 
tween competing lines. National legislation 
and supervision to prevent future overissue 
of stocks and bonds by railroads is also ad- 
vocated. Upon these questions the platform 
fairly and specifically supports the Roosevelt 
policies. It is not cryptic or equivocal. 



publican platforms. The only significant 
thing in the plank is its declaration for a gen- 
eral tariff-overhauling next spring. What 
kind of a revision will result must be taken 
on faith. The question is one that voters 
may put to their ConE^ressional candidates 
with all possi' ' 



Worker! "^"^^ °^ tlrec planks in the plat- 
Etpteimiy form endeavor to prove that the 
Republican party is generous tn 
its attitude toward wage-earners, and that it 
appreciates the need of creating social and po- 
litical conditions favorable to the welfare of 
the ordinary man. It is not necessary here 
to sum up these planks. As regards the 
claims to the favorable attention of the farm- 
ers, however, the Republican party unques- 
tionably has a strong case. The agricultural 
and postal departments, not to mention other 
branches of the Government, have led in a 
stupendous work for the revival and enrich- 
ment of life in the farming communities of 
the country. 



Ntgroet la th. 



TlH Tariff 



The tariff plank is not radical, 
i fairly explicit. It pledges 
"'""' the Republican party, if con- 
tinued in power, to revise the tariff in a spe- 
cial session of Congress immediately follow- 
ing the inauguration of Mr. Taft next 
March. It declares for the establishment 
of maximum and minimum rates, the mini- 
mum to represent tlie measure of normal 
protection at home, and the maximum to be 
applied in case of discriminations against our 
trade. The plank is as clearly and strongly 
for a protective policy as any in former Re- 



The plank declaring for the " en- 
forcement in letter and spirit of 
— -'■■ the XIII., XIV., and XV. amend- 
ments of the Constitution, which were de- 
signed for the protection and advancement 
of the negro," is to be taken for whatever 
it may be regarded as worth. For a great 
many years the Republican parti' has been 
threatening in its platform to cut down 
Southern representation in Congress, on ac- 
count of the practical disfranchisement of the 
negroes. But these platform threats have 
been empty and idle. The party in power 
has not made the smallest serious attempt to 
change the basis of representation in this 
country from that of the total population to 



THE PROGRESS OF WE JVORLD. 



dut ol At number of legal voters under the 
State laws. Since the party seems to mean 
most of the things thai it says in its platform, 
it is regrettable that it should be so insincere 
in its treatment of the negro question. The 
negroes in the Southern States will never 
come into the exercise of political privilece 
through the action of either party at Wash- 
ington. Their only chance will be so to 
identify themselves with the best interests of 
the communities where they live that they 
may gradually come into the actual enjoy- 
ment of the rights which they now theoret- 
icalh' possess under the laws and constitutions 
of ail the Southern States. Those States do 
not now by law exclude from the franchise 
any negro who is fit to exercise it in view of 
conditions existing in the South. The shut- 
ting out of illiterates from the franchise in 
the South is a very proper thing. Unfortu- 
nately, the laws are not fairly enforced in th^ 
Southern States; but these are matters ri 
local administration for \i-bich no national 
itmrfy can be found or applied. To ciit 
down Southern representation in Congress 
would not help the negroes a particle. 

TiH JTMrt* There is no longer any sound rea- 
r>M tiH son why Southern white men 
''°*"- should feel that they have to vote 
ihe Democratic ticket, nor is there any corre- 
spmding reason why the negroes should be 
cUimed as a Republican asiset. Since, how- 
ler, the negro voters have been accustomed 
to support the Republican ticket, it would be 
ridiculous for them to go over to the Demo- 
cratic party on an accidental point that af- 
fects their sense of race clannishness, rather 
than upon some question of real public 
merit. The Democrats strongly supported 
the action of the Administration in dis- 
banding the troops that were regarded as im- 
plicated in the Brownsville disorder. Edu- 
cated negroes ought to see that they were 
the victims rather than the beneficiaries of the 
came of politics played by those who fought 
the President on that point of army disci- 
pline. Negroes should vote as citizens rather 
than as members of a race. The Southern 
white men should feel as free to vote for 
Mr, Taft as if they were living in New 
York or Indiana. A vast numhcr of South- 
em business men approve of Mr. Taft and of 
the Taft-Roosrvclt line of policies. It will 
be a good thing for evervhody when more 
Southern white m^n of position join the Re- 
publican party and when more negroes be- 
come Democrats. 




flue Bpepob.) 



Ktpm-mtatim ^ Sf'-'^t Step toward the improve- 
intht ment of party conditions in the 
*'""■'""""■_ South will come with a change 
in the basis of representation in the national 
Republican conventions. Practical all of 
the contests at Chicago were from Southern 
States which will cast comparatively few 
votes for Taft in the election. It is demor- 
alizing to have the balance of power in a 
Republican convention he!d by delegates from 
States where for practical purposes the Re- 
publican party does not exist. The strug- 
gle for the control of those delegations is 
always an unseemly one, and it has some- 
times involved disgraceful and scandalous 
methods. It was hoped that last month's 
would declare for such a change 
'ould make the next convention repre- 
of actual Republican voting masses 
in the States. The plan proposed was one 
delegate for every 10,000 voters in the pre- 
ceding national election, every State, as now, 
being allowed its equal quota of delegates-at- 
largc. The Taft managers, however, who 
had succeeded in controlling the Southern 
delegations, were unwilling to accept this 
seeming reflection upon the quality of their 
victory. The justification of the Taft man- 
atjement lav in the fact that if they had not 
b*»>t energetic in organizing the Southern del- 
egations for their cai\didate, t\\osft it\e.^\MWft 



16 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

would all have been organized against their a physical valuation of railroad properties as 
candidate by methods far less regular and a basis for the fixing of just rates> and an- 
scrupulous than their own. Both sides at other was that for the direct election of 
Chicago ought to have agreed to avoid future United States Senators. A good many dele- 
situations of this kind. The refusal of the gates from other States than Wisconsin rc- 
Taft managers to change the basis of repre- corded their votes for one or another of these 
sentation for 191 2 was a mistake. From the propositions, but it was evident that in so 
standpoint of tactics, however, it should be large a convention it was necessary to accept 
explained that these questions came up on the the results of the work of the Resolutions 
day previpus to the business of nominating Committee as a whole; and thus the rcjcc- 
candidates, and it was regarded as unwise, if tion of the Wisconsin planks did not neces- 
not unsafe, to run the risk of alienating the sarily express the opinions of the convention 
Southern delegations in advance of the de- upon the merits of the things proposed. Wis- 
livery of. their promised votes for Mr. Taft. consin was strongly represented in tht con- 
vention, and the speeches made in present- 
8om9 ^^^ platform contains a three- ing the name of Mr. La Follette for Presi- 
other, line endorsement of a postal sav- dent were among the best of all those the 
ings-bank system, which is better convention heard. It is not to be assumed 
than nothing, although more ought to have that Wisconsin's standards are any more lofty 
been said, and parcels post ought to have been than those of a number of other States, and 
included. There is a vague six-line plank of the strenuous and uncompromising position 
adherence " to the Republican doctrine of of the La Follette people was merely a mat- 
encouragement of American shipping." The ter of careful prearrangement. Mr. La Fol- 
platform favors '' the immediate admission of lette and his supporters were summarily re- 
the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona fused their seats in the convention of 1904 
as separate States in the Union," and there by the Credentials Committee, and they were 
IS a just and appreciative review of the work naturally determined to be prominent and 
of the Administration along the line of arbi- insistent in the convention of 1908. Mr. 
tration and Hague treaties, and its progress Bryan's criticism of the Chicago convention 
in the affairs of Cuba, Porto Rico, the Phil- for rejecting the Wisconsin planks is fair 
ippines, and Panama. As respects the Phil- enough from the standpoint of a political op- 
ippines, it should be said that the platform ponent, but is not justified from the stand- 
is for free trade between the United States point of an impartial observer, 
and those islands, ** with such limitations as 

to sugar and tobacco as will afford adequate Looking for There was much casting about to 

protection to domestic interests." This policy '*• "ift"'" ^^^^'^ ^" agreement upon the 

of care for the progress of Philippine trade "'"^ ** nomination for the second place 

and industry is a matter with which Mr. on the ticket. Governor Hughes, of New 

Taft is especially identified. York, had lifted himself out of the contest 

by absolutely refusing not only to take the 

Wisconsin '^^^ platform was accepted as nomination but to take the office if nominated 

In finally worked over in the Resolu- and elected. Massachusetts offered a candi- 

V ence. ^|^^^ Committee by everybody ex- date in the person of her Governor, Mr. Cur- 

cepting the Wisconsin delegation. That tis Guild, and New Jersey had agreed upon 

body had come to the convention to present ex-Governor Franklin Murphy. There was 

the candidacy of Senator La Follette and had constant and persistent talk of the renomina- 

prepared in advance a strong platform, ably tion of Vice-President Fairbanks, but at the 

written, going into much greater detail as last moment he sent a letter absolutely refus- 

respects railroad regulation, trusts, and some ing to be considered. The favor of Mr. 

other economic and political questions than Taft and his managers was thought to have 

the platform favored by the majority. This settled upon Senator Dolliver, of Iowa, but 

platform was brought before the convention Mr. Dolliver's friends in that State, for local 

as a minorit>' report by Congressman Cooper, reasons, bitter 1\' oppoNfd the idea. They were 

of Wisconsin, and several of its proposals afraid that if \Jr. Dolliver left the Senate 

were made the subject of separate roll calls in Governor Cummins mi^ht secure his vacant 

the convention. One of the demands thus place. They arc such jzood people in Iowa 

voted on was that of publicity for campaign that their political strifes run into the same 

contributions; another was that calling for sort of extreme personal feeling that one finds 



18 THE AMERICAN REl/IEl^ OF REyiEWS. 

who would help to carry the Empire State, mentioned. The campaign will begin 
Such an agreement was reached at the last promptly and the pace will not slacken until 
moment, the candidate brought forward be- election day in November. Mr. Bryan will 
ing the Hon. James S. Sherman, for a long doubtless be head manager of his own can- 
time member of Congress from the Utica vass, and that of Mr. Taft will Tiavc Presi- 
district. New York's choice was readily ac- dent Roosevelt's wisdom and judgment bc- 
cepted by the great Pennsylvania delegation, hind it. The chairman ^of the Republican 
and when Illinois and Ohio were equally fa- campaign committee is yet to be selected. At 
vorable to it, the convention as a whole was Chicago it was generally expected that Mr. 
ready to fall into line. Speaker Cannon put Frank H. Hitchcock would be chosen, but 
in a sudden and unexpected appearance and various others were proposed,fand a few da}"S 
in a ringing speech seconded the nomination were taken for rest and mature advice. Prcsi- 
of Mr. Sherman. Mr. Sherman received dent Roosevelt, as soon as Mr. Taft's nom- 
8i6 votes on the first ballot. He is in his ination was known, accepted his resignatkm 
fifty-third year; graduated from Hamilton as Secretary of War, to take effect on June- 
College, New York, in 1878; was admitted 30. His successor will be Gen. Luke £. 
to the bar in 1880, and for nearly thirty years Wright, of Tennessee, who was associated 
has been active in the practice of his pro- with Mr. Taft on the Philippine Commis- 
fession, in New York and Congressional sion, and became his successor as Governor- 
politics, and in the business affairs of the city General of the Philippines when Mr. Taft 
of Utica. In 1884 he was Mayor of that succeeded Mr. Root as Secretary of War. 
city, and in 1886 he was elected to Congress, General Wright, who has always been a 
and has served continuously at Washington, Southern Democrat, was one of the foremost 
with the exception of one term. lawyers of his State and of the entire South 

when he accepted Mr. McKinley's invitation 
Ouaiitiea ^^ ^^^ ^^^'^ ^ useful and promi- to aid in the management of the Philippines. 
aa a Public nent member of the House of He has been in close official relationship with 
*'""' Representatives, having grown President Roosevelt, Mr. Root, and Mr. 
to the chairmanship on Indian Affairs, Taft, and his appointment as Secretary of 
where his work is much commended by War and a member of the Roosevelt cabinet 
those who are best entitled to judge of deserves the high approval which it has every- 
it, and more recently he has been pro- where received. Mr. Roosevelt went to 
moted to the chairmanship of the Commit- Oyster Bay on June 20, and will remain 
tee on Railways and Canals. Of late, he there during the summer, as has been his 
has stood next to Speaker Cannon as chair- custom. Mr. Taft will have a vacation at 
man of the powerful Committee on Rules, the Hot Springs, Va., but otherwise will 
which practically controls the business of the make his headquarters at Cincinnati, and 
House. He is highly experienced in his knowl- will receive visitors at the old Taft home- 
edge not only of legislative affairs but in his stead, now occupied by his brother, Mr. 
grasp of parliamentary methods,* and if Charles P. Taft. 
elected would be an ideal presiding officer of 

the United States Senate. He is a man of ^.^^ Politicians have been curious to 

excellent standing in the community where Smaller know what Mr. Hearst's Inde- 
he lives, has maintained cordial relations with " "' pendence League is going to do. 

Mr. Roosevelt and the Administration, It will hold its convention late in the pres- 

while not antagonizing the conservatives of ent month of July, and we are informed that 

Congress, and fits as perfectly as possible all it will refuse to support Bry^an and will 

the requirements of a compromise candidate launch an independent ticket. The Socialists 

for the Vice-Presidency. have duly nominated Mr. Debs as the can- 
didate of their party, and the Populists have 

The Chief ^^^ Denver convention opens on placed Mr. Tom Watson, of Georgia, in the 

Figurea Tuesday, July 7, Mr. Br>'an's field. The Prohibitionists are preparing to 

nomination being a foregone hold their convention at Columbus, Ohio, 

conclusion. It is very likely that the second on the 15th of the present month, and thus 

place may be given to an Eastern man. For there will be four parties in the field beside 

that place Mayor McClellan, of New York the two principal ones, each of which may be 

City, and Lieutenant-Governor Chanler, of expected to poll a considerable number of 

the State of New York, have been favorablv votes. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 




I 



mm 



,^ In spite of ihe fact that, owing 
Qmtnu to the aiitiH.'ratic sv-stem under 
'■ which Congress has been ruled 
during the past session, a large and complete 
program was not carried through and much 
of (at legislation of which the country is 
rtill)- in need was " held up," the first ses- 
won of the Sixtieth Congress, which ad- 
jnumed on Mav 30, accomplished a great 
many useful and meritorious things. Nearly 
.iOiOOO bills were introduced, — a record 
numWr. Of this number three-quarters 
were introduced in the House, The session 
«"K one of large appropriations, the total 
acetdini; a billion dollars. On another pagf 
'hi' month (67) Mr. Ernest G. Walker 
Ei^ts an analysis of our G'^vernment expend- 
iiurB. outlining the way in which our na- 
iional budget is prepared. We commend 
out fMiiers" thoughtful attention to this 
andr. L'ndoubtedly the most important 
sjiElt piece of legislation passed bj- the ses- 
sion which adjourned on Memorial Day was 
•w Emergency Currency bill, a compromise 
D(tM«n the Aldi-ich bill of the Senate and 
•« Vreeland hill of the House. This meas- 
uft Has accepted by the House on May 27 
and at once signed by the President. Its 
Rsajre in the Senate was marked by an 
nehtwn -and -one-half -hour speech \\v Sen- 
ator La Follctte, of Wisconsin, who at- 
traiptrd in this way, with the aid of Senator 
Stone, of .Missouri, and Senator Gore, of 



Oklahoma, to prevent its enactment into law. 
The measure, which is a very long one, pn>- 
vides for the formation of incorporated na- 
tional currency associations, comprising not 
less than ten hanks each, such associations to 
have power in periols of ilnancial stringency 
to issue emergency currency to the amoimt 
of $500,0CK),000, depositing as security 
therefor bonds, commercial paper, or other 
assets. This currency is so ta\ed as to in- 
sure its retirement when the stringency 
period has passed. The act also creates a 
national monetari" comniission of nine Sena- 
tors anil nine Representatives, to inquire and 
report " wtiat changes arc necessary or de- 
sirable In the nioiietarj' system of the United 
States or in the laws relating to banking and 
currency." The commission as appointed 
consists of Messrs. Aldrich. Allistm. Bur- 
rows, Hale, Knox, Daniel, Teller, Mone>'. 
and liailev, from the Senate, and .Messrs, 
Vreeland.Overstreit. Hurton, Weeks. Hon- 
ynge. Smith, Padgett, IJurgess, and Pujo, 
from the House of Repn 



imnortant 15i"'i"K '^ '''^ numtlis of life 
Pidu'i Congress also modilied the cus- 
'"'" ' toms law; converted the militia 
into an integral part of the national military 
establishment; authoriited many new public 
buildings; !>rovi<led for the con-it rucilim of 
two new battli-ships .it a cost of ^(),()ix>,ixX) 
each; thoroughly reurgani/.cd the consular 



20 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEl^S. 

service ; passed a model Child-Labor law for reports of federal officers in response to rcsc 

the District of Columbia; enacted a new lutions and requests, eleven of them bcin 

Employers' Liability law to replace the one special messages recommending general i 

pronounced unconstitutional by the Supreme particular legislation. 
Court; made some useful changes in the 

number and salary of enlisted men in the ^^^ The Oregon election of June 

army and navy ; appointed a commission and Oregon was a preliminary skirmish in tl 

appropriated $1,500,000 to represent the battle for the control of the ne 

United States at the Tokio Exposition in Congress, and incidentally showed that tl 

1912; appropriated $29,227,000 for the people are strong supporters of the polici 

Panama Canal ; remitted $10,800,000 of the of President Roosevelt. Representativ 

Chinese indemnity resulting from the Boxer Hawley and Ellis were re-elected by majoi 

uprising; directed that intoxicants and an- ties of approximately 20,000 each, indicatii 

archistic and seditious publications be ex- a probable majority of 40,000 for the Rcpu 

eluded from the mails; besides passing a lican national ticket in November. The mo 

number of laws affecting public lands, surprising result of the whole campaign w 

Among the important matters left for the the selection of Gov. George E. Chambe 

next session, either in the form of unpassed lain. Democrat, over Mr. H. AL Cake, R 

bills or as subjects for discussion in commit- publican, by a majority of nearly 2000 

tees, are: Relations with Venezuela (with the "people's choice" for United Stat 

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations) ; Senator. His election by the Legislatu 

the resolutions in the Brownsville affair; next Januarys is assured by the return of 

changes in administrative customs laws in fair majority of Republican and Democrat 

accordance with our agreement with Ger- members pledged to " Statement No. i " 

many; a postal savings-bank bill (left on the the Direct Primary law, by which they agr 

Senate calendar) ; anti-injunction legislation to vote for the " people's choice " for Unit« 

(also left in the House Judiciary Commit- States Senator without regard to person 

tee) ; campaign publicity legislation (in the preference. We shall then witness the uniq 

Senate committee) ; and amendments to the spectacle of a Legislature five-sixths of who 

Interstate Commerce law and the Natural- are Republicans confirming the vote of t 

ization law. people for Senator, much as do the Electo 

in the choice of a President. Govern 

The Senate I^^^ing the session the Senate Chamberlain, now serving his second ten 

and the ratified eleven conventions pro- is widely known, is personally very popuh 

Treaties, p^ggj ]^y ^.j^^ Hague Peace Confer- and has declared himself strongly favorab 

ence and the following other international to the main Rooseveltian policies. 

agreements: providing for the establishment 

of an international health office; pan-Ameri- ^.^^^ This Oregon election has aga 

can copyright and code of international law ; Legisia- directed attention to the strugg 

twelve arbitration conventions (with Den- ^"' for direct legislation begun son 

mark, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, ten years ago by a group of reformers head< 

Mexico, Holland, Norw^ay, Portugal, Spain, by the Hon. W. S. U'Ren, a thoughtful, d 

Sweden, and Switzerland) ; conventions with termined man, devoted to the principles 

Great Britain as to Canadian boundary and the initiative and the referendum. The fa 

Canadian fisheries; extradition with Spain, tional strife and demoralized condition • 

San Marino, Portugal, and Uruguay; with politics at the time favored his plans. I 

Japan protection of trademarks in China 1902 the initiative and referendum hj 

and Korea; and naturalization with Peru, passed two legislatures and been almo 

Portugal, and Salvador. Three Hague con- unanimously adopted by the people. Tv 

ventions (those providing for the creation of years later the Direct Primary law and tl 

an international prize court, affecting the Local Option law were passed under the 1 

status of merchant ships at the outbreak of itiative. In the campaign of 1906 Mr. Jon 

war, and the conversion of merchant ships than Bourne made his fight for United Stat 

into warships) , as well as the proposed in- Senator almost wholly on the basis of suppo 

tcmational wireless telegraph convention, of " Statement No. i." He won the Repu 

were considered but not ratified. During lican nomination at the primaries, receivi 

the session the President sent to Congress the popular vote in the election, and w 

twenty messages, nine of them transmitting elected immediately after the Legislatu 



TUB PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



mnmied by an almost unanimous v»te of the 
[Tprestntatives of both parties. Governor 
Chamberlain will be elected Senator simi- 
larlv, practically by direct vcte of the peo- 

pit/ 

iminuf '^^^ Local Option law has pri}- 
"« duced the most far-reaching re- 

ifmtm. jy|jj_ ji^ jgj,(j eight counties 
iiait"diy." At the elcciion June i these 
coumits increased their majorities, and thir- 
ttoi aiore counties voted out the saloons, thus 
Kcluding them from more than two-thirds 
of die State. The majorities in the remain- 
ing counties against prohibition were small, 
ind in all of them some precincts went 
"Jt," including several precincts in the city 
of Portland, Eleven measures were brought 
before the electors in 1906 under the initia- 
tK'eind referendum. Several of these were 
vicious and were decisively voted down ; most 
of diem were commendable and received 
(quillj- heartj- support. One of them ex- 
taided the initiative and referendum to local, 
^ial, and municipal laws, and .is already 
WnE used by several of the cities of the 
State. In the last campaign the number of 
initiitive and referendum measures had 
s«iled to nineteen. The Secretary of State 
lent to everj- registered voter a pamphlet of 
lib pages containing the various proposed 
Iwi, together with the arguments for and 
ifainst Four of these were constitutional 
amendments referred to the petiplc by the 
LcKislature; four were legislative measures 
upon which the referendum had been ordered 
b]' petition of the people; the remaining 
elevm M-erc laws or constitutional amend- 
DKnts proposed by initiative petition of the 
pwple. A great responsibility was placed 
iipon die voters, but they n.ct it conscien- 
tiously and intelligently, rejecting undesir- 
able measures and supporting those they 
<lwoe(l b«t for the State. The " Open 
Torni" bill, so-called, designed to nullify 
d>elx»cal Option law, failed, as did woman 
luflrjge and a law based upon the " single 
^< which had been vigorously discussed. 
Direct legislation was greatly extended by 
the adoption of two-to-onc majorities of the 
wall of public officers, proportional reprc- 
*itation, a corrupt practices act, and the 
"istTuction of members of the Legislature to 
™tefof the people's choice for United States 
Stnator, — four laws proposed by the Hon. 
W- S. U'Ren, representing the People's 
Power League of Oregon. In addition to 
^KK, two laws restricting salmon fishing 




on the Columbia River and one changing the 
date of election from June to Noyeniber re- 
ceived majorities, 

Primarie, ■ Important primafi' elections 

Democratic States i)f Georgia 
and Florida and the Republican States of 
loiva and South Dakota. In Georgia the 
chief contest was for the renomination of 
Gov. Hoke Smith. Governor Smith has had 
an eventful term of office, having signed the 
Prohibition law of 1907 and taken an active 
part in co-operation with the governors of 
Alabama and North Carolina in the attempt 
to enforce rigorous anti-railroad legislation 
in the South, Curiously enough, Governor 
Smith's activity in reforming the Democratic 
priman' sjstem had cost him the antagonism 
of the Populistic element in hii State, which 
is headed by the indefatigable Tom Watson. 
His opponent in the contest for the governor- 
ship was the Hon. Joseph Brown, whom 
Governor Smith had removed from the office 
of Railroad Commissioner, presumably be- 
cause he di'l not agree with the Governor's 
railroad policies. In the Democratic pri- 



22 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^fEWS. 

maries, — which in Georgia, of course, are Circuit Judge Jeter C. Pritchard made pi 

equivalent to a State election, — Mr. Brown hibition speeches throughout the State, 

was victorious. This result has been attrib- should be remembered that a large propc 

lited both to a reaction in the party against tion oj North Carolina counties had for yea 

the Prohibition law and to a change of feel- been " dry ** under local option. The Stat« 

ing on the subject of railroad regulation, final decision to adopt the prohibitory poli 

However this may be, it is a noticeable fact was reached after many years of cxperien 

that Mr. Brown succeeded in carrying the with this policy in diflferent communities, 

cities of Georgia, while his opponent was this connection it is interesting to note th 

compelled to rely mainly upon the country while the Louisiana Legislature now in si 

vote. sion has refused to submit the question 

prohibition to the voters of the State, it h 

Three '^^^ prohibition issue also figured passed a rigid bill for the regulation 

Senate in the Florida Democratic pri- liquor-selling, which doubles the amount 

maries, held on June i6, when liquor license required, forbids brewers 

candidates for United States Senator, Gov- wholesale liquor-dealers to have any interc 

ernor, and Railroad Commissioner were in any bar, and prohibits music, pictures, 

chosen. Governor Broward was defeated games of any kind in a saloon. Thirty -o 

for the senatorship by Duncan U. Fletcher, of fifty-nine parishes in Louisiana are alrea^ 

of Jacksonville. Albert W. Gilchrist, *' dry." 
who was the " local option " candidate, 

won the nomination for the governorship. ^^^_ Last month the New York Le 

In the Iowa Republican primaries, held Track islature reluctantly yielded to tl 

on June 2, the venerable Senator Alii- *"" "^' persistent urging of Goverm 

son was successful in securing a renomina- Hughes and the demands of public sentimci 

tion. Mr. Allison has served nearly forty- and enacted the Anti-Race-Track Gamblir 

four years in Congress, thirty-six years of bills. Soon after the bills failed of passa{ 

that time continuously in the Senate. Mr. in the State Senate by a tie vote in Api 

B. F. Carroll was nominated for Governor, last, it was pointed out in these pages that tl 

The Republicans of South Dakota, in their people of New York had pronounced again 

primary election, held one week later, nom- all forms of gambling, including race-trac 

ixiated the present Governor of the State, the betting, by the vote for the adoption of tl 

Hon. Coe I. Crawford, for United States State constitution in 1894. The Legislator 

Senator to succeed Senator Kittredge. Gov- instead of carrying out that mandate in goc 

ernor Crawford represents the so-called faith, had practically nullified it, so far ; 

progressives in the Republican party, and the betting at race-tracks was concerned, by fai 

candidates of that wing of the party for Gov- ing to provide uniform and adequate pena 

ernor and other State officers were successful ties. Governor Hughes demanded that a 

in the primary. discrimination should be abolished and thj 

the plain purpose of the constitution shoul 

North Carolina -^"^^her important victory for be fulfilled by the statutes. The Legislator 

Qoea the cause of State prohibition of having failed at its regular session to pass tl 

'^^' the liquor traffic was scored in necessary bills, was recalled in special sessioi 

North Carolina on May 26. On the ques- as related in our last number. A vacanc 

tion of ratifying the bill recently passed by in one of the Senate districts having bee 

the Legislature forbidding the manufacture filled by the election of a Senator favorab! 

and sale of intoxicating liquors in the State to the bills, their passage still seemed doubtfi 

seventy-eight out of the ninety-eight counties because of the continued illness of Senate 

voted for prohibition by majorities aggre- Foelker, who represented one of the Brool 

gating more than 40,000, the total vote cast lyn districts, 
in the State being about 175,000. Every 

large town in the State except Wilmington j^^ ^^^^ york ^^^ ^*''^ ^^^ passed the Assen 
and Durham voted for prohibition. One Special bly by large majorities, bi 
feature of the temperance campaign was the * * *"'* their fate in the Senate wi 

active part taken by some of the State's most determined only by the appearance c 

eminent citizens in appealing to the voters Senator Foelker, still a desperately sic 

from the stump. Governor Glenn, United man, acting against his physician's 01 

States Senator Simmons, and United States ders, and his vote in their favor. Th 



THE PROGRESS OF THE H^ORLD. 28 

rather commonplace and frequently sordid more hopeful feeling was greatly strength- 
routine of State legislation was enlivened for ened by the tremendous oversubscription to 
once with a truly dramatic touch. Not for the $50,000,000 of bonds ofifered by the 
moiy years, if ever, has the incident had a Pennsylvania Railroad and the successful 
pandld. It is not often that a legislator is flotation of $50,000,000 of 4 per cent, bonds 
called on to face death in the performance of by the Union Pacific, 
duty, imt the generous words that found ut* 

tenmcc everywhere in recognition of this Education ^^ ^^ common talk among the 
courageous act showed that the American 0/ great investment houses of New 
public is as quick to award praise for such a ""^^ *"^*' York and Chicago that their 
deed of disinterested public service as it is to clients, even those with a few thousand dol- 
heap censure on the heads of those faithless lars, are concerning themselves with the value 
legyators who betray a public trust. The back of the securities they propose to pur- 
adjournment of the New York Legislature chase to a degree not seen before. There 
on June 1 1 left unaccomplished a number of were several issues of notes and bonds offered 
important reforms which Governor Hughes last month of a less desirable nature than the 
had hoped to have embodied in law, — no- first-mortgage liens of such railroads as the 
tably the bill for direct nominations and the Pennsylvania, Union Pacific, and Burling- 
extension of the Public Service law to tele- ton, and the inferior offerings were not 
phone and telegraph companies. only made attractive by higher rates of 

interest, but were also very adequately 

Simtof I'^dustrial and financial circles protected by additional securities before they 

fimuieiai in America have been anxiously were accepted by the public. It is gen- 

"***'*'* awaiting a sign of business activ- erally assumed that this intelligent interest 

ity. Is prosperity to return this autumn, shown by the individual investor is more 

when political uncertainties are cleared than the extreme caution which logically 

aw-ay? Or are we in for a period of decreas- comes in the year after the panic; the ex- 

ing prices, contraction and timidity on the cellent work done by investment bankers in 

part of manufacturers and investors com- informing their client; and the establishment 

parable to the four years following the panic of educational departments in the investment 

of 1893? The past month has brought such field by several widely read periodicals have 

a sign in a very sudden advance of prices on probably aided materially in starting Ameri- 

the Stock Exchange, where the leading rail- cans who have saved money to a display of 

H-ay and industrial stocks within a few weeks shrewdness and care in investing it somewhat 

recovered thrce-eignths of their long drop analogous to the qualities required to save it. 
down from their high marks of Januar>', 

1906, to the panic prices of November, 1907- ^^^^^ Apart from the proof given by 
This phenomenon has been interpreted on May Be these sales of securities that the 
the one hand as Wall Street's prophecy of a ^'^^ ^" ' great transportation systems can 
resumption of business activity within the now obtain the money they need, when un- 
next six months, and it is true that Wall questionable securities are offered in return 
Street, with all its inconsistencies and ab- for the money, it cannot be said that there 
surdities of temperament, has a sensitiveness are many specific indications of returning 
to future conditions which is almost miracu- prosperity except the promise of at least aver- 
lous to the layman. The recovery in the age crops. The June estimates by the De- 
prices of securities has, on the other hand, partment of Agriculture as compared with 
^n ascribed by well-informed people to a last year and 1906 are as follows for the con- 
masterly nranipulation of the markets by dition of wheat, oats, and cotton: 
powerful interests in control of our great ^^^^ ^^^^^- y^^ 

railway systems, with the purpose of inducing winter wheat Ht'» * 77.4' S2.7. 

that hope and buoyancy which would allow Z'tn^. ^^'^' '. :::::::::: : i!2.9 m:h srl.o 

them to market various necessary issues of Cotton 70.7 <«^-'5J'Jj»'7 ^^ >•'"•* 

neu' railway bonds. Be that as it may, the 

buovancj' certainly appeared, and the bonds, It will be seen that unless there is a radical 
too, and they have been marketed with a deterioration after June, we shall have ex- 
wlerit)' and success which seem marvelous cellent crops in 1908, some statisticians fig- 
to any one who can remember the financial uring their total value, including all agricul- 
«tinosphcre of only six months back. The tural products, as high as $8,000,000,000.. 



22 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^fEWS. 

maries, — which in Georgia, of course, are Circuit Judge Jeter C. Pritchard made 

equivalent to a State election, — Mr. Brown hibition speeches throughout the State. It 

was victorious. This result has been attrib- should be remembered that a large propor- 

lited both to a reaction in the party against tion oj North Carolina counties had for years 

the Prohibition law and to a change of feel- been " dry ** under local option. The State's 

ing on the subject of railroad regulation, final decision to adopt the prohibitory policji 

However this may be, it is a noticeable fact was reached after many years of experience 

that Mr. Brown succeeded in carrying the with this policy in different communities. Ir 

cities of Georgia, while his opponent was this connection it is interesting to note thsi.1 

compelled to rely mainly upon the country while the Louisiana Legislature now in s^s^ 

vote. sion has refused to submit the question oi 

prohibition to the voters of the State, it h&2S 

Three ^^^ prohibition issue also figured passed a rigid bill for the regulation oi 

Senate in the Florida Democratic pri- liquor-selling, which doubles the amount oj 

maries, held on June i6, when liquor license required, forbids brewers oi 

candidates for United States Senator, Gov- wholesale liquor-dealers to have any inter^rsi 

ernor, and Railroad Commissioner were in any bar, and prohibits music, pictures, oi 

chosen. Governor Broward was defeated games of any kind in a saloon. Thirty oui' 

for the senatorship by Duncan U. Fletcher, of fifty-nine parishes in Louisiana are alread] 

of Jacksonville. Albert W. Gilchrist, *' dry." 

who was the " local option " candidate, 

won the nomination for the governorship. ^^^^_ Last month the New York L^^ 
In the Iowa Republican primaries, held Track islature reluctantly yielded to tJ^* 
on June 2, the venerable Senator Alii- *"" ''^' persistent urging of Govern 
son was successful in securing a renomina- Hughes and the demands of public sentimei 
tion. Mr. Allison has served nearly forty- and enacted the Anti-Race-Track Gamblirv^ 
four years in Congress, thirty-six years of bills. Soon after the bills failed of passagT]^ 
that time continuously in the Senate. Mr. in the State Senate by a tie vote in ApfiJ 
B. F. Carroll was nominated for Governor, last, it was pointed out in these pages that &b< 
The Republicans of South Dakota, in their people of New York had pronounced again^^ 
primary election, held one week later, nom- all forms of gambling, including race-track 
inated the present Governor of the State, the betting, by the vote for the adoption of th^ 
Hon. Coe I. Crawford, for United States State constitution in 1894. The Legislature* 
Senator to succeed Senator Kittredge. Gov- instead of carrying out that mandate in goo<J 
ernor Crawford represents the so-called faith, had practically nullified it, so far zs 
progressives in the Republican party, and the betting at race- tracks was concerned, by fail- 
candidates of that wing of the party for Gov- ing to provide uniform and adequate penal- 
ernor and other State officers were successful ties. Governor Hughes demanded that all 
in the primary. discrimination should be abolished and that 

the plain purpose of the constitution should 
North Carolina -^"other important victory for be fulfilled by the statutes. The Legislature, 
Qoea the cause of State prohibition of having failed at its regular session to pass the 
the liquor traffic was scored in necessary bills, was recalled in special session, 
North Carolina on May 26. On the ques- as related in our last number. A vacancy 
tion of ratifying the bill recently passed by in one of the Senate districts having been 
the Legislature forbidding the manufacture filled by the election of a Senator favorable 
and sale of intoxicating liquors in the State to the bills, their passage still seemed doubtful 
seventy-eight out of the ninety-eight counties because of the continued illness of Senator 
voted for prohibition by majorities aggre- Foelker, who represented one of the Brook- 
gating more than 40,000, the total vote cast lyn districts. 
in the State being about 175,000. Every 

large town in the State except Wilmington ^^^ ^^^^ york ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ passed the Assem- 
and Durham voted for prohibition. One Special bly by large majorities, but 
feature of the temperance campaign was the '^^'^on. ^]^^\^ fg^^g jj^ ^j^^ Senate was 

active part taken by some of the State's most determined only by the appearance of 

eminent citizens in appealing to the voters Senator Foelker, still a desperately sick 

from the stump. Governor Glenn, United man, acting against his physician's or- 

States Senator Simmons, and United States ders, and his vote in their favor. The 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 28 

TiAcr commonplace and frequently sordid more hopeful feeling was greatly strength- 
routine of State legislation was enlivened for ened by the tremendous oversubscription to 
once with a truly dramatic touch. Not for the $50,000,000 of bonds ofifered by the 
ocoiy years, if ever, has the incident had a Pennsylvania Railroad and the successful 
pinlleL It is not often that a legislator is flotation of $50,000,000 of 4 per cent, bondr^ 
odled on to face death in the performance of by the Union Pacific, 
duty, but the generous words that found ut' 

terincc everywhere in recognition of this Education ^^ ^^ common talk among the 
courageous act showed that the American of great investment houses of New 
public is as quick to award praise for such a "'^^ **'^*' York and Chicago that their 
deed of disinterested public service as it is to clients, even those with a few thousand dol- 
beap censure on the heads of those faithless lars, are concerning themselves with the value 
legislators who betray a public trust. The back of the securities they propose to pur- 
adjournment of the New York Legislature chase to a degree not seen before. There 
on June 1 1 left unaccomplished a number of were several issues of notes and bonds offered 
important reforms which Governor Hughes last month of a less desirable nature than the 
had hoped to have embodied in law, — no- first-mortgage liens of such railroads as the 
tahly the bill for direct nominations and the Pennsylvania, Union Pacific, and Burling- 
extcnsion of the Public Service law to tele- ton, and the inferior offerings were not 
phone and telegraph companies. only made attractive by higher rates of 

interest, but were also very adequately 

|. - Industrial and financial circles protected by additional securities before they 

fiMKini in America have been anxiously were accepted by the public It is gen- 

**'"*^' awaiting a sign of business activ- erally assumed that this intelligent interest 

ily. Is prosperity to return this autumn, shown by the individual investor is more 

when political uncertainties are cleared than the extreme caution which logically 

away? Or are we in for a period of decreas- comes in the year after the panic; the ex- 

ing prices, contraction and timidity on the cellent work done by investment bankers in 

part of manufacturers and investors com- informing their client; and the establishment 

parable to the four years following the panic of educational departments in the investment 

of 1893? The past month has brought such field by several widely read periodicals have 

I s:gn in a very sudden advance of prices on probably aided materially in starting Ameri- 

the Stock Exchange, where the leading rail- cans who have saved money to a display of 

way and industrial stocks within a few weeks shrewdness and care in investing it somewhat 

recovered three-eignths of their long drop analogous to the qualities required to save it. 
down from their high marks of Januar>% 

1906, to the panic prices of November, 1907- q^^^^ Apart from the proof given by 
This phenomenon has been interpreted on May Be these sales of securities that the 
the one hand as Wall Street's prophecy of a *ce en , ^^e^t transportation systems can 
resumption of business activity within the now obtain the money they need, when un- 
next six months, and it is true that Wall questionable securities are offered in return 
Street, with all its inconsistencies and ab- for the money, it cannot be said that there 
surdities of temperament, has a sensitiveness are many specific indications of returning 
to future conditions which is almost miracu- prosperity except the promise of at least aver- 
ious to the layman. The recovery in the age crops. The June estimates by the De- 
prices of securities has, on the other hand, partment of Agriculture as compared with 
been ascribed by well-informed people to a last year and 1906 are as follows for tl.e con- 
masterly rranipulation of the markets by dition of wheat, oats, and cotton: 
powerful interests in control of our great j^^^^ ^,^^^. j,^^^ 
railway s\stems, with the purpose of inducing winter wheat w' 77.4' sj.7, 

that hope and buoyancy which would allow Z'tH"". ^."^T. '. :::::::::: : itio s?:« si-lo 

them to market various necessary issues of Cotton 70.7 (s2.:m8 thp loymr 

new railway bonds. Be that as it may, the 

buojanc)' certainly appeared, and the bonds. It will be seen that unless there is a radical 
too, and they have been marketed with a deterioration after June, we shall have ex- 
ctlerity and success which seem marvelous cellent crops in 1908, some statisticians fig- 
to any one who can remember the financial uring their total value, including all agricul- 
itmosphcrc of only six months back. The tural products, as high as $8,000,000,000.. 




THE AMERICAN RE^lEfV OF REyiEWS. 



mcrcial intercourse. Heisknowntotx 
of still further extension of the uscfi 
our PostofKce Department by the intr 
of the parcels post with the rest of th 
and a postal savings-bank. A par 
convention was actually signed on I 
of last month between the Unitei 
and Italy, to become effective Augus 
one with France, to become effect 
weeks later. During the past thrce- 
of a century great improvements hi 
made in the world's postal service. Ti 
of Rowland Hill and John Hennikcr 
M.P., of England, and those of 
Everett and Ellhu Burritt. of this co 
not by any means forgetting our pres< 
master- General, — will be remember 
lasting gratitude for what has been 
this direction. Mr. Heaton, known 
father of imperial penny postage," '. 
turned his energies to a reduction 
graph rates between England and t 
tinent and of cable rates between 
and the United States. A two-cen 
tariff between the two continents, 
tends, would very soon be a paying 
ment for the cable companies. 

ThtPriMi- ^ ^^ forth in these pi 
i(.ii<ya/f/.rt*Mi month, a fair and quiet el 
Panama is assured by th 
ment on the part of the Panama 
ment that the United States shall ) 
right to investigate, and possibly ir 
if there should prove to be any real 
for charges of fraud, intimidation 
regularity when the election for I 
of the Isthmian Republic takes plac 
twelfth day of the present montt 
correspondence between the Unitei 
War Department and the Govern 
Panama since the beginning of M; 
five to the holding of the coming elect 
made public early in June. In a letl 
May 12 and delivered to President 
in person. Secretary Taft said: 

Every fraudulent election involves f 
violence in Ihe election ilsdf, which ni 
endangers the peace of the Canal Zor 
exceedingly likely to arouse in the [ 
feated by fraud and violence a dispo 
resist the fraudulently elected officials a 
slitute a rebellion. The United Slate 
look upon any election which is nol c 
on fair lines, and is likely to lead to 
with anything but the utmost concer: 
has a direct inlcre«^l in case of threaten 
in an election to interfere to prevent i 
case the fraud is carried out to inte 
prevent the succession of those ofl 



CKiaptr Ocean penny postage has at last 
Oetan Pmtatt becomc an established fact. It 
* '"■ was announced in London and 
Washington simultaneously on June 3 by 
Postmaster-General Buxton and Postmaster- 
General Meyer that an agreement had been 
reached between the United States and Great 
Britain establishing a two-cent per ounce 
postal rate on letters between the two coun- 
tries, to take effect on October i next. In 
October of last year, it will be remembered, 
the Universal Postal Union adopted the in- 
ternational postal rate of 5 cents for the first 
ounce and 3 cents for each additional ounce, 
declaring that any two states might there- 
after form a restricted union adopting a still 
lower rate. The two-cent rate soon to be 
effective between England and this countrj' 
has existed for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury between the United States and Canada 
and for a less period between our own coun- 
try and Mexico, Cuba, and the Republic of 
Panama, besides, of course, our insular de- 
pendencies. 

Cxtmion of W"'*" '^ '* cxpected that for a 
t*« fti>w/» year or two the change will cause 
'^^' a loss in the revenues of the two 
postoflliccs, both post masters- general believe 
that the increase of correspondence caused by 
the reductioti will ultimately more than com- 
pensate for the loss. Mr. Meyer also believes 
that the lower-postaee will lead to freer com- 



THE PROGRESS OP THE IVORLD. 25 

-whose election there has not been the free number of large foreign commercial inter- 
<ho|ce of the people. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^j^^ Minister of Finance. 

The Secretary of War's letter concluded has been chosen President of Peru. The 
with a quotation from a dispatch from Prcs- long-delayed Quito railroad also, connecting 
ident Roosevelt in these words: the capital of Ecuador with Guayaquil, its 

You are authorized to say to President Ama- seaport, was completed last month. From 
dor that the Government of the United States Chile our Government has received an invi- 

wul consider that any attempt at the election of fof;«« «.« ♦K- P«r, A,v,^^;««^ c«* -.•/: o 

a successor by fraudulent methods or methods ^^^^°" ^""^^^l Pan-American Scientific Con- 
which deny to a large part of the people oppor- S"*^^ ^^ ^^ '^^i" m the city of Santiago m 
tunity to vote constitutes a disturbance of pub- that country in December next. President 
lie order, which under Panama's constitution re- Roosevelt has appointed nine prominent 
quires intervention, and that this Government a^.,- „^ ^^;«««.-.r j j . ^ 
will not permit Panama to pass into the hands American scientists and educators to reprc- 
of any one so elected. sent the United States Government upon 

this occasion. Meanwhile, despite predic- 
Pwtbiiity of ^"^^ ^^^ merits of the dispute tions of revolt and disorder in Cuba at the 
Amerieam between thc Arias and Obaldia provincial and municipal elections to be 
*'*** **"* factions it is unnecessary to go, held on September i, and at thc presidential 
further than to state that President Amador's election on December i, the island continues 
administration has been so unpopular with quiet and in the enjoyment of an increasing 
the voters that, in the event of its vindication social and business security. Thc progress 
by doubtful methods at the polls in securing and stabilit>' of the Central Americans will 
the election of Senor Arias, Amador's Secre- undoubtedly be greatly advanced by the estab- 
tary of State (whom he is backing for the lishment of the new Central American court 
succession), it seems likely that there would of justice provided for in the recent treaty be- 
bc a popular outbreak of revolutionary pro- tween the five republics and inaugurated on 
portions. The return to the United States May 30 at Cartago, Costa Rica. The 
on June i of Mr. Squicrs, American Min- United States is represented on this court 
ister at Panama, for conference with Sec- by Judge William I. Buchanan, 
retary Taft at Washington, indicated that 

the situation was serious. Of course the 7^, celebration ^^ ^^ "^^ often that in the midst 
tranquillity of the Canal Zone and the safety ^^fj^i^"^ ^^ ^ Presidential campaign in the 
of the canal workers are the only objects of ' United States there is any real 

concern with the United States, and these deep American interest in our Canadian 
fully justify the readiness of our War Depart- neighbor, whose political and economic af- 
ment to land an adequate force of marines up- fairs usually progress without any spectac- 
on thc isthmus at short notice In case of need, ular appeal to the American people. The 

celebration this month, however, of the 
PoaoofMi ' While Venezuela still drifts to- three-hundredth anniversary of the found- 
Cewtrafand ward anarchy under the erratic, ing by Champlain of Quebec, " the cradle 
UtttkAmorica. h^lf-civilized rulc of President of Canada," possesses a deep interest for the 
Castro, and her northern coasts are ravaged American people and a significance perhaps 
by the bubonic plague, reports of the quiet even beyond the conscious interest. On an- 
progress of peace and commerce from other other page we print an article giving details 
South American countries emphasize the dis- of the celebration and pointing out the in- 
tinction which has come to be recognized as ternational significance of the occasion. It is 
almost a permanent one between that tur- especially noteworthy that this fraternizing 
bulent Caribbean republic and the rest of thc of the English and French speaking peoples 
South American continent. Bolivia and Peru in the New World should have occurred 
have just elected progressive statesmen as when the chief magistrates of both Eng- 
presidents. Dr. Guachalla, former Bolivian land and France have been emphasizing 
Minister in Washington, member of the thc cordiality of the relations now ex- 
Mexican Pah-American and Hague confer- isting between the two mother countries. 
ences, and a man of large commercial inter- The ceremonies in Quebec beginning July 
ests in the republic, has been elected Presi- 20, over which the Prince of Wales will pre- 
dent of Bolivia. In Peru, Senor Augusto B. side, are, says the London Times, *' in no 
Leguia, a highly successful man of affairs in sense intended to exalt the triumph of one 
mercantile life in his own country and in great nation over another." The occasion 
the United States, formerly representing a commemorates rather the triumph of these 



THE /IMr.RICIN RF.I'IEIV OF ReviEWS. 




ki wtn liy tbe 



two great nations in harmoniously combining 
to create a new national type. On June 8 
occurred the elections to the provincial leg- 
islatures of Ontario and Quebec, resulting in 
a radical change of political complexion. 
The Liberals triumphed in Quebec, but were 
beaten In Ontario. Hon. Lomer Gouin, 
Premier of Quebec, was beaten at the polls, 
as was also Hon. L. A. Taschereau, one of 
the provincial ministry. Although these 
gentlemen were afterward elected from 
"safe" constituencies (Canada following 
the British method in this respect), the gov- 
ernment majority in Quebec has been cut 
down materially. In Ontario Hon. Nelson 
Montcith, Minister of AEficuhure, was de- 
feated in his own district, the government 
majority (Conservative), in the province, 
however, remaining a substantial one. 



,.„- .„,. The splendid natural 

Oppor- of the Dommion and the nation- 
'""""■ al opportunities of the Canadian 
people have been discussed and commented 
upon in many articles in these pages. It may 
be said that Americans have watched Cana- 
dian progress heretofore with a friendly when 
not indifferent eye. Now that the grain- 
carrying trade of New York is actually suf- 
fering from the competition of Montreal, 
with the resdit that one great Atlantic 
steamship line (the White Star) has with- 



drawn five of its freighters from service at 
this port, and other lines have taken similar 
action, it remains to be seen whether an era 
of actual trade rivalry has not set iiL Per- 
haps the natural advantages of nearness to 
grain-fields and their market arc actually 
with the Canadian port. Possibly the truth 
of the Canadian boast of the past decade that 
if the nineteenth century belonged to tbe 
United States the twentieth is to be Canada's 
is about to be demonstrated to the world. 

Pntiimt '^^^ spectacle of a French Pres- 
Faiiiim In ident being enthusiastically wei- 
"' "" ■ corned on English soil by the Eng- 
lish court and people, and the reception ac- 
corded in Russian waters to the English King 
and Queen by the Russian monarchs, who are 
bound by an alliance to the French Repub- 
lic, — this is a combination of circumstances 
calculated to make the shade of the first 
Napoleon act in some such way as the car- 
toonist has fancied in the accompanying 
picture. President Fallieres' visit to Eng- 
land during the last week in May was made 
ostensibly to express the official and popular 
French participation in the opening of the 
Franco- British Exposition in London. It 
was actually the dramatic climax to the 
series of courtesies and expressions of cordial- 
ity between the two nations since the estab- 




THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 27 

lishmfnt of the Anglo-French understand- juring him in the arm. Amid great excite- 

ing,— the entente cordiale, as the French call ment and fear lest President Fallieres him- 

it,— whichf the press of both nations is insist- self had been attacked the assailant was taken 

ing, now amounts to an unwritten alliance, into custody and Major Dreyfus led of{ to a 

This complete understanding between the hospital. His wounds, however, were not 

two great western European nations, which serious. Gregori is presumed to be a tool of 

for centuries were at the bitterest of enmity, the Nationalist, Clerical, and Anti-Semite 

has already exerted and is bound in the fu- bloc which has united with all the cne- 

ture to exert a powerful influence on general mies of the republic to revive if possible the 

European politics in the direction of peace, famous case against Dreyfus. This case is 

Prof. Adolphe Cohn, who is an authority on recalled by another dramatic degradation of 

French politics, tells on another page this a French officer, this time proof of treason 

month just how significant this understand- being apparently established. A naval officer 

ing is for Europe and points out why Clem- by the name of Ullmo, having been found in 

ent-Armand Fallieres is an ideal President possession of a number of valuable official 

of the French Republic in this year 1908. documents which it is claimed he was about 

to sell to a foreign power, was publicly de- 
W'liTkertBe ^^^ chief magistrate of the graded at Toulon on June 12. It so hap- 
OM Angio^rench French Republic was enthusi- pened that while this ceremony of degrada- 
"^" astically applauded wherever he tion was being performed in Toulon, from 
w^nt by the British populace, and every- the same port several thousand troops were 
where made a deep impression by his genuine dispatched to reinforce the French command- 
manly qualities and that simple, straightfor- ing general in Morocco. The republic's task 
ward, democratic spirit which appeals so in North Africa has not become easier by the 
strongly to all the Anglo-Saxon peoples, victorious advance of Mulai Hafid. The 
No formal alliance appears on the program, usurping Sultan on June 7 took possession of 
But a long and significant conference, dur- Fez, one of the Moroccan capitals. He now 
ing which all questions affecting the policy almost evenly divides territory and authority 
of France and Great Britain were discussed, with his brother, Abd-el-Aziz, and France's 
between M. Pichon, the French Foreign problem seems to be to choose between the 
Minister, and M. Paul Cambon, the French two or play one against the other. The issue. 
Ambassador to Great Britain, and Sir Ed- late in May, of a White Book in Berlin, 
ward Grey, the British Foreign Minister, setting forth the German attitude on the 
andSir Charles Hardinge, British permanent Moroccan question, indicates that France's 
Lnder-Secretary of State for Foreign Af- military operations in that country are hence- 
fairs, showed a complete agreement between forward to be regarded from Berlin with less 
the diplomats of the two nations. Meanwhile distrust than formerly. 
the undoubted and complete success, even in 

its first days, of the Franco-British fair in ^.^ Edward Hardly had the French President 

/-ondon, has emphasized the depth and gen- visits sailed away from England in the 

uineness of Anglo-French friendship. '*^ ^'^''* republic's fine warship, the Leon 

* Gambetta, when King Edward and Queen 

Francf Zota ^^^ Frcnch RepubHc made com- Alexandra, together with Secretary Hard- 

Drrdfus, ' plete its restitution to Emile Zola inge and the British Ambassador to St. 

nonico. £^^ ^j^^ injustice and wrongs he Petersburg, Sir Arthur Nicolson, boarded 

suffered because of his celebrated defense of the royal yacht, the Victoria and Albert, 

Dreyfus by formally transferring, on June 4, and sailed for Russian waters, reaching 

the remains of the courageous novelist from Reval on June Q. There they were met by 

the quiet cemeterv at Montmartre to the the Czar Nicholas and the Czarina on the 

Pantheon. This vindication of French honor imperial yacht, the Polar Star. A dramatic 

and righteousness, which Zola had been one and impressive exchange of imperial courte- 

of the very few to honestly defend at the sies and expressions of regard were followed 

time of the Dreyfus infamy, was marred by by a state banquet and a prolonged confer- 

a dastardly attack upon Dreyfus, who was ence between the two monarchs and their 

present at the ceremonies. A journalist attendant diplomats, at which the Russian 

named Gregori, who has written a great deal Premier Stolypin was present. While the 

defending the French army, drew a revolver subjects discussed at this conference have not 

and fired two shots at Dreyfus, slightly in- been made public, the result, we are informed 



THE /IMERICAN RF.VIEW OF REVIEWS. 





Kl^ 


1 




g 


* '^1 






li^ 


^■^^^' ^ ,^liji ^'iiM^^^H 


■ 


IJ 



by the European press generally, is a com- 
plete and intimate Anglo-Russian (inder- 
standinc — not so intimate as the entente 
between England and France, but sufficient- 
ly definite and cordial to relieve Great Brit- 
ain from any fears over Russian designs on 
the Near East and to give great hope to the 
Russian Liberals that Nicholas II. is opening 
his heart and mind more and more to the 
progressive institutions of western Europe. 

Tmouma ^^'"^" Czar Nicholas parted 
Wo/rf/nj Its from his royal guests he is re- 
ported m have remarked sadly to 
King Edward; " Vou return now to your 
happy English home; 1 go back to my state 
prison." Very strange and unenviable is the 
position of this monarch, claiming absolute 
power and possessing less freedom than the 
head of any other civilized nation in the 
world. Even while avowedly granting his 
people a share in government the Czar re- 
fuses to abate one jot of his autocracy. While 
Nicholas and his immediate court continue 
to claim unlimited autocracy, however, it be- 
comes evident as the months pass that the 
Duma, even discredited as it has been and 



to be in many classes of .Russian 
society, is gradually assuming the character 
and proportions of a truly representative as- 
sembly. Very naturally, it regards its own 
functions too highly to become entirely sub- 
servient to the court party. Moreover, the 
parliament has already firmly intrenched 
itself in the position of holding the balance 
of power between the court and the adminis- 
tration, each of which now appeals to it for 
aid in contested questions. 

ftws/Bfl '^^'"'J' '^®^ month the Duma, by 
UpBn Kastmn the large majority of 194 to 78, 
™"""' rejected the item in the Premier's 
naval budget appropriating funds to build 
four new battleships. When it is remem- 
bered that Czar Nicholas himself, his Pre- 
mier, and the entire court party were in 
favor of this measure the courage of the 
Duma meir.bers in rejecting it can be real- 
ized. So far, however, has constitutionalism 
actually proirrcssed in Russia tha' the Pre- 
mier acknowledged the Duma's vote as final. 
Later, Parliament emphasized its power and 
prerogatives in financial matters by passing 
(on June 17) a " vote of disapprobation " on 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U/ORLD, 29 

the issue last January by Finance Minister tember lo (Aug:ust 28, Russian calendar), 
Kokovtscv, without legislative sanction, of an and Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria- 
internal loan of $83,000,000. A long and Hungary will attain on August 18 his sev- 
somewhat bitter debate over the projected entj^-eighth year. A Russian committee is 
Amur Railroad took place in the Council of arranging for an appropriate celebration of 
the Empire last month, G)unt Witte contend- Tolstoi admirers all over the world. Just 
ing that Russia's finances would not stand the sixty years ago, after the abdication of his 
strain of such a project and Finance Minister uncle, Ferdinand I., Francis Joseph was pro- 
Kokovtsev defending the bill. It is note- claimed Emperor of Austria. Hungar>' was 
\i'orthy as indicative of the really remarkable not then a part of his domain. Indeed, it 
spirit of organized opposition to intemper- was in revolt against the Hapsburg rule and 
ance that the special Duma commission, only kept down by Russian troops. It was 
which has had under consideration for sev- not until June, 1867, that Francis Joseph, 
eral months the drink question in Russia, having taken the oath on the Hungarian con- 
reported, early last month, in favor of re- stitution, was crowned King of Hungary. 
placing the imperial eagle on the labels of This Review has upon several occasions, — 
the vodka bottles [in Russia, it will be re- notably three years ago, when the agitation 
membered, the state absolutely controls and for the renewal of the " Ausgleich " (the 
conducts the liquor business] by the skull agreement regulating Austro- Hungarian 
and cross-bones and also appropriate warn- relations) was being so animatedly dis- 
ings agaunst over-indulgence. cussed, and last November, when the aged 

Emperor was so ill that his life was despaired 

Qg„^„ For the first time in the consti- of, — printed sketches of this interesting mon- 

r(jjtejjf tutional history of Prussia the arch, surveying his reign and retelling the 

' ' Socialist party has won seats in tragic story of his life, 
the Diet. Six Socialist members, five of 

them from the Berlin district, were elected franoh ^^^ celebration of the sixtieth 
during the ballotings held last month. Gains li^^^S^'J, anniversary of his accession to the 
were also made by Poles and the extreme ® *" " **• Austrian throne . was made the 
Conservatives. The election of the Social- occasion of a friendly visit by the German 
ists and Poles is particularly significant in Emperor and eleven reigning German king^ 
the face of the many obstacles which Prus- and princes. After this visit, which took 
sia's extremely complicated electoral system place in May, the ceremonies of celebration 
puts before real universal suffrage. Other began and continued for several weeks, con- 
topics of news from Germany during the eluding on June 12 with a monster parade 
past month of particular interest to Ameri- and an elaborate pageant in V^ienna, partici- 
cans were the cordial reception by the Kaiser pated in by more than 100,000 persons, 20,- 
of Ambassador David Jayne Hill, who sue- 000 of them in the national costumes of the 
ceeds Mr. Tower at Berlin, the last official diverse races in the empire. The family life 
dispatch of the retiring Ambassador contain- of the aged Austrian Emperor has been dark- 
ing the announcement that Germany is ened by more than one dreadful tragedy, and 
willing to enter into a treaty of arbitration in the heterogeneous racial composition of 
with the United States, and the official dec- his polyglot empire there is more than one 
laration of the German Government of nationality which looks upon him as oppres- 
its attitude in the vexed question of Mace- sor. Despite this, however, and the fact that 
donian reform. This attitude, as set forth his family name has become a synonym for 
in the words of Baron Speck von Sternburg, reaction, he has really granted more liberal 
German Ambassador at Washington, is pre- reforms than his brother sovereign of Ger- 
sented and discussed on another page. man speech. Kaiser Wilhelm II. The Aus- 
trian Reichsrath is now chosen on a basis 
fmo Famous ^^'^^ summcr two famous old of almost universal suffrage, and the Hun- 
oidMen men of Europe have birthdays garian Table of Deputies also will soon be 
in urope. ^^.j^j*^,|^ ^^,j|j ^^ widely celebrated, chosen by this same modem method. On the 
one by an entire continent, the other, it whole, the Austro-Hungarian Empire as well 
might be said, by the entire world. Count as Its aged ruler, is entitled to congratulation 
f.eo Tolstoi will be eighty years old on Sep- upon the long life of Francis Joseph I. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



(From Jfof tl to June 10, I 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. 

May 21. — The Senate adopis the resolution of 
Mr. Aldrich (Rep., R. 1.) creating a moneiary 
commissicn and passes ihe General Dehciency 

and Military Acadeniy Appropriation bills 

The House passes bills providing for a national 



(.:i 






I of r 






{ In the Interior Dep; 

May 22.— The House passes a bill for ihe 
['iihlieily of campaign contributions, with an 
ani(i;dmei;t providing tor a reduction of the 
U't)ri.'Scntatioii in Congress of States liaving 
disfranchisement laws. 

May 25.— The Senate adopts the conference 
report on the Sundry Civil Appropriation bill. 

May a6. — The Senate passes a minor naviga- 
tion bill The House agrees to the Military 

Academy Appropriation bill. 

May 27. — The House, by a vote of 166 to 
140, adopts the report of the conferrees on the 
Currency bill. 

May 28.— The Senate debates the Aldrich and 
Vreeland Currency hill. 

May 2g. — In the Senate, a filihuster conducted 
by Mr. La Folletlc (Rep,, Wis.) prevents adop- 
tion of the conference report on the Currencv 
bill. 

May 30. — The Senate adopts the conference 




report on Ihe Currency bill by a vote of 43 to 

22 The House adopts conference reports on 

the Public Buildings bill and other measures. 

The first session of the Sixtieth Congress 

comes to an end. 

POLITICS ANDOOVERNMENT-AMERtCAN. 

May 21, — Governor Hughes signs a bill mak- 
ing it a felony lo conduct a bticket-shop in the 

State of New York The Supreme Judicial 

Court of Massachusetts sends an opinion to the 
House of Representatives that a lax on trans- 
fers of stocks is unconstitutional. 

May 22. — ^A bill in equity to restrain the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany from exercising any control over the Bos- 
ton & Maine is tiled by the Federal Government 
in Boston. 

May 23. — The Illinois Legislature adjourns, 

having been In session since January, 1907 

Governor Hughes vetoes the rapid transit law 
amendments for New York Ciiy and the Coney 
Island Five-Cent- Fa re bill. 

May 26. — North Carolina is carried for pro- 
fiibition by a majority of over 40,000 Secre- 
tary Taft and William J. Bryan both declare 
for the enaetnienl of a campaign -contribution 
publicity bill. 

Bryan and 
Democrats 
elect Brj-an delegates by ; 

May 28.— West VIrgini; 
crals instruct for Bryan. 

May 31. — The Currency Commission ap- 
pointed by Vice-President Fairbanks and 
Speaker Cannon is organized at Washington 
with Senator Aldrich, of Rhode Island, as 
chairman and Representative Vreeland, of New 
York, as vice-chairman. 

June I. — In the Oregon elections Governor 
Chamberlain (Ocm.) defeats Cake (Rep.) for 
United Slates Senator by a .>^niatl plurality : 
Representatives Hawlcy (Rep.) and Ellis 
(Rep.) are rc-elccied; the Legislature is almost 
unanimously Republican; prohibition makes ex- 
tensive gains in many of the counties ; the 
]iro]>ositions for woman siifTrage an<l the single 
tax arc defeated. 

June 2,^I[i the Iowa Republican primaries 
William R. AUi.son is mmiinaied for re-election 
to Ihe United Stales Senate: B. F. Carroll Js 
nominate<l for Governor ..^rkansas and Ne- 
vada instruct for Bryan. 

June 3. — Maryland Dcmoerats choose dele- 
gates to Denver uuinslructcd, 

June 4. — In the Georgia Democratic primaries 
Gov. Hoke Smith is defeated for renomination 
by Joseph M. Brown. 

June 7.— Representative citizens of New York 
State send a memorial to the Republican Na- 
tional Commiitee asking thai a plank upholding 
ihe judiciary be placed in the platform. 

June 8. — President Roosevelt appoints a na- 
of fifly-seven members on 



small majority, 
and Arizona Demo- 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



tlw conscrt'alion oE national . _ . . . 
anor Hughes sends to ihf New York Legisla- 
[BK 1 menage recotn mending the enactment of 
lavs lor ihe prevention of race-track gambling. 
June 9.— Oregon Democrats in si met for 
Bryin. -In the Republican primaries of South 
DakM* Gov. Coe 1. Crawford defeats United 
Stales Senator A. B. Kittredge for renomina- 

Jime ro.— The New York Assembly passes 
the .\iiii-Race- Track Gambling bills. 

June 11.— The New York State Senate, with 
lk{ lid of the votes of Senators Foelker and 
Wailict passes the Anti- Race -Track Gambling 
hills, which are almost immediately signed by 

Covemor Hughes The Massachusetts House 

dcleais the Railroad Regulation bill designcu 
Lo prevent the N'ew York, New Haven & Hart- 
idJA Railroad from eonirolling the Boston & 
Maine,,. -Virginia and Kentucky Democrais 




;t for B 



for 



June 12— Utah Democrats 
Bran,. ..The Republican National Committee 
cmmleies the hearing of contests at Chicago ; 
216 Tafl delegates are seated and three Foraker 
delegiles. 

June u,-Governor Willson, of Kentucky, 
irnounces Ihe pardon of Caleb Powers and 
Junes Howard, alleged to be involved in the 
issjssination of William Goehel in 1900. 

]mt 15.— The Louisiana House of Represen- 
tatives votes to postpone indefinitely considera- 
tion n\ a bill providing for a referendum on 
StitMiiide prohiliilton : it then passes a bill 
dnuhling (he amount of liquor license and for- 
bidding brewers or wholesale liquor-dealers to 
tave any interest in any bar. 

Jnne 16.— The Republican N'ational Conven- 
tion metis in Chicago and Senator Burrows, as 
temfoniiy chairman, delivers his speech. . . .The 
frieral smls against the "hard-coal" railroads 
lo dotennine the constitutionality of the com- 
modity clause of the Hepburn act begin in Phil- 
«lelpliia,,,,Colorado Democrats instruct for 

Jnnt 17,— In Ihe Republican National Con- 
vmlion al Chicago, during Senator Lodge'.s 
speech as permanent chairman, a demonstration 
m honor of President Roosevelt lasts forly-six 
ninuics. 

June iR,_Xhe Republican National Conven- 
tion at Chicago nominates Secretary Taft tor 
President <:n Ihe first ballot, giving him 702 

];.'''e>; ihe nnminalion is made unanimous 

tooKresjnian John Sharp V\illiams of Missis- 
sippi annm'nccs his resignation as minority 
'"■ler in (he House of Representatives. 

June 19,— Congressman James S. Sherman, of 
J'« Viirk, is nominated for the Vice-Presi- 
*'>9 "II the first ballot hy Ihe Republican 
hational Convention at Chicago, receiving 816 
™1": a'ter making the nomination unanimous 
the wiieniion adjourns Secretarv Taft ten- 
ders his resitjnation to the Presiderit, who ap- 
poini! Gen, Luke E. Wright, of Tennessee, to 
iiKcetd him as head of the War Department. 

KLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

May 21,— The French estimates are laid he- 
"« Ihe Chamber of Deputies... .As a result 



of remarks made by Premier Slolypin in the 
Russian Duma, five members of the Finnish 
cabinet resign. 

May 22, — The president and seventeen mem- 
bers of the first Russian Duma are thrown into 

pri.'on in St, Petersburg M, Caillaux speaks 

in the French Parliament in support of the In- 
eome-Tax bill. 

May 23, — The Austro- Hungarian ministers 
resign office,.., Mr, Lloyd-George addresses a 
large meeting in Edinburgh in support of the 

Licensing bill The German imperial supreme 

court at Leipsic sets aside the verdict convict- 
ing the Berlin editor Harden of libeling Count 
von Moltke and orders a retrial. 

May 24.— The Belgian parliamentary elections 
result in a gain to the Socialists, ,. ,Four revo- 
lutionists are sentenced lo death in St. Peters- 
burg. 

May 25. — The French Chamber of Deputies 
adopts the section of the Income -Tax bill which 
places a duty on dividends from French and 
foreign government bonds. 

May 26. — A Scotch home-rule bill is intro- 
duced in the British House of Commons by Mr. 
Pirie, member from North Aberdeen. 

May 27. — .\ugusto B. Leguia is elected Pres- 
ident of the Republic of Peru; Eugenio L. 
Unanue and Dr. Belisario Sosa are elected 
Vice-Presidents, 

June 2, — The Russian Minister of FinatKC 
proposes an immediale issue of a loan of $100,- 
000,000 at 5 per cent. 

J'.me 3,— Five Socialists are elected to the 
Prussian Diet, 

June 6, — The trial of fifteen Social Revolu- 
tionists, including two women, begins in St. 
Petersburg. 

June 8. — Liberals make gains in the parlia- 
mentary elections held in Quebec, but lose in 
Ontario. 

June 0.— The Spanish Chamber of Deputie,< 
adopts the bill for a Spanish internal loan of 



Jul 



13. — The French Senate and Chamber 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REyiEWS. 



uf Deputies adopt the bill cstal ill filling llir right 

of voters to a secret ballot lOfXO British 

women tnarch £or Ihe cause of woman suffrage 
from Victoria Embankment to Albert Hall, Lon- 
don The French Parliament postpones dis- 
cussion of the bill to abolish (he death penalty, 
June l6.— The British House of Commons 
passes the second reading of the Old-Age Pcn- 



All properly controlled by the K( 
imperial household is transferred 



I bill 



the 



J.'" 



[7.— The Russian Duma rebukes the 
Minister for having induced the Czar 
a ukase authorizing ailuan without the 



__.— Unionists win the election for a 
1 of West Hiding, Yorkshire, England, 
by 113 votes. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

May 21.— Two conventions betwe* 



the 



United States and Japan concerning copyright 

and inventions are signed at Washin^on 

Guatemala releases Bustillos, the special com- 
missioner from Honduras, thus averting pos- 
sible international complications. 

May 23. — Ambassadors Buchanan and Creel 
arrive at San jose, Costa Rica, and are warm- 
ly greeted. 

May 25. — President Kallieres of France ar- 
rives in London and is met by King Edward 
(sec page 45), 

May 26. — The Central American Court of 
Justice is opened at Cartago, Costa Rica. 

May 2y. — It is announced that a complete 
agreement on Morocco has been reached be- 
tween France and Germany. 

June 3. — .Announcement is made of the intro- 
duction of peiuiy postage between America and 
England, lo become effective on October i of 
this year, 

June 5.— The Chinese Government plans lo 
spend the greater part of the Boxer indemnity 
returned by the United Stales in educating Chi- 
nese youths in American schools and colleges. 

June 6. — Servia withdraws its representative 

from Montenegro The organ of President 

Castro of Venezuela praises President Roose- 
velt for increasing the bonds uniting American 

June 8. — Nicaragua makes strong representa- 
tions lo Guatemala to obtain the release of cit- 
izens held prisoners by the latter country 

It is announced thai an agreement between the 
United Slates and Germany regarding an arbi- 
tration treaty has practically been reached. 

June 9.-^King Edward and Czar Nicholas 
meet at Reval. 

J'une 14. — Ambassador David J. Hill is re- 
ceived in official audience by the German Em- 
June 15. — .\ parcels-post convention is signed 
by the United S'ales and France, to become 

effective on August 15 A British court sent 

from Shanghai begins at Seoul the trial of a 
British citizen accused by Japanese of stirring 

up sedition Belgium's reply lo the desires of 

America and Great Brilain regarding reforms 
in the Congo Independent State promises lo 




ineet the requests mailc by the two latter na- 

Jmie 16.— Secretary Taft's letter to President 
.■\mador announcing the intention of the United 
States to see that fair elections arc held ifi 
Panama is made public on the isthmus. 

OTHSR OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

-May 21.— In a collision of passenger trains 
at Contich, liclgiiim, al>out sixty per.sons were 

killed and too injured More than 85,000 

sclio()l children assemble at Schoenhrun Castle, 
near Vienna, in celehralion of the sixtieth an- 
niversary of Emperor Francis Joseph's acces- 
sion to the throne The national assembly cf 

l!ic Presbyterian Chureb meets in Kansas City, 



1 Paris SUIT!"" 



Mo. 

May 22.— \n an cxpios 
factory 132 persons are injured. 

May 23. — The building s\\-n\ by King Victor 
Emanuel to the International In.'ititutc of Agri- 
culture is dedicated at Rome...,An airship be- 
ing tested at Oakland, Cal.. falls to the earth 
from a height of 300 feet, seriously injuring 

May 24. — Floods cause much loss of life and 

property in Oklahoma and Texas The chapel 

at the N.ival .-\cademy at Anna|>nlis is dedicated. 

May 25.— The will of ArchilKilJ Henry 
Blount, leaving $450,000 to Vale I'niversity, is 
admitted lo prob.'Lte in London The men in- 
volved in the British shipbuilding strike vote to 
accept the terms oileretl Fiy the employers. 

May 27. — In arrial navigation M. Delagrange 
breaks all former records; at Rome he coven ft 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



33 






May jS. — The Bank of England 

rate of discount frum 3 to i'/^ per cent a 

t^-phoon at Hanko»-. China, and a cual-iniiic 
lire at Kwangse i-atise thu ik>at1i of about moo 
[icrsons. 

May 20. — 'I'h*' Inteniationul Polar Coiiyri'ss 
meets at Bruiseti; twelve countries are repre- 
sented. 



5 minutes and .siriciiug the lime In six hours mnier utifavor- 
ahle wiirking omditimis. 

10.— Tin- <lav is miiilc a Stale huliiby in 

iij celt'hrale i1k- .k-<Iic»iiMii dF tlie 

SeluKil of Mine- ;m<i iln- Kurnkmi 

■i J..11.1 \V. .\k.,-k:is. I1..1I. [.u'-enled l>y 

■ II. Mii.kiiv iiiKl liis iiiMllu-r...-.\ 1U011- 

:.. ihc Russian Uea.l ;H I'nrl Anluir is 

<iii Anl/n-Slun... 



M;.ek;.j 



lornvj 



Mi 



lay 3a — M. DclaKraiiRe makes a world's 

iplane record near Rome. Hyiiig 12,750 meters 

and J26 seconds In the i 



tional balloon race from Liindon. the Brit 
seronaut Griffith Brewer, in the balUion Lol 
is the winner. .. .The body of George Cliiil 
first Governor of the State of New York a 



thief of Iht I 
tecdint; llic iali- ( li-i 

Jane t.,-A om, 
trade, with a caiiila 

June i^--The C. 






; V.'i 






ilish sli-el 



s buried day's 



J"' 



raemK 



Vice-Preudent of the United Stai 

at KingatOR, N. Y., with impressiv< 

Secretary Taft delivers a Memorial Day ne^'otiatio 

address at Grant's Tomb, New York City. cant held 

May 31. — The cifjht newly chosen liishops of 'b 
the Methodist Episcopal Cliurcb are conae- '^ 
crated at Baltimore (see page ?j)..,.The ciiv 
of Kingston. N. Y.. continues its celebration of 
the two hundred and tifliclli anniversary of its l)iir<le 
settlement. 

June 1. — The fifth Inlernatiiinal CnnKress of 
Cot ton -Spinners begins its sessions in Paris. . . . 
"rhe Methodist Episcopal (ieneral Conference 
close* its sessions at Baltimore. 

June 3,— Oiarles A. Coey's balloon, the Clii- 
fii-io. ascemliiiK from Qiiiiicy, 111., is compelled 
t.. land at Clear Lake, S. D.. afli-r c.)verinij! S-ki 
miles in 1 1 hours. 

June .1. — TI1C International Cotton Congress, 
at Pari*, recommends cimcerlcd action to cur- 
tail iirodncti'in anil the inlrodnction of a net 

weight kisis of purchase in Europe Ibo 

bidy ..f M. Zola is moved from Montmarire 1.. 
tile Pantheon, .. .'Ihe one-bnndre<lIb anniver- 
sary of the birtli of Jefferson Davis is jjcnerally 
ce'tlir;(ted thmugliout the South. 

June 4--A1 the close of the cerem<.uies ai- 
It-nding the canonization of Kmile Zola in tlie 
Pantheon, at Paris, a mihtary writer named 
Gregori fire- two .shots at Major Alfred Drey- 
f:n, M'-inniiing biin in one arm. ...A Ivpboon 
riestroys a j.carling fleet off West Australia, j/o 
bves anil forly vessels heing k»t....'nie Ini- 
l«rrial Ilaiik "I Germany reduces its rale of dis- 
(■'\nt-t from 5 to 4' ; per cent. 

Jnrie 5. ^Destructive lornadocs pass over 
-"•iithern Nebraska anil parts of norlliern 
Kans.-is : at least twenty-one persons are killed 
Linil five falallv injured. .. ..^n explosion on ibe 
nnni.red crnis'er Tcnufssn- causes the .leath of 

file men An eight-inch snowfall is reported 

irnm Biiiie. M.-nl. 

June (1.— Sivleen workmen are killed by .m 
explosion in a celuloid factory near Vienna. ,. , 
l-i'iiKls cau«e great damage to crojis in .Alberta. 

Henry RcibtT and John Young, who con 

fe'--ed to having stolen over $i.ooo.noo from lln* 
Farmers' LJcposit National Rank, PillsbnrL'. are 
sentenced lo ten years each in the peniteniiary 

J;me g. — .\ general reduction in the prioe of 
■■trel products and iron ores is agreed upon .... 
The International Miners' Congress passes a 
resolution in favor of an cigbt-bour day, re- 



ti.iii ill (be Hrii 

$,175,000^)00, is reiwrted. 
der LttiittiHM makes the 
k- from Oi«-eust»wn to 
New \ork in 4 liav-. jo hours, and 7 minuteii, 
averauiiii: -M-f.** knot-; -lie also m.nkes the liesl 
(141 inihs. . . ,4(i'io MeNicnn troops 
1<] against the Vaiiui Indians, ix.'ace 

: baling l>ecn broken In a JKIR- 

I Vienna 10 celebrate ibe jubilee of 
«n of Kmperor I'ranei, Joseph, .^).ooo 
thiiigariaiis take jian. 

tribe bi Panama near the Colcinhian 




84 



THE AMERICAN RE^lEiV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Saratoga, N. Y., loo years ago, is opened at 
that place. 

June 15. — The hirgesl intcnmlioiial woman's 
suffrage congress ever held is opened at Am- 
sterdam ; delegates are present from twenty- 
three nations. 

June 16. — -Fifty fishing hosts are wrecked off 
the coast of Jaitan, ,i^o men iicing drowned.... 
The Pan-Aotfhcaii Congress liegins its sessions 
in London. 

June 17.— President I-. Clark Scelye. of Smith 
College, Norlhamptim, Mass.. resigns. 

June 18.— The last spike i« driven in the 
Ecuadorean R.nilroad connecting Quito with 
Guayaquil. 

June 20.— The Admiralty Court of London 
decides that the British cruiser Cladiatcr is to 
blame for the collision (on Aprl i^) with the 
American Uner St. Paul. 

OBITUARY. 

May 21.— Rev. Dr. W. S. Jones, Archbishop 
of Cape Town, 68. 

May 22.— Gov. Jolin Sparks, of NcvaiJa, 65. 

May 2j. — Francois Coppee, ilrauiatist and 
poet, dean of the French Aeadeniy, 1J6 t see pagi' 

110) Peter F. Dailey. the comedian. 45 

Francis Bowes Stevens, the oldest resident of 
Hoboken, N. J., 94- 

May 24. — Tom Morris, known as llie grand 

old man of golf, 87 Brig.-Gen. Fvan Miles, 

U. S. A., retired, 70. 

May 25. — Homer H. Mcrriam, head of the 
house which publishes Webster's Dictiiuiary, at 
Springfield, Mass.. 95. 

May 26. — David Henderson, journalist and 

theatrical manager, 55 Philip Loring .Allen, 

of the staff of the New York Evening Post. 30- 

Adolf L'Arronge, the German dramatist, 

theatrical manager and musical conductor, 70. 

May 27.— Rear- Admiral .\. S. Crown in shield, 
U. S. N., retired, 72.... Sir Alfred Egcrton, 64. 

May 28.— Gen. Stephen D. Li-c, commander- 
in-chief of the United Confederate Veterans, 
75. ...Ex-Justice Charles Russell Tngalls. of the 
New York Slate Supreme Court, 89... .Waller 
Sattcrlce, the artist, 64. 

May 31. — Rear-.\dmiral Jackson McFlmell, 
U, S. N.. retired, 74. ...Mrs. Mary Mitchell Al- 
baugh, the actress. 77... .Dr. Louis Frechette, 
the French-Canadian p<iet, 68. 

June I.— Ex-Senalor James K. Jones, of Ar- 
kansas, 69. 

Jy.nr 2.— Gen, Sir Redvers Henry RuUer, for 
a time Commander-in-chief of the British forces 
during the Boer War, 68 Genrgc West Wil- 
son, editor of the Jacksonville (I'la.* Times- 
Union, 49. 

June 3.— Sir Robert Gillespie Reid, of Mont- 
real, Canada Capt. Alfred J. Staiidhig. one 

of the founders of the Carlisle Indian School. 

6,1 Rev. Edward Wilson, formerly bishf^ of 

the Reformed Episcopal Church in Canada, 87. 

June 4.— Hon. Daniel H. McMillan, the former 
district federal judge in New Mexico, fa.... 
Mrs. Jerome Jones, proprietor of the Boston 
Tranicript. we'll known as a pbilanthropisl and 
social worker, 76. 




June 6.— Peter White, of Marquette, 

pioneer in the iron and copper develop 
the upper peninsula of Michigan, 78. 

June 7. — William Emory Quinby, foi 
live years editor-in-chief of the Detri 
Press. 73. 

June 9. — Joseph Larocque, one of the 

of the New York bar, 77 Giulio 

former Italian .Minister for Foreign Afi 

June 10.— Oliver Hawrd Ferry Beir 
New York, 50. ...Col. John Frederick 
newspaper writer, lecturer, and Jrish pa 
....Marie Louis Gaslon Buissier, Fre* 

torian and archeologist, 85 Ex-Cong 

\V. S. Forman, of Ilhnois, 61. 

June II.— Rev. Dr. George E, Merri' 

dent of Colgate University, 61 

Lectc Stone, historian and editor, 73. 
liam Davis Ely, oldest alumnus of Yale 
sity, member of llie class of 1836, 93. 

June !2.— John Vines Wright, the ol 

ing ex-menibcr of Congress, 80 

grcssm.in Charles Tappan Dunwcll, of 
lyii, N. Y., 56,... Frank C. ISangs, the 

June 14. — Marquis Vega de Armijo, 
Spanish Premier and former presiden' 
Cliamher of Deputies. ., .The Earl of 
Governor-General of Canada 1888-93, ( 

Jinie 16. — John B. Roach, the shipbui 
....Eugene P. Murphy, who was senK 
pcisses.sion of .Maska in the name of the 
States when that Territory was purchas 
Russia, 63. 

June 17,— Representative .\rtosto -A 
of the Second Alabama Congress distr: 

June 18.— Jo.senh Hammer slough, on. 
founders of the Clothiers' -Association, ; 

June 20.— Donels.in C. Jenkins, a forn 
known newspaper editor of the S-.iuthwi 



SOME POLITICAL CARTOONS OF THE MONTH. 

1 




From the Brooklm Eaole (New Yorlt.) 



THE AMER!CAN REy/ElV OF REVIEWS. 




Vtom thp «/o6c (Npw Ycrtl 




tipali tniun R c l^pokane 



SOME POLITICAL Car wons of the month. 





n tbe BrooUvn Baglt (Nrw York), 



Kram tbe Htrald <Ncw Yock^. 



THE AMERICAN RHI^IEW OF REI^IEWS 






s 





-tS^>»-'' ! 







SOME POLITICAL CARTOONS OF THE MONTH. 




< \ 



York). 

latic sitiialioii in New York last 
I Governor Hughes succeeded in lit- 
g the Stale Senate into |>3ssing the 
anti-betting bills, naturully furnished 
cartoonists in newspapers all over 
The Governor is generally compli- 
upholding the constitution of the 
nany people regard him as .having 
I an almost impossible ta.sk. Some- 
cartoonist of the New York World 
■oints out above, tshi 





From 


m 


In^Ktrer (Phlladrlphla) . 


(^ 


i 


h^^ 


'f^^ 




fK 










^ 


j^^^^ 



■■■ii 



I BrooUy* Eagle (New Vurli). 



Kram lli« Udaer (rmiadflphlA), 




HON. WILLIAM JENNrNGS HRVAN. 

ClA'niUiig c,iiiJi<hili' litfofi; ilie Democratic Naiioiial Convention at 



THE NKW BRYAN. 

BY WILLIS j. AHBOT. 

COMEWHERE the other day I read the whether it is a new Hryan, or a newly awak- 
statement that the Br>an who will ened public coiiMience and public intellect, 
doubtless be nominated at Denver in a few with which we shall have to do in the cam- 
Jays is not intellectually or ethically the same pai^n of tln^ year. 
Brvan who carried the Chicago Convention ,... . 
or 1896 oft Its feet with his Cross of (jold 
and Crown of ITiorns " speech. Hiit the silver (pustion. There indeed is 

This assertion is only about half true. The a marked and matrrial change in the appar- 
Bryan of 1896 had youth and its fire. The ent attitude of the man. He no loneer 
Bryan of to-day has more maturit>', more preache^ silver. Mux he says ver> frankly 
knowledgf of the world, and more poise, that the need w hich was supposed to exist in 
But it is to be questioned whether there has i8<)() for a jireater volume of currency he- 
been so much change in Bnan as there has cause of the then existing: scarcity of |:old has 
been in the temper of the people to whom he been met, not as \Ne then would have met it 
made his appeal twelve years ajro, and to by coininir silver with iroKl at a fixed ratio, 
whom he is renewinjj practically the same ap- but by the discovery of new iroldtields, which 
pealy with the exception of one issue, to-day. have enormously increased the output of thiit 

The people who in 1896 could see in him metal, and added prodigiously to the world's 

nothing but a hot-bl<x)ded zealot have come stock of metallic money. 
to Uxik upon him as a serious and somewhat Inhere is no sixteen-to-one idea in the 

conservative public man, actuated perhaps Hryan mind to-day. 'l*here is no ap(dojr>' for 

moie than any one in public life by the hiiih- the dojrma of i8<)h, nor any attempt to revive 

est principles of ethics and of morals. Kut it. ^'et 1 am not so sure that even on this 

the change has not been in Bryan. Even in point Mr. Hryan has changed so much as the 

the bitter campaign which first made hin: a community to which he must make his appeal. 

great national figure, I, having known him We were told In those days that to continue 

rather intimately and having studied his char- coining; silver as money of ultimate redemp- 

acter for nearly four years before that cam- tion amounted to repudiation and dishonor. 

paigHs said that if Air. Bryan should be Hut as Mr. Hryan pointed out in conversa- 

cl e L t eJ he would disappoint his more radical tion with me only a few days a^o, the very 

s uppo rters and please the people in the Demo- public men who thou;jht it was perilous to 

cratic or any other party who wanted to see make dollars out of silver have now passed a 

a straightforward business administration currency law which will etiable the banks to 

conducted quietly, without seeking for dra- issue money ba>ed upon railroad boiuls, upon 

niatic effect, and not in any way directed for commercial securities, upon any asset which 

the OTCrthrow of honestly existing business a speculative bank cashier may take and 

insdtiitions.' The talk in that campiiign con- \\ hich an o\erburdeneil Secretary of the 

oemklg anarchism and repudiation was po- 'iVeasury may perfunctorily approve. 1 he 

liticd Duncombe altogether. No man could HrNam'te point of view, even to-«la> , with sil- 

he fardier then from anarchism than was Mr. ver no longer an issue, would doubtless be 

Bryan; none to-day believes more fully in the that a precious metal dui: out of the earth, 

ability of the law or the lawmaking bodies to piissessing the intrinsic value which any 

find a remedy for practically every political limTted product of labor nnist possess, and 

or economic ill, provided the lawmakers and havuig a special value for use in the arts, was 

the law expositors are responsive to the will at least as ^ood. a form of money as bank- 

of the people and alive to the people's needs, notes based <»n railroad bonils or upon the 

.\ man who holds views of that sort is as notes of specvdators or c.ijnains of finance. 
far removed from anarchism as the north H(»wever, as Ja^ ( lould once remarked, when 
p<de is from the south. Yet he held these the Krie printin;i presses were rjuuiiiiL: over- 
views in 1896 when the cry of anarchy was time. *' The American jvoj^lc iivc niiLrhf> prir- 
rai>ed. He holds them still. One wonders tial to bond.s." Sti!! it docs iua avwvw xV-w 



42 THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REyiElVS. 

on this point Mr. Bryan has changed as much world, has visited every one of our colonial 

as public sentiment has changed, though he possessions, and indeed is better equipped to 

has frankly, during the last six years, declared discuss the foreign relations of the United 

that the question of bimetallism had passed States and its colonial problems than any man 

out of the arena of political discussion. in public life. 

MODERATIONOF THE BRYAN DEMANDS IN '96. . P^ 7'7^'. ^ ''"°"' ""Y n\'"'u^* '^' 

joinder to this statement would be the men- 

When one looks back on that bitterly de- tion of the name of Secretary Taft. But the 
nounced Chicago platform of 1896 one w^on- difference between the studies of the two men 
ders why the denunciation was so fierce and is that Secretary Taft has traveled as an offi- 
how the public mind has changed so greatly cial, has gone about the Philippines, Panama, 
on the issues it announced. The Roosevelt and our other outlying possessions in some- 
of to-day is very much like the Bryan of '96; what of the state of a proconsul. He has 
for many of the demands made in that plat- been feted everywhere, and subordinate ofE- 
form have been accepted and some of them cials have had ample warning to prepare con- 
given legislative effect by the President, ditions so that they would meet with his ap- 
Many pl^ks in that platform were of im- proval. Mr. Bryan has gone merely as an 
mediate importance only, but most of those unofficial American citizen, eminent, no 
which were then fundamental remain funda- doubt, and wn'th a name known in all parts 
mental to-day, though there may still exist of the world. But for him there were no war- 
some difference of opinion upon them. ships to act as yachts, no saluting cannon, and 

What was known then as the attack upon no incentive on the part of any man to con- 

the Supreme Court has at the moment I am coal from him the facts which he set forth to 

writing this come up in a new form in Re- seek. 

publican councils, for the question as to And so the simple but not unsuccessful 

whether the Republican platform should con- country lawyer of Lincoln has since 1896 

tain a plank expressing unqualified confidence become one of the most widely traveled men 

in both the federal and the State courts re- living. But his new strength of to-day, — not 

ceived such general discussion both pro and his intellectual, but his political, — strength, is 

con as to indicate that even within the Re- derived rather from his travels within his 

publican ranks there is a very considerable own country than from those expeditions 

sentiment in opposition to the deification of which have taken him to the ends of the 

any and all men who might happen to be ap- earth. Ever since his first campaign Mr. 

pointed to the bench. Bryan, with the commendable purpose of pro- 

The old Bryan was not averse to criticis- viding for his family and advancing the cause 
ing a court, and while the new Bryan has had which he typifies and represents, has follow'ed 
less to say on that particular point, there is the business of a lecturer. In this honorable 
no reason to doubt his continued belief in the calling, in which, by the way, he was pre- 
views of the first campaign. ceded by such men as William Lloyd Gar- 

The income tax was an issue in 1896. Its rison, Henry Ward Beecher, James Russell 

principle has been accepted in many States Lowell, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, and is 

and approved by the President, though the joined to-day by such public men as Senator 

Supreme Court decision still blocks its en- Beveridge, Senator La Follette, Senator Till- 

actment into federal law. man, Representative Champ Clark, and for- 
mer Senator Dubois, he has not merely 
achieved a competence, but has been able to 

So it would be easy in discussing the chang- visit every nook and corner of these United 
ing conditions since the first Bryan campaign States of ours. The Bryan of 1896 knew 
to show that the people and the opposition Washington, for he had been an efficient 
party had come nearer going over to Bry9n- Congressman there. He knew the Mississippi 
ism than Bryan has come to deserting his Valley, for he had early taken an active in- 
early ideals. terest in the development of waterways, — ^to 

Yet he is a new man in many ways, which, by the way, the President is now com- 
When first nominated, barely beyond the mitted, — and had attended all the conven- 
constitutional age prescribed for a Presi- tions held to further that cause. But he had 
dent, he knew his own country, but none not traveled from Portland, Me., to Port- 
other. Since that time he has made frequent land. Ore. ; from Fernandina, Fla., to Santa 
trips abroad, has made one trip around the Barbara, Cal. He had not dropped into 



THE NEIV BRYAN. 48 

scores of small towns in every State and made Bryan has always owned his own home. In 

himself known to the millions of people who '96 it was an attractive and not too small a 

to-day flock to cheer him whether he preaches frame house within the town limits of Lin- 

on the ** Prince of Peace ** or delivers a coin. Some people then sneered at him be- 

political speech on the principles of Democ- cause he did not live in a style more beseem- 

raq*. The present-day Bryan is known to a ing a Presidential possibility. To-day they 

ir.illion men where the one who came some- sneer because, with advancinj^ years and as 

what nervously at first to that historic ros- the result of indomitable energy and the 

tnim in Chicago in 1896 was known to utilization of )iis mental power, he has built 

scarce a hundred. himself a beautiful house outside of the city 

Probably no man in the United States, not of Lincoln. In brief, while the first Bryan 

e\en the President himself, has so wide a was by no means a pauper, the new Bryan is 

personal acquaintance and so many followers prosperous, but his prosperity has been coined 

who are not merely loyal, but sometimes to from his own brain and is in no way depend- 

a degree fanatical as he. And this following ent upon speculation, investments, or legal 

has been built up without the aid of any retainers from trusts or monopolies. Such 

patronage, State or national ; with no offices prosperity as he has to-day comes fnjm hard 

to give, no favors to dispense. And that it is work on the lecture platform and from a 

a continuing following has been shown by the weekly newspaper which he founded and to 

way in which during the last year, or more which he gives all the attention which it is 

properly, during the last four months, the possible for a man continually traveling to 

prominent politicians of the Democratic devote. 

part) who are not wholly admirers of Mr. as editor and publisher. 
Brjan's attitude have been compelled by their 

constituents to concede to him delegation If Mr. Brjan cared more for money and 

after delegation, until his nomination now less for ethics than he does, the income which 

seems assured. he derives from his paper, the Commoner, 

w« «»^*^t'o «»^o^,,«t,^ might readily be tripled. His advertising 

MR. BRYAN S PROSPERITY. ^«„o,™ .« nu- -• i ^ 

manager in Chicago some time ago almost 
And there is, too, another difference be- wept as he told me of the obstacles which 
twecn the new Bryan and the old, though were put in his way when he attempted to 
this is a material and not a moral diflEerence. secure advertising. I am only guessing at it. 
But in 1896 Mr. Bryan went to Chicago un- but 1 think the circulation of the paper ex- 
heralded and unsung, not even provided with ceeds 200,000 copies weekly. Any journalist 
credentials to the convention which after- or publisher knows what might be done with 
ward nominated him, but merely at the head such a circulation. But the Commoner car- 
«f a contesting delegation. Many stories rics only a beggarly two or three columns of 
have been told after the fact of carefully laid advertising. The reason is that the owner 
plans for his nomination. There were no of the Commoner clings to the idea that its 
such plans. Governor Altgeld, who has been advertising columns are just exactly as much 
credited with arranging the coup which re- a part of the paper as its editorial columns, 
suited in the nomination, was, in fact, the last and that if he is responsible for the editorial 
'»f the strong leaders in the convention to *' we," he is equally responsible for any ad- 
yield to the demand for it. But this year the vertiscment which appears in the paper which 
new Br\an goes to the convention with two- secures its circulation through his national 
thirds of the delegates either instructed for prominence. 

him or personally devoted to his cause. This is not particularly an illustration of 

The Bryan of 1896 was ridiculed very un- the *' New Bryan." I thrashed that issue 

justly for his poverty; the Bryan of 1908 is over with him at least eight years ago. Then 

attacked very unjustly for his wealth. But 1 discussed with him the question of the re- 

I remember well that in '96, when some of sponsibility of the owner of a newspaper for 

tw assertions that he had been unable to the advertisements which appeared in its col- 

carn a living for himself in the practice of umns. He held then, as he holds now, the 

the law stung him somiiwhat, he showed me conviction that the advertising columns of a 

his account book for the first two vears of his newspaper should be kept clean of all an- 

practice as a stranger in Lincoln. The nouncements for which the owner would not 

records showed a rather singular success for personally stand. 

a young and almost unknown lawyer. Mr. There is nothing new in this attvtvxd^ oi> 



44 THE AMEklCAhJ kEyiElV OF kEl/IEiVS. 

the part of Brvan. From his vefy earliest take refuge from both, and my observation Is 

days in public fife he has insisted upon male- I^^^ most,-not all but most -of the contcn- 

.|.. ,. rr- 111 tions over the hne between nation and State are 

mg his private busmess affairs run parallel traceable to predatory corporations which are 

with his public utterances and beliefs. There trying to shield themselves from deserved pun- 
are men in public life who believe that they ishment. .)r endeavoring to prevent needed re- 
can sit in the United States Senate or the straining legislation. 

House of Representatives and represent all Within twenty-four hours the President 

the people while as attorneys they represent had adopted the metaphor of the " twilight 

a very few of the people who^e interests are zone," and it has passed equally into literature 

necessarily opposed to those of the many, and into politics. It is a more restrained 

Mr. Bryan is not one of this sort. He dis- phrase, more poetic possibly, than the Br>'an 

continued the practice of the law when he of 1896 might have used. At that time he 

went to Congress first, and has never re- would have been more likely to have said that 

sumed it. there was not a No Man's Land. But to him 

In these later days a sense of his responsi- advancing years and a more cosmopolitan 

bility to the millions of people in this country experience have brought also a literary taste 

who have put their trust in him, and who look which finds expression now in all his plat- 

upon him with an admiration amounting al- form utterances. 

most to idolatns has impelled him to give up ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ p^^^^^^^^ attitude. 
any sort or legal work, any kind ot personal 

activity which would withdraw him in any I remember well, and so too will most 
degree from the fight for the people in w^hich New Yorkers, the wonderful and impressive 
he has been enlisted. I know that Mr. parade of New York business men during the 
Bryan's entrance upon this campaign means 1896 campaign, which filled Broadway from 
to him a struggle, a task, which if he could the Battery to Forty-second Street, and which 
set it aside, he would not undertake. But was held as a protest against Bryan. The 
w^hile the Bryan of 1896 was a youth flushed new Bryan has been asked within the last few 
with ambition, eager to rush to the fore- months to address many of the associations 
front as he then did, the new Bryan is a man which then paraded, — associations of bank- 
not desiring so much the honors that are ers, of publishers, of manufacturers, — and has 
proffered to him, but rather feeling, with a found a hearty welcome* and a respectful 
solemn sense of responsibility, his duty to take hearing at all. 

up the battle for true Democratic principles I recall, too, — for in that '96 campaign I 

and to lead a party long out of power to was deeply interested, — the bitterness of the 

ultimate victory. financial community in Chicago against 

^, ,„ „ .«o r.^ ,.nnr^^.^,r ^,T,r„,T«,^ B rvan and all his works; but now he cannot 

TWELVE YEARS OF LITERARY CULTURE. - , , , , .' , ^ , . . .^j 

pass through the city without being invited 

The new Bryan is a vastly more intellec- by the bankers and the commercial men, who 

tual man than the one who stirred us twelve then excoriated him, to address their organi- 

years ago. His speeches now are character- zations. 

ized with a finer literary style than those of And, finally, I recall the somewhat bit- 
earlier days. Witness the little address made ter speech made by Theodore Roosevelt, then 
almost without preparation at the conference Police Commissioner of New York, at the 
of governors held in Washington a few weeks Coliseum in Chicago, in which he could say 
ago. One phrase used then has passed almost no words too harsh about the Bryan of 1896. 
into -a proverb. He was referring, somewhat When a short time ago Mr. Bryan's friends 
indirectly, to the device by which men who found him selected by President Roosevelt to 
represent what has come to be called preda- be one of the five unofficial citizens chosen, 
tory wealth evade punishment by going first because of their eminence, to advise with the 
from the federal courts to the State courts, governors of the United States, they thought 
or from the State courts to the federal courts, that whatever Mr. Bryan himself might 
Mr. Bryan said: think, at least the President and the Presi- 
There is no twilight zone between the nation ^^"^'s advisers and associates thought there 
and the State in which exploiting interests can was indeed a new Bryan. 



WHY M. FALLIERES IS AN IDEAL FRENCH 

PRESIDENT. 

BY ADOLPHE COHN. 

(Professor of Romance History and Languages. Columbia I'niversity.) 

T*HE Striking diflFerences that exist be- more general and also a ir.ore serious popu- 
twecn the Presidency of. the French larity than its still existing predecessor. The 
Republic and the Presidency of the United Russian alliance meant a chance, perhaps an 
States are perhaps never so glaringly visible almost sure chance, of victory in case of 
as when a French President sets out for a war; the English alliance meant a strong, 
journey out of his own country, and spends perhaps an overwhelming, chance of there 
a few days attending all sorts of social func- being no \^'ar at all ; and in France to-day 
tions and gala performances as the guest of it would be exceedingly difficult to find any 
a foreign court. To some Americans it advocate of a warlike policy. In France 
looks a little too much like playing at royalty, everybody is for peace: the business man, be- 
and these would strongly object to such a cause business is always for peace; the peas- 
magnifying of at least the spectacular side ant farmer, because he does not want his 
of the temporary office of President; at the fields devastated by the tread of hostile, nay 
same time they may be inclined to ask why, of friendly, armies ; the ** Chauvin " even, 
if the country can do without a President, because he does not know whether the new 
as it evidently does while the President thus army, composed of soldiers serving only two 
indulges in a big foreign junket, it should years with the colors, would be equal to the 
have a President at all. For it must be task involved now in a great continental 
remembered that the French constitution has war ; most of all the serious political leaders, 
no provision for a Vice-President to take divided upon so many points, yet united in 
the place of a disabled or absent President, this that they want a republican form of gov- 
And the fact is that for the regular dispatch emment to remain a permanency in France 
of business the Republic of -France can do and that they do not want the republican 
as well without as with its President. Office- establishment to have to stand the strain of 
seekers even are not disturbed, as they un- a war, not even perhaps of a victorious w'ar. 
doubtedly would be in the United States, 

U-.. ^ u- L IJ I -^ • kl I BENEFITS TO FRANCE OF THE UNDERSTAND- 

Dy an event which would make it impossible , „ , , ^,,„„, 

<A, »k^ - J - u .U • * ^^^. ING WITH ENGLAND AND RUSSIA. 

lor them to go and to have their protectors 

go with their applications to the fountain- An alliance with England, with Russia 

bead of official favors. The ministers, the perhaps drawn into it, means the disloca- 

members of the cabinet, are left to them; tion of the old Triple Alliance, for Italy 

that is all they want; for the President him- would never go to war against France and 

self they have no use whatever. England .combined. She might perhaps go 

PrtDiri.n . ^.,.» ^« ^..„o»^r,*.«„., «,^,T«o to war against France alone. But not a sin- 

roPULAR APPROVAL OF PRESIDENTIAL TOURS. i i ^ • i i • i j 

gle clement in the population would coun- 

TTic French public, therefore, was in no tcnance war against both, for every Italian 

^ay disturbed when it was announced that who is not friendly to France is friendly to 

President Fallieres was about to follow the England, and every Italian who is not 

example set by two of his predecessors, Pres- friendly to England is friendly to France, 

idcnt Faure and President Loubet, and that And as to Austria, before she can turn her 

"5 would begin his excursions abroad by a united forces against any foe she has first 

visit to King Edward VII. Quite the re- to decide whether she will be German, Slav, • 

verse: expressions of approval were heard or Magyar. The friends of peace in P^urope 

^fjywhere of a step that was likely to re- all feel that the only possibility of disturb- 

^^ina tigjitening of the bond now uniting ancc at the present time lies under the skull 

the people of France and England. Not so of one individual. Even this one is felt to 

sentimental, not so spectacular, as the Rus- be at bottom desirous of securing a continu- 

®^ alliance, the English alliance enjoys a ance of the blessings of peace, Wx \\^ \% ^^V 



THE AMERICAhi RE^/ElV OF REl^lElVS. 




to go off his head at times, and, should such 
an occurrence arise at a critical juncture, 
nothing but the fear of an overpowering 
combination of hostile forces will be able to 
bring him back to bis senses. This is the 
dose which is expt.'cted to be administered by 
• the new system of alliances. 

EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY IN FRANCE, 

In favor of this system, what could Presi- 
dent Fallieres In his recent trip to England 
do? Nothing but talk. But his word was 
the word of France. The word of the Min- 



ister of Foreign Affairs or of the Prime 
Minister would have been only the word o^ 
the administration. This may seem strange 
to Americans, accustomed as they are to link 
the word .l/lminhlration with the names of 
their Presidents, To a certain extent it 
might have seemed strange even to the 
French in the early times of their Third 
Republic. The present situation is the out- 
come of an evolution the true meaning of 
which began to be recognized only a few 
years ago. Formerly the Presidency of the 
republic was looked upon as the natural goal 




IVHY M. FALLIHRES IS AN IDF.AI. FRENCH PRESIDENT. 



which an ambitious politician iiouUl try tij 
rt-ach. Frpycinct, Jules Ferr>', Walileck- 
Kousstrau sought it, but in vain. Had Gam- 
bi^tra lived he, too, would have tried, and. 
vpr\ likely, succeeded. Neither, President 
Fallieres nor his immediate predecessor ran 
K- held to belonfr to the same class as those 
men, and yet the countrv- seems to be perfect- 
ly s.-iti?tficd with them and to have found in 
tlu*ni just the t>-pc of incumbent needed fur 
the Presidential office such as it has c<ime tn 
l>c d<-fined not only by the n institution ul 
1S7S but also by the political dcvel<i|iment 
t.l the country- since its enactment. 

THt CHAS'CE FROM FAIRK TO UIL'BET. 

.And yet. as oftep happens in history, th'- 
wh.de thing seems to have been a matter iii 
nn-re chance. The sudden and trap'c death 
tit Pre>:ident Faure, in l-'ebriiary, i8'w, when 
thr vnibers of the Dreyfus atnrtaiiration were 
still far from extinguished, threw the Re 
publicans of France into the wildest win- 
tiision. There was no time for deliberation, 
as the constitution insists upon an iiumediatc 
clcctiiin whenever the Presidential office be- 
cunie^ vacant. It was decided to resort I" 
the expedient nearest at hand. The presi- 
dency of the Senate is consideretl the second 
office, in the republic; its occupant, pjnile 
I,()ubet, would he promoted to the presidency 
i>f the republic. Whether he w<iuld he a 
mere stop-gap or a real President it was left 
for the future to determine. 

President I^iubet served his full term, to 
the countrj's evident satisfaction. Not only 
.iid his calm and judicial temper, already ex- 
hibited in the Senate Chamber, enable him 
admir.ibly to fulfill the few active duties im- 
pfsed npon the President by the c institution, 
but he developed an unexpected source of 
popularity, which served to ^ive a new mean- 
in:; to his hij;h office. He had been in fiir- 
[tirr years mayor of a small priivinctal town, 
Montilimar. and practically all the mayors 
of France (thev numbiT upward of is, mi') 
con-iderrd thnnsclves honored in his evalia- 
tion. When invited by the jriiverniuent to a 
mammolh h.imiuet in Paris, durinir the Kxlii- 
b.tioti 'if I'^io, they Hocked there in thoii- 
-andi ami thousands and gave the President, 
after his speech at the Kimpiet, an uniirece- 

'!ie fx-currcnif was the tot.il ohliteratiun nf 
all partv lines, at least within wli.it may he 
tailed the Republican persuasion. Tlunii-- 
f<irth Republicans of all shades beiian to feel 
that the)' were at luimr. as it weri-, with the 



President. He neither identified himself 
with niir antairnni/ed the c.ibinet's ptdicj". 
He was the ministers' friend and adviser, but 
no more than he was the friend and adviser 
of all the French patriots who were not 
tr\-in^ to pull the ship of st.ite back ii> its 
old monarchical moorincs. Within the Re- 
puhlicin ranks it was the cabinet's, not his, 
duty to follow a party |>olicv. Onh against 
the enemies of l-'rarue and the enemies of the 
republic had he to assume an nuitnde of de- 
cided condemnation. His succes-; wa. such 
that it left only two alternatives open \\lien 
his term came to an end : either his reelection 
or the ehrtioii of his siicirssor in the pri-si- 



■ Rep 



ut the repuMi, 
Kallim-s presi 



f thi- Senate. 

WHY M, F\[,l.jiRi:s W\S CHilSHK. 

tried man. He 



;i\t(-(ive lears of a;;e. He had sat liiurteen 
.ears in the fhaniher of l)epiitie> and sixteen 
,ear> in the Senate, the last seven of which 
IS its ).re.idin^' officer. Like lii^ pred.ressor, 
!ie )i^td been mau>r of a >ni:ill provincial 
ov.11. the i.iwn of Nvrac; like him, aUo, he 



THE MAN FALLIERES TO-DAY. 



48 THE AMERICAN RE^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 

had been a member of several cabinets and personal interest in him. They know that 
the head of one. He was, therefore, as con- every law-abiding citizen has a friend in the 
versant with public business as a man has to head of the state, and while they blame the 
be who is not allowed by the constitution to government for everything from the high tax- 
perform a single official act without the sig- ation or the costly foreign policy down to the 
nature of a cabinet officer, but upon whom state of the weather and the poor condition of 
devolves the delicate duty of selecting the the crops they will absolve the President from 
head of each new ministr>\- any responsibility in their misfortunes. 

The tradition is new established. The 

President must be the friend of the ministers "^"^ FRENCH republic a stable reality. 

of to-day, but he must acquit himself so that The writer of these lines can go back to a 
nothing will prevent his being the friend of time when one of the most frequently dis- 
the ministers of to-morrow. For the per- cussed subjects was whether it would be pos- 
formance of such duties no one could be bet- sible for the French people to live under a 
ter fitted by nature than the politician whom republican regime. *' Would," so the oppo- 
everybody, before his election to the Presi- nents of the republican solution argued, " the 
dency, somewhat irreverently but with gen- heads of the army ever have for a provincial 
uine sympathy called " le gros Fallieres." lawyer, or for any politician of the same kind, 

N_^ __^ the respect that must be felt for the head of 

the state? " They held for the theory of the 

Broad-shouldered, perhaps a trifle over- hereditary ruler, protected by several cen- 
stout, tipping the scales at certainly not less turies of illustrious ancestry, or for the 
than 200, rosy cheeked, with a big fat hand, theory of " the man on horseback." Go now 
and a deep, jovial voice, tuned on purpose to to the Elysce on the night of an official re- 
utter a hearty welcome to every visitor; slow ception and see the division and corps d'armee 
of gait, of course, but at the same time a hard commanders surround the President and 
proposition to others if they tried to move eagerly seek for an opportunity of engaging 
him from the stand he has taken, the Presi- him in private conversation. Better still, go 
dent of France is a living antithesis to the to Paris and on the Fourteenth of July fol- 
French Premier of to-day. Spare of build, low the crowds that gather around the Long- 
of nervous temperament, quick of motion, champs race-court made famous by one of 
considering lost every minute spent otherwise the Boulanger songs. Sec one regiment after 
than in fighting, Monsieur Clemenceau another pass the Presidential stand, and 
stands for party, and is not far from believ- decide whether any bejewcled hereditary uni- 
ing that there is no salvation outside of his form wearer presents a more impressive fig- 
own political church. President Fallieres ure than the civilian who presides over the 
knows that there are many mansions under destinies of the republic when returning the 
the blue sky of the republic. His Prime Min- salute of the armed force of the nation, 
ister may indulge as much as he wants in Years ago how impressively our royalist 
vicious thrusts at his opponents, whose blows, friends would declare it impossible for a 
moreover, he receives with a merry chuckle, French Republic to form any alliance with 
which it is impossible not to admire. These any of the old monarchies of Europe; how 
opponents may come to the Elysee Palace and they would dwell on the almost ridiculous 
be sure of being received WM'th the same hon- spectacle presented by Plain Mr. So-and-So 
est and good-natured smile that had congratu- hobnobbing with the wearers of century-old 
lated the Minister upon his new display of crowns. And now turn your eyes first to- 
his wonderfully witty vitality. ward I^ndon and watch the unmistakable 

Such is the kind of President that France cordiality of the greetings exchanged by the 
loves to have preside at the Elysee. He does two true gentlemen who> one by hereditary 
not wield the big stick ; he does not astonish right, the other by the choice of his country- 
the world by the kaleidoscopic changes of a men, head the governments of France and 
many-sided personality, and he does not England ; then toward Berlin, and see the 
preach moral sermons. But the people feel thoughtful look of the grandson of Emperor 
that he is one of them. To the educated he William I. and nephew- of King Edward 
is a lawyer of no mean acumen; to the masses VII. Then you may say whether the rc- 
a peasant farmer proud of the good condi- public has " made good," and you will cx- 
tions of his land in and around the modest actly understand the place of the French 
southern village cf Mazenc. They all feel a Presidency among its institutions. 



f 



THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, 

A Unique and Powerful Agency for thk Advancement 

OF Knowledge. 

BY HERBERT T. WADE. 

npO the great public the Carnegie Insti- experimenters. It is unnecessarj^ to say that 

tution of Washington is little more these ail require not only large capital out- 

than a name. Beyond the bare fact that it lay and funds for maintenance as well as 

was founded for the advancement of knowl- the co-operation of the workers in any given 

edge, the aims and purposes of this great department of science or knowledge, but 

organization, the objects for which its funds also in order to carry on the work econom- 

irc available, the methods by which those ically as regards both expense and eflEort a 

f\mds are expended, the special provinces thorough and efficient organization is es- 

of the domain of science in which its sential. 

operations arc conducted, arc matters quite The limitations in the material resources 
beyond the ken of the average newspaper- of the average scientist or scholar are usually 
reading American. By the scientific world, most obvious, and often prevent him from 
however, the Carnegie Institution is recog- carrying on work where costly experiment 
nized to-day as an important factor in the is essential or which must take him tempo- 
furtherance of scientific investigation and rarily from other pursuits. Government 
the general increase and dissemination of scientific work, which is as valuable as it is 
knowledge. While its work very largely extensive, must always be considered in some 
involves abstruse scientific subjects, yet it is practical connection for which a distinct re- 
also of the greatest practical value, and rep- turn, present or future, must result to the 
resents the results of modem methods of taxpayer from the use of the public funds, 
study and research carried on with a view Finally, the educational institution, where 
to die greatest possible efficiency. Indeed, naturally the greatest achievements in science 
the Carnegie Institution in science and let- have been scored, must properly and prima- 
tes represents modern business methods in so rily be considered as a place for instruction, 
far as they aim at co-operation, system, econ- and the activities of its teachers should cen- 
omy, and efficiency, though of course there ter on its students. It is for this object that 
is no attempt to stifle competition or to the greater part of the endowment has been 
supplant existing agencies for research and provided, and the research and investigation, 
study, as might be found in commercial life, which are now invariably carried on in such 
\Vhilc the scholar and investigator may institutions and are considered most impor- 
once have boasted of his freedom and inde- tant, are in essence outside interests. While 
pcndence and ascribed discoveries to unaided this statement may be open to dispute and 
and individual effort, it requires but little might not apply to individual institutions or 
thought to realize that such conditions have departments, yet it can be said that in few 
passed away, and while genius and intellec- American institutions are the members of 
tual attainments accomplish as much as ever the teaching staff able to carry on lines of 
*nd are no less appreciated and respected, investigation and research in a way and to 
yft It must be admitted that to-day the ad- an extent which they are convinced will 
vance of sdence and exact knowledge can lead to the considerable advance of knowl- 
^ secured in large part only through such edge in some particular field, 
^des as vast and special libraries and the In aiding individual workers of marked 
^cumulation of bibliographic data, by the ability the Carnegie Institution now fills 
'oigthy search of hidden archives, by expe- a great need. A university without stu- 
(iitions to distant or inaccessible regions, or dents, it is able to take up certain lines of 
k the construction of special laboratories or investigation or specific problems that seem 
experimental plants often with elaborate ap- to its trustees to promise results of impor- 
PJifatus and stafb of trained observers and tance, pay to the workers sufficient salaries 



50 THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REl/IEWS. 

to maintain them and to supply them with perience Dr. Woodward has been able 

suitable laboratories, proper instruments and place its different activities on a firm a 

apparatus, assistants, and other facilities. In practical basis, recommending to the trusts 

other words, the investigator is concerned the best. methods of establishing the van'c 

with no external cares or financial worries departments it had been decided* to fon 
or responsibilities during the time he is work- For the successful prosecution of tb^ 

ing on any project under the auspices of the work many of these departments rcquir 

Institution. His original plan is passed on individual laboratories, observatories, 

by the trustees and an appropriation is made other extensive facilities. It was realise 

after a careful consideration of the merits by the trustees that if a piece of scicntii 

and other aspects of the matter. This of work not carried on elsewhere was wor 

course applies to the more important divi- doing, it was worth doing thoroughly, ac 

sions of the work of the Institution, as in the policy of furnishing adequate appropri 

addition there are various and nunierous tions and the best material equipment w 

minor grants to individuals and under- adopted, and this after several years < 

takings. thorough test has proved most wise. Tl 

As the successful character of the work Carnegie Institution is in no way an eleemc 

done by the Carnegie Institution has been 3^ary organization, as its funds arc e 

due largely to its organization and adminis- pended with the definite purpose of securii 

tration, it is desirable to. explain the method direct results. It knows its means and i 

by which Mr. Carnegie's wishes arc carried stricts its wt)rk to what it can do effective 

out so satisfactorily to him and to the scien- and to what no other agency stands rea< 

tific world in general. In 1902, at the time to take up. The subjects for investigatii 

of the original gift of $io,ocx>,ocx> to found have been chosen with the greatest ca 

the work, a board of trustees was selected from the wide range of sdentific activi 

and the Carnegie Institution was incorpo- and endeavor. Whatever work is done, 

rated in the District of Columbia, Dr. Daniel far as can be determined in advance by coi 

C. Gilman, who then had but recently re- petent authority, must promise to result 

signed from the presidency of the Johns a distinct addition to human knowledge. 
Hopkins University, being made president. In carrying out the purposes' of the fov 

In 1904 the Carnegie Institution of Wash- datipn the work, aside from its administ 

ington was duly incorporated by Congress, tion and the disbursements for publicatii 

and this is now used as the corporate name is classified in the main under what 3 

of the organization. A general plan for its termed large grants and minor grants. T 

work was developed, and a beginning was large grants in many cases have involved 1 

made with some of the approved schemes, erection of special laboratory or observatc 

These involved, for the most part, grants to buildings or the provision of other facilit 

various investigators and enterprises. involving considerable outlay. The lai 

On the resignation of Dr. Gilman, in grants in 1907 varied from $10,000 assigr 

1904, Prof. Robert S. Woodward, dean of to Mr. Luther Burbank for horticultu 

the ifaculty of pure science and professor of studies, to several of about $100,000 ej 

mechanics and mathematical physics at Co- for work in geophysics, nutrition, and so 

lumbia University, was called to the presi- physics, as special buildings were erected : 

dency. Dr. Woodward possessed the great each of these departments. A brief sunmu 

advantage of an intimate knowledge of of the work done under each of the lai 

scientific work under the United States Gov- grants and the organization of the separ 

crnment, as he had been a member of the departments will doubtless afford the b 

United States Lake Survey, the United understanding of the activities of the Ini 

States Geological Survey, and the United tution. 

States Coast and Geodetic Survey before The Institution has its headquarters 

taking up academic work. In this way he Washington, and several of its most i 

was able to appreciate the conditions of the portant departments are located in that ci 

scientific work of the Government, especially but aside from its administration there is 

the advantages of its systematic organization consideration other than the specific needs 

and wide range, and also to realize the situ- a given department or research in cstabli 

ation as it existed in the American univer- ing it in any given locality. For purpo 

sities, colleges, and scientific schools. Com- of administration and the issue and ston 

ing to the Institution with this varied ex- of publications a special building is bd 



THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 




FKESIUCNT ROBERT 



wwnicted in Washington, but this will be 
a roodtst structure merely for these purposes, 
Md will not be used as a laboratory or home 
of investigation. It is a three-story struc- 
Wft of gray limestone and bluestone, dc- 
»gntd by Carrcre & Hastings, of New York. 
Il mjoj-s a pleasant loc&don on the south- 
**st corner of Sixteenth and P streets, N. 
"■, and in addition to providing facilities 
lor tbe administration of the Institution will 
(^tain committee-rooms and an auditorium 
fc( scientific lectures. 

SrUDVlNG PLANT UFB IN THE DESERT. 

Sdected c^tccially with a view to' its 
Vecific use is the site of the Desert Botan- 



ical Laboratory at Tumamoc Hill, near 
Tucson, Ariz. This institution is interesting 
as being the only one of its kind, and early in 
the work of the Carnegie Institution its es- 
tablishment was urged by American botanists 
who painted out the many valuable results 
likely to be obtained from such a laboratory. 
There are many botanical laboratories and 
gardens in the humid portions of the tem- 
perate regions, as well as marine and tropical 
laboratories devoted in whole or in part to 
botanical research, but the location of such 
an institution in a desert region was never 
before attempted. It is possible, even for 
the layman, to realize that the adaptation of 
plants to desert conditions must present phe- 



68 



THE AMERICAN RE^/Eiy OF REf^lElVS. . 



nomenii that are amonc tht mast interesting 
and significant from the standpoint of evo- 
lution in the whole realm of botany, while 
of a distinctly practical nature is the infor- 
mation to he gained relative to the availabil- 
ity of the great arid regions of the West for 
special or even general agriculture, either 
with or without irrigation. The chief con- 
cern of this laboratory is to study the condi- 
tions of development, growth, distribution, 
migratiun, and variation of desert plants, 
and to earn- on investigations that are for 
the most part too general in their nature for 
an agricultural experiment station, or so ex- 
pensive and difficult that they are beyond 
its facilities in the way of equipment and 
staff. Once, however, the underlying knowl- 
edge has been derived by the botanists of the 
Institution, the data will be available for the 
agriculturalists and economic botanists to 
test and apply, so that from the desert lab- 
oratory and the experiment stations of the 
West great economic benefits should result. 
The station was first located at Tucson 
in 1902 and conducted in a small way under 
the direction of a non-resident committee, but 
so important was the work considered that 
its scope was enlarged, and it now forms a 
special department of the Institution under 
the direction of Dr. D. T. MacDougal, 
formerly of the New ^'ork Botanical Gar- 
den. The site was acquired through the 
interest of the citizens of Tucson and the 



Territorial authorities, and consists: of soim 
860 acres, with suitable laboratory buQdinp, 
greenhouse, etc There are various eardeu 
and plantations, including one whi^ll ii 
irrigated, while nearby on the Santa Cu- 
lina Mountains are maintained Alpine plpt- 
tations at altitudes of 6000 and 8ooo-:i|CL 
These different points en^le the botaa||b 
not only to study the occurrence and diK^ 
bution of various forms of floia, but to a- 
change the plants and perform ath^r experi- 
ments to ascertain the effects of climate and 
other physical conditions. The scientiSc 
work includes not only the study of the vast 
wealth of flora of the desert reg;ion but also 
problems of a broader biological interest 
dealing with such matters as heredity, hy- 
bridization, and the production of new va- 
rieties, by the experimental study of pedi- 
greed plants. 

Scientific appreciation of the work of the 
department is evident from the fact that the 
edition of a publication descriptive of the 
North American deserts prepared by Messrs. 
Coville and MacDougal was soon exhausted, 
and the demand for it has been so great as 
to warrant provision for its republication 
with more recent data. As indicating how a 
well -organized scientific department of this 
kind is able to investigate extraordinary phe- 
nomena, mention may be made of the Salton 
Sea, a lake formed by the inflow of the 
Colorado River into a depressed basin in 





■ "■. ■ ■ 1 




Knis^^Hj^y 




l^^^^S^^f^^^^' ^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 



isafsssb. 




(TrtnttriBl HaiMtlm.) (MouDt WIlRon fiAlar Obapn 



DIXBCTOHS OF Da'ARTMUNTS, THE CARNEGIE lNSTnUT\0>». 



64 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiEU^S. 



southern California. As this basin is below 
the sea level and will gradually be drained 
or evaporated, there will be a gradual un- 
covering of the land and an opportunity for 
the development of plant life on a large 
scale under somewhat extraordinary condi- 
tions on a certain form of soil. For some 
time the botanists of the Desert Laboratory 
have been making careful examintaions of 
the shores of the lake and their observations 
are of no small amount of interest. 

LEARNING THE FACTS OF HEREDITY. 

The Department of Experimental Evolu- 
tion is actively engaged in studying the 
problems of heredity in plants and animals. 
Al Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, 
N. Y., is maintained a biological laboratory 
which includes a (arm with greenhouses 
and stables for the plants and animals under 
observation. Here systematic breeding of 
various plants and animals is carried on 
and a certain number of strains whose 
progress can be watched and controlled have 
been started. An attempt is being made to 
determine by direct observation and experi- 
ment the characteristic relations, or laws, 
manifested in the complicated process of evo- 
lution in plants and animals. To the phe- 
nomena of heredit}', hybridization, 



etc., are applied essentially the same quanti- 
tative methods that an astronomer would u« 
in his study of the stars, or a chemist in hii 
determination or analysis of an inorganic 
substance. 

In many cases there are difEerences of 
opinion between practical breeders and sonx 
scientific investigators, iind a demonstmion 
under observation will spr\'c to clear up S» 
puted points. The situation of the l^n- 
tory is most suitable for just such wort 
The animals have pleasant pastures and 
houses, the gardens and greenhouses are m- 
plcfor the plants, while both fresh and ssdf 
water border on the property. Nearby i- 
the biological station of^the Brooklyn InMi 
tute, where many students spend their sum- 
mers working on biological problems, whik 
the proximity of Cold Spring Harbor to 
New ^'ork City makes it accessible for many 
visiting scientists from Europe, as for ex- 
ample. Prof. Hugo De Vries, who was pres- 
ent and delivered an address on the occasion 
of the formal opening tn 1904. In this con- 
nection mention might be mode of work 
done in connection with the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden, whose library and facilid& 
can be employed by the investigators, not to 
mention those of the varimu educational in- 
stitutions and libraries in and near New 




NEW YORK. 




The investigations of this depart- 
aturally arc arranged to spread over 
rabic periods of time, depending on 
xding of the various plants and ani- 
nit systematic and periodical reports 

various investigations are published 
to any discoveries of interest that arc 
It out in the course of the work. The 
•T and chief investigator is Dr. Charles 
ivenport, who previously held a pro- 
ihip of zoology in the University of 
SO. 

MARINE BIOLOGICAI. WORK. 

3thcr instance of a location specially 
^ to the particular scientific inquiry- in 
» the Marine Biological Laboratory 
Igtagfa, on an island off the Florida 
^JXcre the water is very pure, and the 
k'j} WO isolated that there is no jnter- 
^jhom local flihcries, while in addl- 
B ii an abundance of animal life and 
C healthy for a tropical lo- 
^O.^iit laboratory, which is under 
' a of Prof. Alfred G. Mayer, va- 
I from different parts of the 
mrittd during die spring and sum- 



m leading American universities 
and museums, each of whom ivas specially 
selected and invited for his interest in some 
specific problem and for his skill as an in- 
vestigator. The results of several seasons' 
work have been a series of most valuable 
monographs, now in course of publication, 
which already have given considerable repu- 
tation to the department. During the sum- 
mer season, when the work is carried on, the 
investigators are housed in portable houses, 
and when not at sea are able to carry on 
laboratory research in the tropics under most 
favorable conditions. 



In no phase of practical horticulture has 
more interest, both general and scientific, 
been aroused than in the wonderful work of 
Mr. Luther Burbank in improving various 
fruits and flowers and breeding new varie- 
ties. It was but natural that the Carnegie 
Institution should further this work in 
every way in its power, and accordingly Mr. 
Burbank has been the recipient of a grant 
of $10,000 a year to aid him in original and 



Wi 



64 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REf^/ElVS. 



southern California. As this basin is below 
the sea level and will gradually be drained 
or evaporated, there will be a gradual un- 
covering of the land and an opportunity for 
the development of plant life on a large 
scale under somewhat extraordinaiy condi- 
tions on a certain form of soil. For some 
time the botanists of the Desert Laboratory 
have been making careful examintaions of 
the shores of the lake and their observations 
are of no small amount of interest. 

LEARNING THE FACTS OF HEREDITY. 

The Department of Experimental Evolu- 
tion is actively engaged in studying the 
problems of heredity in plants and animals. 
Al Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, 
N. Y., is maintained a biological laboratory 
which includes a farm with greenhouses 
and stables for the plants and animals under 
observation. Here systematic breeding of 
various plants and animals is carried on 
and a certain number of strains whose 
progress can be watched and controlled have 
been started. An attempt is being made to 
determine by direct observation and experi- 
ment the characteristic relations, or laws, 
manifested in the complicated process of evo- 
lution in plants and animals. To the phe- 
nomena of heredity, hybridization, mutation. 



etc., are applied essentially the same quanti- 
tative methods that an astronomer would uv 
in his study of the stars, or a chemist in hit 
determination or analysis of an inorganic 
substance. 

In many cases there are differences of 
opinion between practical breeders and MfDC 
scientific investigators, and a demonstnttno 
under observation will serve to clear up St 
puted points. The situation of tbr lab(R» 
tory is most suitable for just such wott ' 
The animals liavc pleasant pastures and 
houses, the gardens and greenhouses are am- 
ple for the plants, while both fresh and sdl 
water border on the properly. Nearby it 
the biological station of_ the Brooklyn Insti- 
tute, where many students spend their sum- 
mers working on biological problems, while 
the proximity of Cold Spring Harbor to 
New 'i'ork City makes it accessible for many 
visiting scientists from Europe, as for ex- 
ample. Prof, Hugo De Vries, who was pres- 
ent and delivered an address on the occasioo 
of the formal opening in 1904. In this con- 
nection mention might be made of work 
done in connection with the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden, whose library and fadlitie* 
can be employed by the investigators, not to 
mention those of the varioui educational in- 
stitutions and libraries in and near New 




NEW YORK. 




The investigations of this depart- 
Uturally are arranged to spread over 
arable periods of time, depending on 
ceding o{ the various plants and ani- 
but systematic and periodical reports 
: various investigations are published 
iso any discoveries of interest that are 
tit out in the course of the work. The 
>r and diief investigator is Dr. Charles 
Bvenport, who previously held a pro- 
ship of zoology in the University of 
go. 

MARINE BIOLOGICAL WORK. 

Other instance of a location specially 
ed to the particular scientific inquiry in 
» the Marine Biological Laboratorv' 
Oftegvs, on an island off the Florida 
j^JIere the water is very pure, and the 
'■il'J^ M) isolated that there is no inter- 
'Hmm local fliheries, while in addi- 
|e ii an Sundance of animal life and 
t healthy for a tropical lo- 
hit hibaratory, which is under 
of Prof. Alfred G. Mayer, va- 
I from different parts of the 
nited during the firing and sum- 



in leading American universities 
and museums, each of whom was speciallv 
selected and invited for his interest in some 
specific problem and for his sltill as an in- 
vestigator. The results of several seasons' 
work have been a series of most valuable 
monographs, now in course of publication, 
which already have given considerable repu- 
tation to the department. During the sum- 
mer season, when the work is carried on. the 
investigators are housed in portable houses, 
and when not at sea are able to carry on 
laboratory- research in the tropics under most 
favorable conditions. 



In no phase of practical horticulture has 
more interest, both general and scientific, 
been aroused than in the wonderful work of 
Mr, Luther Burbank in improving various 
fruits and flowers and breeding new varie- 
ties. It was but natural that the Carnegie 
Institution should further this work in 
even,' way in its power, and accordingly Mr. 
Burbank has been the recipient of a grant 
of $10,000 a year to aid him in original and 



i 



i 



64 



THE AMERICAN REt^lEW OF REt^/ElVS. 



southern California. As this basin is below etc., are applied essentially the same quami-^ 

the sea level and will gradually be drained tative methods that an astronomer would me I 

or evaporated, there will be a gradual un- in his study of the stars, or a chemist btMt ] 

covering of the land and an opportunity for determination or analysis of an inorgimc 

the development of plant life on a large substance. 

scale under somewhat extraordinary condi- In many cases there arc differences <A 

tions on a certain form of soil. For some opinion between practical breeders and some 

time the botanists of the Desert Laboratory scientific investigators, and a demonstratioii 

have heen making careful examintaions of under observation will serve to clear up di» 

the shores of the lake and their observations puted paints. The situation of the labora- 

are of no small amount of interest, tory is most suitable for juat such Wjwi 

lEARXmO THE FACT5 OF H.RBDITV. J^' "™"'' ^"^ ?'«»»«?«■•"» >»l 
houses, the gardens and greenhouses are m- 
Thc Department of Experimental Evolu- picfor the plants, while both fresh and sdt 
tion is actively engaged in studying the water border on the property. Nearbf ■ 
problems of heredity tn plants and animals, the biological station of^the Brooklyn Initi- 
At Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, tute, where many students spend their am- 
N. Y., is maintained a biological laboratory mers working on biological problems, while 
which includes a farm with greenhouses the proximity of Cold Spring Harbor to 
and stables for the plants and animals under New ^'ork City makes it accessible for many 
observation. Here systematic breeding of visiting scientists from Europe, as for ex- 
various plants and animals is carried on ample, Prof. Hugo De Vrics, who was pres- 
and a certain number of strains whose ent and delivered an address on the occasioo 
progress can be watched and controlled have of the formal opening in 1904. In this con- 
been started. An attempt is being made to nection mention might be made of work 



determine by direct observation and experi- 
ment the characteristic relations, or laws, 
manifested in the complicated process of evo- 
lution in plants and animals. To the phe- 
nomena of heredit\-, hybridization, mutation, 



connection with the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden, whose library and faciliti& 
can be employed by the investigators, not to 
mention those of the varioui educational in- 
stitutions and libraries in and near New 




The investigations of this depart- 
aturally are arranged to spread over 
Table periods of time, depending on 
nding of the various plants and ant- 
but sj-stematic and periodical reports 

various investigations are published 
so any discoveries of interest that arc 
jt out in the course of the work. The 
>r and chief investigator is Dr. Charles 
ivenport, who previously beM a pro- 
ihip of zoolc^y in the University of 

MARINE BIOLOGICAL WORK. 

Other instance of a location specially 
ed to the particular scientific inquiry in 
S the Marine Biological Laboratory 
Bctusas, on an island off the Florida 
I^Hcn the water is very pure, and the 
|[''J|| so isolated that there is no inter- 
''^om local fisheries, while in addi- 
e b an dnindance'of animal life and 
t healthy for a tropical lo- 
k.thi's laboratory, which is under 
B of Prof. Alfred G. Mayer, va- 
m different parts of the 
nritcd duriiiK the spring and sum- 



summer from leading American universities 
and museums, each of whom was speciallv 
selected and invited for his interest in some 
specific problem and for his skill as an in- 
vestigator. The results of several seasons' 
work have been a series of most valuable 
monographs, now in course of publication, 
which already have given considerable repu- 
tation to the department. During the sum- 
mer season, when the work is carried on, the 
investigators are housed in portable houses. 
and when not at sea arc able to carry on 
laborator\' research in the tropics under most 
favorable conditions. 



In no phase of practical horticulture has 
more interest, both general and scientific, 
been aroused than in the wonderful work of 
Mr, Luther Burbank in improving various 
fruits and flowers and breeding new varie- 
ties. It was but natural that the Carnegie 
Institution should further this work in 
everv' way in its power, and accordingly Mr. 
Burbank has been the recipient of a grant 
of $10,000 a year to aid him in original and 



I 



« 



64 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IElt^S. 



southern California. As this basin is below 
the sea level and will gradually be drained 
or evaporated, there will be a gradual un- 
covering of the land and an opportunity for 
the development of plant life on a large 
scale under somewhat extraordinary condi- 
tions on a certain form of soil. For some 
time the botanists of the Desert Laboratory 
have been making careful examintaions of 
the shores of the lake and their observations 
are of no small amount of interest. 

LEARNING THE FACTS OF HEREDITY. 

The Department of Experimental Evolu- 
tion is actively engaged in studying the 
problems of heredit}' in plants and animals. 
At Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, 
N. Y., is maintained a biological laboratory 
which includes a farm with greenhouses 
and stables for the plants and animals under 
observation. Here systematic breeding of 
various plants and animals is carried on 
and a certain number of strains whose 
progress can be watched and controlled have 
been started. An attempt is being made to 
determine by direct observation and experi- 
ment the characteristic relations, or laws, 
manifested in the complicated process of evo- 
lution in plants and animals. To the phe- 
nomena of heredity, hybridization, mutation, 



etc., are applied essentially the same quimi- 
tative methods that an astronomer would ue 
in his study of the stars, or a chemist in^hit 
determination or analysis of an inor^imc 
substance. 

In many cases there arc differences of 
opinion between practical breeders and sonx 
scientific investigators, and a demonstration 
under observation will serve to clear up d!» 
puted points. The situation of the labora- 
tory is most suitable for just such woti 
The animals have pleasant pastures isd 
houses, the gardens and greenhouses are am- 
ple for the pfants, while both fresh uid irit 
water border on the property. Nearly ii 
the biological station of^ the Brooklyn Insti- 
tute, where many students spend their sum- 
mers working on biological problems, while 
the proximity of Cold Spring Harbor to 
New York City makes it accessible for many 
visiting scientists from Europe, as for ex- 
ample. Prof. Hugo De Vries, who was prei- 
ent and delivered an address on the occastoo 
of the formal opening in 1904. In this con- 
nection mention might be made of work 
done in connection with the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden, whose library and faciliti& 
can be employed by the investigators, not to 
mention those of the various educational in- 
stitutions and libraries in and near New 




.S'EW YORK. 




The investigations of this depart- 
Uurally arc arranged to spread over 
rable periods of time, depending on 
«d!ng of the various plants and ani- 
nit systematic and periodical reports 

various investigations are published 
» any discoveries of interest that arc 
it out in the course of the work. The 
T and chief investigator is Dr. Charles 
[vcnport, who previously held a pro- 
hip of zoology in the University of 
p. 

MARINE BIOLOGICAL WORK. 

ather instance of a location specially 
•d tt> the particular scientific inquir>- in 
is the Marine Biological Laborator>- 
■tilgas, on an island off the Florida 
* Here the water is very pure, and the 
■rj^. lo isolated that there is no inter- 
Ttoat local fisheries, while tn addi- 
e n an abundance of animal life and 
i is moit healthy for a tropical lo- 
~k dus laboratory, which is under 
1 of Prof. Alfred G. Mayer, va- 
I from different parts of the 
1 durins the spring and sum- 



summer from leading American universities 
and museums, each of whom was specially 
selected and invited for his interest in some 
specific problem and for his skill as an in- 
vestigator. The results of several seasons' 
work have been a series of most valuable 
monographs, now in course of publication, 
which already have given considerable repu- 
tation to the department. During the sum- 
mer season, when the work is carried on, the 
investi^tors are housed in portable houses, 
and when not at sea are able to carry on 
laboratory research in the tropics under most 
favorable conditions. 



In no phase of practical horticulture has 
more interest, both i^eneral and scientific, 
been aroused than in the wonderfid work of 
Mr. Luther Burbank in improving various 
fruits and flowers and breeding new varte- ' 
ties. It M'as but natural that the Carnegie 
Institution should further this work in 
evcr>' way in its power, and accordingly Mr. 
Burbank has been the recipient of a grant 
of $10,000 a year to aid him in origind and 



i 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^fEfVS. 



there is required considerable appai 
producing extreme temperatures ai 
sures, and much experimental resea 
other words the purpose of a g^ophy: 
oratory is to supply a firm scientific 
tion for the study of the past hisi 
present condition of the earth. Alo 
lines considerable isolated work h 
done both by workers in the Unite 
Geological Survey in its division i 
ical and physical research, and in ir 
and university laboratories in Eui 
America, but there was no singjc int 
lai^ resources devoted to geoph}-s 
such a liUwratory was determined o 
Carnegie Institution of Washing;tc 
cordingly the Institution, while at i 
Viding for work to be done in the la 
of the United States Geological S 
Washington by Dr. George F. Bei 
Dr. Arthur L. Day, and by Prof. I 
Ailams at McGill University, Mont 
termined to erect a special labor. 
Washington, and this building, whi 
cated on an isolated hill in the subu 
completed and occupied last year. 
near the National Bureau of Standa 
is a brick structure of three stories 
with its equipment about $150,0 
complete Is the laboratory that not 
the geophysical work of the Institutii 
the direction of Dr. Arthur L. C 
efficiently carried on, but assistanci 
dered to Dr. George F. Becker of tb 
States Geological Sun'cy in his n 
on the elasticity and plasticity of r< 
minerals. 

TERRESTRIAr. MACNETiSM, 

Another scientific department of 
ncgie Institution and one that has t 
some popular as well as much sctet 
probation is the department of Res 
Terrestrial Magnetism. While thi; 
ment, of which Dr. L, A, Baue 
director, has its headquarters in V 
ton, yet its principal laboratory ha; 
sailing vessel, in which since 1903 1 
observations have been made over 
part of the Pacific Ocean. These h 
reduced and forwarded to Was 
where they have been computed, 
results obtained and turned over to 
drographic Office of the United Stal 
have made possible a new magnet 
which contains far more accurate 1 
information about the Pacific Oo 
supplants charts where the magneti 




DIRECTOR BAUER MAKING TRIAL MAGNETIC 
OBSERVATIONS ON SHIPBOARD. 

(HorlEODtal force Initrument devlsml b; the Depart- 
ment at TerreBtrlBl Magaetlsm.) 

INVESTIGATING THE EARTH 's PROBLEMS. 

Just as the study of the evolution of plant 
and animal life affords wide scope to the 
activities of the naturalist, so the study of 
the earth presents many problems to the 
geologist. Many of these involve the appli- 
cation of pure physics and pure chemistrj" to 
the study of data supplied by geology, and 
accordingly with that specialization charac- 
teristic of modern science there has sprung 
up a science to which the name of geophysics 
has been applied. 

The problems of the earth involve large 
masses and large epochs of time, so that 
the experimental work has to be performed 
under special conditions. Thus in studying 
such subjects as the heat of the earth, the 
action of air and water on minerals, the solu- 
tion of minerals, the conditions under which 
they tend to combine, and the flow of rocks, 
— to mention only a few of the problems, — 



THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF W^ASHINGTON, 



67 



often were so inaccurate as to inv<dvc posi- 
tive danger to the mariner. In addition, 
mignnic suTveys of land areas in distant and 
inaccessible places have been carried on, 
whQe a beginning has been made of a mag- 
netic survey of Africa. This department 
aim! at i complete magnetic wirvcy of the 
earth and the co-ordination of the magnetic 
data obtained through various agencies into 
a miss of information for the use of students 
o( magnetism.* With this work is coupled 
also research in atmospheric electricity, the 
mapietic observere while at sea making ob- 
servations of the latter phenomena also. 

ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH. 

Tbe extent of tcrritorj' that Professor 
Woodward has to cover in his inspection of 
the yarious laboratories and observatories of 
tbe Carnegie Institution can be appreciated, 
when He pass itom Dry Tortugas to Albany, 
N. Y., ivhich is the headquarters of the 
Department of Meridian Astrometry. This 
Torl, which is under the direction of Dr. 
Lewis Boss, of the Dudley Observatory, 
involm the measurement and determining 
tbe positions of the stars in the heavens. 
A catalogue is being prepared of the posi- 
'om of all stars from the brightest to those 
of tbe seventh magnitude. The first stage 
in this work was the recent completion of 
a preliminary catalogue of star positions, 
containing the positions of over 6000 stars. 
While much astronomical work has been 
dooein the Northern Hemisphere, the South- 
era has been proportionately neglected, 
•Hough the few observatories in this part 
of the world are conspicu- 
ous for the quantity and 
qualit)- of their work. But 
» nn be seen readily, the 
number of observations to 
determine the motii 
positions of stars . 
Somheni Hemisphei 
been much smallei 
Wfdingly the I 
Praposes to send to South 
America and install in 3 
lemporarj' observatory the 
telescope, or rather the me- 
"diininstrument, which has 
been used at Albany and 
whose characteristics are so 



well known to the observers. With this in- 
strtiment a series of observations will be made 
and they will be reduced and added to the 
catalogue now being compiled. While the 
publication of a vast amount of astronomical 
data and calculation does not seem a work 
susceptible of arousing wide interest, yet it 
is a matter of considerable importance for its 
bearing not only on astronomical science, but 
on navigation, geography, and geodesy, where 
accurate determination of a point on the 
earth's surface must be made by observations 
of celestial bodies. Furthermore, the ma- 
terial that is being collected is most valuable 
in the study of stellar motion and for the 
working astronomer in his study and survey 
of the heavens. 

OBSERVING THE SUN FROM MT. WILSON. 

Astronomical observatories from their or- 
ganization and equipment or the tendencies 
of their directors often become famous for 
some particular line of work and it is usual- 
ly aloi^ these lines that their activities are 
developed. It was the conviction of astron- 
omers that an observatory devoted essentially 
to the study of the sun would furnish valu- 
able and interesting results, that induced the 
Carnegie Institution to provide for such 
work. The direction of the undertaking 
was placed in the hands of Prof. George E. 
Hale, formerly of the Yerkes Observatory 
of the University of Chicago, and after a 
careful examination of possible sites it was 
decided to erect the observatory on the sum- 
mit of Mt. Wilson, California, at an elevation 
of about 6000 feet, and eight miles in a direct 



the 

has 

md ac- 



'*f article on "The Mag 
■Wc W«t of tbe Cmniein* Id- 
««lt«ti«B." BniKW or HxviBws 
foTlbceli. IMS. 






THE /AMERICAN REP^/EtV OF REVIEWS. 




VERTICAL COELOSTAT OH 



SOLAR OBSEkVATOHV. 

line from Pasadena and east of Los Angeles. 
The Mt. Wilson atmosphere is of high qual- 
ity for both stellar and solar work, and the 
rainy season affords but slight interniption to 
the observations and photography. The va- 
rious buildings necessary for the instmments 
and the observers have been erected at the top 
of the mountain, to which it was necessary 
to construct a special road for wagons and 
a motor truck to carry the instruments. The 
Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory, it must be 
remembered, is not a permanent general as- 
tronomical observatory, but has been de- 
signed and erected specially to attack certain 
problems. The sun, which it is proposed to 
Study, is a star, and it happens to be a star 
sufficiently near the earth to permit of a 
study being made of its physical constitution. 
As the next nearest star is almost 300,000 
times more distant than the sun the reason 
for the study of our main luminary is ap- 
parent. 

The sun is now almost constantly under 
observation from various parts of the earth, 
and astronomers under a national agreement 
are recording by photography its appearance 
and its spectrum. Thus at Mt. Wilson 
daily observations arc being made with the 
photoh el io graph and the spectroheliograph, 
and the negatives are being measured and 
studied by the observatory staff. It must 
be borne in mind that modern spectroscopic 
work must be done in special laboratories 
where the instruments are mounted on mas- 



MOL'KT WILSON 



sive piers to avoid .vibration 
and elaborate precautions 
must be taken to keep the ap- 
paratus at a constant temper- 
ature. Accordingly in the 
main spectroscopic telescope 
we have the tube mounted 
horizontally in a north and 
south direction and a plane 
mirror driven by clockwork 
used to reflect the light to the 
lens. One special aim of the 
observatorj' is to study by re- 
flecting telescopes of lai^ 
size problems that previously 
have been considered in the 
light of observations made by 
refractors. With a large le— 
flector not only is ther* 
greater illumination but ther^ 
is no loss by chromatic ab — 
erration, and consequently 
these instruments are esped^ 
ally adapted to study the 
problems of stellar evolution. The work of 
the Mt. Wilson observatory can be sum- 
marized as dealing with three great problems: 
the study of solar radiation, the study of the 
constitution of the sun, and the problem of 
the evolution of stars from nebuls. Not 
yet erected are the 60 and lOO inch re- 
flecting telescopes which are to be perhaps 
the most important parts of the instrumental 
equipment. 



When a few years ago the late Prof. W. 
O. Atii-atcr began his interesting experi- 
ments with the calorimeter and human sub- 
jects in order to ascertain the amount of 
energy that was derived from food of various 
kinds, it was realized that a field of investi- 
gation of great importance had been opened 
up, but at the same time one that required a 
large amount of patient and laborious re- 
search and analysis. This work carried on 
in the chemical laboratory of Wesleyan Uni- 
versity received some aid from the United 
States Department of Agriculture, but its 
possibilities appeared so great that it com- 
mended itself to the Carnegie Institution, 
and for several years It has received sub- 
stantial support from that organization. It 
was determined to establish a nutrition lab- 
oratory in a special building designed for 
this purpose. In order to study nutrition 
problems from as many sides as possible, it 



til 

CI 

C? 

Z 
rr 



r//£ CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. . 59 

was essential that the proposed laboratory dent of any particular epoch or event can 
should be near a hospital, and accordingly it determine the material available in various 
was located in Boston near the new Harvard archives, its nature and its location, without 
University Medical School, on land pur- spending valuable time in the examination 
chased from the Harvard G}rporation. The of State documents and other collections, 
building, which has recently been completed, Nor is only material in the United States 
represents, with the ground on which it included in these catalogues, for several oc- 
stands, an outlay of about $100,000, in addi- tavo volumes dealing with foreign archives 
tion to the apparatus which is now being in- have been prepared, and the archives of 
stalled. The nature of the experiments in- France and Mexico are being canvassed for 
volves the confinement of a person in a calo- available material. Particularly important 
rimetcr or enclosed compartment for a given work also has been done in cataloguing the 
period and measuring the carbon dioxide, various archives of Great Britain, 
water vapor, and heat given ofl by the sub- The Department of Historical Research 
ject, as well as the food consumed and the has also made considerable progress in ar- 
naturc of the resulting products. All of this ranging for publication various American 
represents a vast amount of chemical analy- manuscript documents, such as the letters* ot 
sis, but the results are most practical and delegates to the Old Congress, 1 774-1789, 
helpful. Prof. F. G. Benedict, who is the and arranging for or assisting in the publi- 
director of the nutrition laboratory, has re- cation of various British parliamentary and 
cently applied the calorimetric method to other records. Evidence of the close con- 
pathological as well as normal subjects and nection maintained by the Department of 
hb investigations promise to aid materially Historical Research of the Carnegie Institu- 
medical science. His tests with men can be tion with American historians generally is 
I likened to the efficiency test of a power plant shown by the fact that the American His- 
where fuel supplied and its cost are com- torical Review is edited by Prof. J. Franklin 
pared with the power produced. In other Jameson, director of the department, and 
words, the mechanical efficiency of the hu- by the great assistance furnished various 
man organism is determined and the food or historical societies and individuals in ascer- 
fuel best calculated to increase its efficiency taining the presence of useful and avail 
is ascertained. In addition to work with able material in the various libraries and 
the respiration calorimeter. Prof. R. H. archives of the city of Washington. In- 
Chittenden and Prof. L. B. Mendel are deed, the idea of making the Carnegie 
working on problems of physiological chem- Institution a center and clearing-house for 
istry, while Prof. T. B. Osborne of the Con- the American historical profession led to 
nccticut Agricultural Experiment Station the selection of Washington as the head- 
has been studying the chemistry of vegetable quarters of the Department of Historical 
proteid foodstuffs. Research, and the assistance it has been able 

PROMOTION OF HISTORICAL STUDIES. ^^ ''"^^'' ^o/o^king historians and the suc- 
cess ot Its ettorts seem to have justified the 

Different departments of research of choice. It has also published a " Guide to 

course require widely different methods, and the Archives of the Government of the 

the encouragement of the study of history United States in Washington," which proved 

naturally would take a different form from so successful as to warrant its compilers, 

that given to experimental science. A spe- Prof. Claude Van Tyne and Mr. Waldo G. 

cial building in no way would serve the Leland, in preparing an enlarged and revised 

cause of historical research, while an ade- edition. 
quate historical library to be of use to his- 
torians generally and containing not only EcoxoMtc research. 

standard and special works but original doc- Turning now to an adjacent field of 

uments and authorities would be as imprac- research, we find that the Department of 

ticable as it would be beyond even the re- Economics and Sociology is engaged un- 

sourccs of a Carnegie foundation. Accord- der the direction of Dr. Carroll D. Wright, 

inely the plan determined on was the prep- president of Clark College, Worcester, 

aration of a comprehensive series of cata- Mass., in the systematic collection of 

logues of documents and other sources for material to form the basis of an economic 

the use of historians and investigators in history of the United States. This work 

American history. In other words, the stu- in 1907 occupied the attention of 185 



60 THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REI^IEIVS, 

clifterent individuals, the department as a economics, literary, philological, and arche- 

whole being divided into twelve sections or ological investigations are included. Thus 

divisions, each under the direction of a com- in literature a research on the Arthurian Ro- 

pctent and responsible authority who super- mances based on manuscripts in the Britishi 

vises various researches made by separate and other museums by H. O. Sommer i^ 

specialists. In addition to this work the de- now in progress, while a reproduction o^ 

partment is engaged in compiling an index "The Old Yellow Book," the source af 

of economic material in State documents Browning's " The Ring and the Book," mi 

which promises to be of unusual value, and translation and annotations by Prof. Charl 

is being issued in separate volumes, one for W. Hodell, is in course of publication. I 

each State. A number of these volumes have philology a lexicon to the works of Chaucer* 

been printed, while others are in press. The by Dr. Ewald Fliigel has been compiled ancS 

monographs of the various specialists are is now being edited for the press. In archc — 

being considered quite as much in their re- ology grants are made annually to the Amcr— 

lation to a-harmonious whole as minute and ican schools for classical studies at Athens 

exjiaustive discussions on a particular sub- and in Rome, and the funds so allotted are 

ject. Already a number of these contribu- used for the support of fellowships and for 

tions have been published as books, in the excavation and publication, 
transactions of learned societies, or in eco- Applied science also benefits under the 

nomic journals, and have been received with Institution and Prof. W. F. M. Goss, for- 

universal commendation. As a result of merly of Purdue University, has carried on 

these studies the student or legislator of the a series of researches dealing with the use of 

near future will find summarized and di- high pressure steam in the locomotive, while 

gested for his use a wealth of carefully se- W. F. Durand, formerly of Cornell Univcr- 

Iccted and written material dealing with the sity, has made an elaborate investigation of 

economic and industrial development of the the performance of the screw propeller. The 

United States. Institution is also publishing the records of the 

,r»»T^,ro ^..^r^^,^,rr^,..^.r, r^r. rr^.^^rr^r^ CaHfomia State Earthouake Investigation 

VARIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS TO LEARNING. /-, . . u* i. • ^u i_ j • 

Commission, which give a thorough and scien- 
The allotments made for these large tific account and analysis of this remarkable 
grants during 1907 represented $519,- occurrence. Among its other notable publica- 
785.70, and the total outlay on these tions are a treatise on dynamic meteorology 
projects since the foundation of the Institu- and hydrology by Prof. V. Bjerknes and Mr. 
tion has aggregated $1,356,185.70. The J. W. Sandstrom of the University of Chris- 
minor grants are by no means inconsiderable tiania, typical of a scientific work of high 
either in number or amount. In 1907 the value for meteorologists, and a series of vol- 
allotments made aggregated $82,538.61, umes dealing with Research in China car- 
while the total amount allotted since the ried on by Mr. Bailey Willis of the United 
foundation of the Institution has amounted States Geological Survey and other scholars 
to $784,678.21. The allotments on these on a special expedition to the East. Mention 
minor projects and research associates and might also be made of notable volumes con- 
assistants have been decreased annually since taining archeological and physiographical rc- 
1904, when the total amounted to $265,- suits of explorations in Turkestan under the 
820.68, as it is now the policy of the Insti- direction of Prof. Raphael PumpcUy, and 
tution to concentrate its efforts on a small monographs on the Fossil Turtles of North 
number of large projects rather than on a America by Dr. O. P. Hay, and on Seal 
large number of small projects. Both plans Cylinders of Western Asia by Dr. WiUiam 
have been tested, and superior results secured Hayes Ward. A most elaborate work on 
from the larger grants have largely influ- the Fundamental Problems of Geology has 
enced the trustees in this decision. Many of been in course of preparation for four or fhre 
the minor grants, however, have produced years by Prof. T. C. Chamberlain of the 
most valuable additions to scientific knowl- University of Chicago, while several imppr- 
edge and the list of publications describing tant papers dealing with researches on 
the various researches is already quite for- Atomic Weights by Prof. T. W. Richards 
midable. of Harvard University have been published 
The general range is even wider than by the Institution. The Institution also cn- 
that of the major projects, as in addition to courages biological research by supporting 
natural and physical science, history and two tables at the Naples Zoological Station, 



THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 



61 



nhicb is x favorite and most stimulating 
liboratory for bMogical investigators. 

This incomplete list of minor projects must 
bt closed with reference to the " Index 
Mcdicus," an index to current medical litcr- 
ituft throughout the world issued yearly 
from Washington, This wort, originally 
publijbed at die Army Medical Museum in 
Wshington, was esteemed most highly by 
the medical profession, but was discontinued 
on iccount of kck of financial support. Its 
resumption and the publication of a new 
volunw for 1903 was one of the first efforts 
of the Carnegie Institution, and annual 
granti of about $12,500 make possible its 
fcirif publication in enlarged and more 
comprehensive form. 

Br no means the least of the activities 
of the Carnegie Institution is its publica- 
tion of scientific works. In 1907 this in- 
Tolwd the expenditure of $65,358.99 and 
^presented thirty-eight volumes with 3428 
quarto pages and 6284 octavo pages. All of 
the publications of the Institution are sup- 
plied gratuitously to a limited list of the 
pnna'pal libraries of the world, and in that 
"V are made generally accessible. Other 
copies, however, are sold at the cost of 
production and transportation. Great pains 
are taken in the selection of paper for these 
publications as well as in the presswork of 
both text and illustrations. 



of twel' 
purpose of the fou 
thus aid mankind, 
the fears of 



The outline just given will indicate in a 
measure what use the Carnegie InstituticHi 
of Washington is making of its endowment 

dollars to carrv out the 

der to advance science and 
Whatever may have been 
and educators as to the 
practical usefulness of such 2 fund for the 
furtherance of science administered by a 
board of trustees, it is now universally ad- 
mitted that the Institution is on a firm and 
most efficient basis, that its plans arc most 
rational and likely to produce good results, 
that its laboratories, observatories, and other 
equipment either in operation or soon to be 
at work represent the best possible facilities 
for dealing with specific problems of general 
scientific interest, and finally that the results 
obtained so far as published demonstrate that 
the work has been of a high order of 
merit. With the encouragement afforded 
by the Carnegie Institution the present 
brilliant work of America's best scientists 
should be carried on under more favor- 
able conditions, and the discoveries bound 
to result should be such as to win world- 
wide recognition. Then the names of 
other American men of science will be 
inscribed with that of Professor Michel- 
son on the roll of those deemed worthi- 
to receive Nobel prizes and equivalent 
honors. 



^ 


|MI 


W 


y 


^B 


m 



VIEW IV THE 



A PRACTICAL CAMPAIGN FOR SMOKE 

PREVENTION. 

BY GEORGE H. GUSHING. 

CMOKE prevention, complete combustion, ply of coals that make no smoke is gr 

or the scientific burning of coal, — what- shorter, the prevention of smoke wit 

ever you will, — is rapidly becoming a neces- use of lower-grade -coals is beccxning j 

sity in cities, and a much-desired consumma- solute necessity. 

tion among manufacturing concerns. It is The methods employed toward the c 

a necessity in cities which have a municipal end have been legislative, so far, rathe 

standard to maintain. It is desired by man- educational. The American dispositi 

ufacturers because it contains possibilities of express its wish by the stilted phraseol 

marvelous reductions in fuel cost. the statute has been indulged with fr 

" Smoke prevention " here is used instead amounting almost to profligacy. A 

of " smoke consumption," differentiating the same time popular enlightenment has 

new method from the old. Formerly the conspicuous for its paucity. The past 

belief was that smoke-making was unavoid- has here been used wittingly, for a da 

able, the only way to keep it from besmirch- better methods is at hand, due to the i 

ing a city being to catch and burn the gases ness of Paul P. Bird, smoke Inspect* 

in the stack. Modern science shifts the cen- smoke-begrimed and smoke-besmudgec 

ter of activity to the firebox, bums the gases cago. Chicago is a horror of horrors 

before they form into smoke, and then turns as smoke consumption is concerned, 

this to account in reducing the fuel bill. the dumping-ground of the nation, ani 

Actuated by a desire for clean cities, the sequently having to consume almost 

East, some years ago, enacted ordinances variety of coal from anthracite to 1 

which virtually made anthracite coid or coke Moreover, in Chicago political intr 

the only permitted fuel. The West aped has held sway, and if under these a 

the East, and the supply of anthracite would conditions Mr. Bird can do anything i 

not go around, so all sections took to a grade betterment of conditions he will conur 

of bituminous coal known generically as medal from Congress as being a m 

" Smokeless " and specifically as " George's benefactor. 

Creek," " Oceanic," " Pocahontas," or Mr. Bird has assumed that even j 

" New River." The increasing demand and law does not enforce itself and that 

the limited production made prices almost will not correct ignorance. He has 

prohibitive to the generality of buyers. Be- gone so far as to admit, — a marvelous 

twecn the scarcity of coals and the demand in administration, — that no general ru 

for clean cities the citizens had an uneasy be laid down for burning coal without s 

year or two, and then they began to study Where the grades consumed range a 

smoke prevention in the use of the lower way from anthracite to bituminous h 

grades of coal. The movement began in the sulphur, like that produced in Illinc 

West, where difiiculties were greatest, — the has taken what appears to be the very 

smoke most dense, the demand for clean ble position that the best course is to 

cities most keen, and the price of smokeless the individual conditions in the steam-n 

coal the highest. New York and the East plant, mapping out a plan for each of 

are turning over the same subject, because who desires to comply with the public 

they know that, with the rapidly increasing and then give time for compliance. li 

population and the equally rapid growth of that there is any stubbornness the coui 

manufacturing industries, anthracite and the called upon and the law is invoked, 

smokeless bituminous coals will not long complete combustiox means s^ 

supply the demand. Moreover, these coals prevention 
will not l23t always, the end of some grades 

being already predicted as near. The East Smoke prevention, which has been s 

has demanded that there shall be no let-down ered in scientific phraseology, is not su 

in municipal cleanliness, and while the sup- impossible thing after all. It means n< 



A PRACTICAL CAMPAIGN FOR SMOKE PREyENTION. 83 

loorc than the complete burning of fuel, of carbon to two parts of oxygen. It has 
jnaicily the combustion of the elements in a been found that the hydro-carbons will A\s- 
fud liberated at different times and at vary- till from or leave the coal at a temperature 
log degrees of temperature. The so-called of about 500 degrees F., while the carbon- 
smokeless coal is made up mainly of one ele- dioxide will be distilled from the coal at a 
oient, while the smoidest coal is composed of temperature of between 500 and 600 degrees 
several elements, all of which bum under F. It has been found also that, provided 
vistly dissimilar conditions. Between the there is a proper mixture of air of equal 
extremes there are all possible grades of coal temperature, this volatile matter will reach 
and all possible degrees of smoke. To pre- a state of combustion at anywhere from 600 
vent the higher grade of coal from smoking to 750 degrees, this depending mainly on the 
is 00 trick at all. To prevent the lower, or fadlity with which air of equal temperature 
even the lowest, grade of coal is a matter is mixed with these gases. It is found, how- 
only of conforming conditions to meet the ever, that fixed carbon requires a temperature 
demands of the most difficult elements in the of from 850 to 900 degrees before it reaches 
coal to make bum. a state of combustion. Given, therefore, a 
Broadly speaking, all ooal is made up of five coal high in volatile matter and comparative- 
elements, — viz., fixed carbon, volatile matter ly low in fixed carbon, a very large per- 
or gas, moisture, sulphur, and ash. The higher centage of the burnable elements in a lump 
the grade of coal the larger the percentage of of coal can be thrown off into the air, with- 
fixed carbon. (Fixed carbon is used here to out any of it being burned, by simply raising 
distinguish the most stable part of the coal the temperature of the lump of coal to a 
from the carbon contained in volatile matter point where this volatile matter will be dis- 
or gas.) Because fixed carbon will not tilled, but keeping the temperature of the 
smok and is easier to bum, it has become fixed carbon itself below the point of igni- 
customary, in this country, to grade coal ac- tion. In fact, this is in reality the prind|de 
cording to the amount of fixed carbon it con- upon which gas is made from a coal hig^ in 
tains. Thus, anthracite coal is gienerally volatile matter. 

conceded to be the highest grade in existence, There is hardly a household in the United 
because normally it contains from 90 to 95 States which has not seen the demonstration 
per cent, usually about 925^ per cent., of of this scientific principle of coal oonsump- 
find carbon. The other 5 or 10 per cent, tion, but possibly without realizing the im- 
is made up of volatile matter, of moisture, portance of the demonstration. In starting 
of sulphur, and of ash, the percentage of a fire in an ordinary grate it is very often 
the latter being very small indeed. The seen that a pile of bituminous coal thrown 
next higher grade of coal is called semi- upon a burning pile of kindling-wood will 
bituminous, and ranges from 70 to 85 per give off a dense black smoke before any blaze 
cent in fixed carbon. Below that is bitumi- appears in the coal. This merely indicates 
nous coal, which ranges anywhere from 40 that the heavy hydro-carbons are escaping 
to 75 or 80 per cent, in fixed carbon, and from the coal without being burned. It is a 
below bituminous are sub-bituminous and reasonable assumption that if the tempera- 
lignite coals, the latter being little more ture of this grate were taken at the time it 
than condensed gas. Aside from the moisture, would be below 6cx) degrees. As the tem- 
*^pbur, and ash contained in these coals, peraturc in the grate naturally rises, there i? 
^ of a lump of coal, whether it be lignite occasionally seen a flash of flame in the 
or anthracite, will bum under proper con^i- smoke, but several inches above the coal bed. 
tions. The only question is to find a method It is an uncertain flickering fire that seems 
of bnnging those elements up to a point to have no foundation at all and, under ordi- 
where ignition takes place. nary circumstances, would be very hard to 

WmcULTY IN CONSUMING THE VOLATILE "P^*'"', "^""7 ?^»^" ^^''^ A'^J °* 5*?™*= ^"^ 

appear for an mstant and then disappear, 
only to reappear again after a few seconds, 
As far as smoke prevention is concerned, this time to last longer, and then die out 
^ only troublesome problem is burning the again, to appear in more permanent form a 
^tile matter. This is variously composed, little later on. The observer will notice, 
^^opriang mainly, however, hydro-carbons, however, if his attention is called to it, that 
<^r a compound of hydrogen and carbon, and each time this flame appears it gets nearer 
Ci'dMMHlioxide, or a compound of one part and nearer to the bed of coals^ and ivwaiV^^ 



64 THE AMERICAN REI/IEW OF REf/IElVS. 

when the flame becomes permanent, it has methods which would permit all of this voli- 

form«d a juncture practically with the coal tile matter to gq off in the form of smoke, it 

itself. This is nothing more than the first is very easy to see that they could lose any- 

appearance and subsequent development of where from 25 to 60 per cent, of their coal 

the combustion of this escaping volatile mat- through the smokestack without getting i 

ter from the coal. particle of benefit from it. This coal will 

When the flame eventually makes a con- cost delivered anywhere from $2 to $4 or $5 

nection with the coal pile, and especially a ton, and consequently the loss can be any- 

when it appears to come from the center of where from $1 to $2.50 or $3 per ton. It 

the coal pile, any one taking the temperature is a simple case of arithmetic to multiply this 

would find that the thermometer registered loss by the amount of coal consumed per day 

at least 850 degrees F., which shows that the to arrive at a conclusion as to how much 

fixed carbon in the coal had reached a state of money the big coal consumers are permitting 

ignition. The observer of a grate-fire will also to fly off into the air from the smokestack, 

notice that as the flame increases the volume and how much it would mean to a concern 

of smoke gradually diminishes. He will also of this kind if it were permitted to bum all 

notice that the smoke disappears almost com- of this volatile matter and consequently avoid 

pletely when the bed of coals has been re- this tremendous loss. 

duced to a glowing mass. This is accounted This, of course, does not take into con- 

for possibly in two ways : One of them prob- sideration the irreparable damage that is done 

ably is that the volatile matter has escaped to the household furniture, to valuable tapes- 

and consequently that the only part of the tries and libraries, and to the public health 

coal left to be consumed is the fixed carbon, by these poisonous gases being discharged intc 

or it might indicate that the temperature in the air which is admitted into the homes and 

the grate and the temperature of the room into the human lungs. It was not considera- 

had been raised to a point where the air tion for the public health or consideration 

mixing with the volatile matter permitted for other people's property which caused the 

its consumption concurrently with the con- manufacturing concerns to begin the study 

sumption of the fixed carbon. of the complete combustion of coal. The 

Under these circumstances, smoke preven- best ideas which have been introduced and 
tion, or, if you care to phrase it thus, the which have been made practicable were given 
complete combustion of the coal, resolves it- their first complete test, as far as Chicago is 
self into a necessity to raise the temperature concerned, in the plant of the Common- 
of the gas to a point of ignition, whether the wealth Edison Company at the Harrison 
fire be " fresh " or " old." To this is added Street Station in Chicago. The plan was 
the necessity to give room enough for the worked out by A. Bement, a mechanical en- 
mixing of this gas with sufficient air, the gineer, and by W. L. Abbott, the engineei 
gases and the oxygen being of equal tem- in charge of these electrical lighting plants, 
perature, that combustion may be accom- The design of the firebox and the location oi 
plished. the boilers were arrived at after a prolongied 

series of experiments based upon this simple 

BUSINESS ECONOMY IN SMOKE PREVENTION. • • i i* * u -. • *. / *^ 

pnnciple: It takes a certam amount of space 

Assuming that in the case of the grate-fire between the bed of the fire and the boiler foi 

the smoke did not cease to appear until the this volatile matter or gas to be completely 

volatile matter had entirely escaped, it can consumed. When the experiments were 

easily be seen that the prevention of smoke started Mr. Bement and Mr. Abbott did not 

becomes at once a matter of tremendous im- have a very clear idea as to whether this space 

portance to a concern which burns an enor- was demanded to raise the temperature oi 

mous amount of coal per day. Take, for in- the gas or to prevent the mixture of the gas 

stance, the case of the Commonwealth Edi- and air. In fact, they are not quite sure 

son Company, of Chicago, which is now, I which of these necessities govern, and on that 

believe, burning in the neighborhood of 2000 point the engineers of the United States are 

tons of coal per day. Another example can at variance. However, expert engineers 

be found in the big ocean steamers, which, abroad, especially in England, have reached 

according to the last report, burn about 1000 the conclusion that the raising of the tcm- 

tons of coal a day. If these big coal consum- perature of gas is the first essential, whQe 

ers purchased a low-grade coal which was* the proper mixture of air is the second. Thu 

high in volatile matter, and used fire-hold idea was brought to this country by an cngi- 



A PRACTICAL CAMPAIGN FOR SMOKE PRETENTION. 65 

O^uf a different school from Mr. Bement is merely an ordinary oven arrangement the 

PIKbr. Abbott, — ^viz., by Dr. R. S. Moss, lining of which can be heated, and into which 

wtio has participated in numerous experi- the volatile matter is discharged, where the 

ments of this kind in London and Edin- temperature is raised and where the gas is 

burgh. mixed with air, and where the complete com- 
bustion takes place, the heat passing from 

MORE SPACE BETWEEN FIRE AND BOILER. ,^. . ., ^ k^;].,, ':«oe ,..K^^« ;* c Z.a^A .« 

that to the boiler pipes, where it is used in 
But whatever the scientific principle be- raising the temperature of the water, 
hind this complete combustion of the volatile This whole matter is more or less tech- 
matter, the plan adopted by Mr. Bement nical and consequently has required a good 
and Mr. Abbott was to give a certain deal of study, as is shown by the fact that 
; amount of space, not less than nine feet, be- even the expert engineers are not in accord 
I twccn the fire-grate, or the place where the as to what produces complete combustion. 
• coal is burning, and the surface of the boiler. When the engineers cannot agree, it is very 
i ^Vhcther temperature has anything to do natural that the men employed in the fire- 
with the burning of this volatile matter or room, especially the unskilled laborer, could 
not, it is very clearly established that if this not be expected to understand the principles 
volatile matter has not reached the stage of of complete combustion, and consequently 
combustion before it comes in contact with when a city tries to prevent smoke it is run- 
the comparatively cool surface pf the boiler ning up against almost insuperable diffi- 
tubes, it will never reach a state of com- culties. These difficulties increase when it is 
bustion, but will pass off through the flue in realized that popular ideas heretofore have 
the forai of smoke. Where a boiler-room been very vague as to what actually caused 
eppment will permit of it, it is a simple smoke. Moreover, it must be realized that 
matter to raise the boiler at least seven feet the vast majority of our buildings were con- 
above the bed of the coals, and thus, by giv- structed before this scientific principle gov- 
ing plenty of room for the mixture of air erning the burning of coal was a demon- 
with the volatile matter, smoke will be prac- strated possibility. Naturally when the 
tically impossible after the fire has once been architects who designed these buildings had 
started ; but of ten buildings are so constructed no idea that a certain amount of space was 
that there is no possibility of giving this required between the firebox and the boiler, 
amount of room between the fire-grate and they did not provide room enough in these 
the boiler, and consequently other devices buildings for the installation of plants that 
have to be adopted. would be smokeless. These buildings have 
Mr. Bement and Mr. Abbott decided that cost an enormous amount of money, and in 
longitude was as good as altitude, and so order to make the changes that are now re- 
thcy placed the fire near the front end of the quired by cities, especially where low-grade 
boiler and permitted the gas to pass back- coals are consumed, not only the renting 
^ard under the boiler, but this was pre- space would be cut down, but the changes 
vented from coming in contact with the cool themselves would require such a heavy ex- 
surface by lining the under portion of the penditure that the building owner would 
boiler with a fireproof tile which would ab- hesitate before accepting a scientific state- 
sorb and retain heat much more easily than ment as to what was required, 
^'ould the tubes of the boiler in which cold 

„.».., , ^1 • 1 ^- T .U CITY REGULATION OF SMOKE. 

^ater was constantly circulating. In the 

<^ of the Commonwealth Edison plant at AVhen these difficulties are summed up 

Harrison Street in Chicago fully fourteen and are thoroughly understood, it is seen at 

fet has been given between the front of the once that the city which endeavors to pre- 

nrebox and the point where the volatile vent the making of smoke will have to show 

matter comes in contact with the cool surface that there is something besides civic pride 

^\ the boiler. This plan has worked ad- back of the campaign for smoke prevention, 

mirably, and although, as stated, this com- It will have to show the owners of the build- 

P*ny bums about 2000 tons of coal per day, ings that it is dollars and cents in their 

fbere is never seen, at any time, the slightest pockets not only now but for an intermina- 

bit of smoke coming from any one of the ble time in future before any compliance 

5^8cb of the central power station. Dr. with the popular will can be expected on this 

Moss has obteined equally satisfactory results score. A great many owners of buildings of 

by using whit b called a Dutch oven. This this kind have made no secret oi t\\t\T ^2&\. 



66 THE AMERICAN REI/IE]V OF REFIEWS. 

policy that it is far cheaper to pay the occa- partment. If, at the expiration of this ret- 

sional fine than it is either to put in an auto- sonable time, the chimney was still smokng^ 

matic stoker or to make a change in the fire- and no progress had been made toward dx 

room equipment. In view of these diffi- installation of a new system which wooU 

culties, the acts of some cities have been little avoid smoke, the law would be invoked ml 

short of ludicrous. The fact that the East- the maximum ]>enalty of the law would be 

crn cities have been able to accomplish very assessed. 

much in the way of smoke prevention is not In making these suggestions Mr. Bird ml 

by any means a criterion as to what other his advisory board took into oonsidenttioi 

cities can do. For one thing, anthracite coal that the grade of coal used makes the greil- 

in the East, where transportation costs are est possible diflFerence in whether a chinui^ 

comparatively low, can be bought almost as will smoke or not. For instance, where mt- 

cheaply, the amount of heat produced being thracite and semi-anthracite coal is used, k 

considered, as the bituminous coals, on which requires practically no effort to avoid smok. 

the transportation charges are high. More- They realized that small sizes of coal ban 

over, the people of the East have become ac- freely while the larger sizes bum more slow- 

customed to using anthracite coal and will ly. They realized that if all fine coal ii 

consent to use no other. That Is a peculiar- used, or if all large-sized coal is used, it i 

ity of human nature which it is not easy to comparatively easy to adjust conditions fl 

explain, but nevertheless is a peculiarity that smoke will not be made, but if fine wi 

which must be taken into consideration. The large coal, or what is known as run-of-fluni 

people, once accustomed to using one grade coal, is used in a firebox, the very fact dul 

of coal, will seldom if ever take up any other the different sizes burn unequally tends t 

grade. The futility of merely placing an produce more smoke, and consequently th 

ordinance on the law books of a city has difficulties of smoke prevention become moK 

been demonstrated by the fact that Pitts- serious. It is not an unreasonable thing fa 

burg, Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Chicago a city to demand that, after a boiler-nxM 

have not been able to make the slightest equipment has been suited to the consumptioi 

headway against the tremendous production of a certain size of coal, that size shall b 

of smoke. burned in future, because to-day it is A 

It is only now that Chicago is beginning easiest possible thing to buy any size of OM 

to gain any ground, and this is due to the that one wants. In fact, the large percent 

fact that Mr. Bird, the smoke inspector, has age of coal mines to-day are producing il 

adopted entirely new tactics. In the first different sizes from screenings up to six-ind 

place. Mayor Busse has spent his whole life lump. Consequently, a boiler-room equi| 

in the coal business and knows more or less ment that is adjusted to the burning of an 

about smoke prevention. He appointed Mr. size of coal, either screenings, nut, or luin 

Bird, who is a practical man, and then ar- coal from one and one-half to six inches, ci 

ranged to give him an advisory board of be supplied with that particular size of fw 

three expert engineers. Among them is Mr. with the least possible difficulty. 
Bement, who designed the plant for the The principle of combustion thus bcif 

Commonwealth Edison Company. Shortly clearly understood by the consumer, the a 

after taking office Mr. Bird announced that parent need of smoke prevention being undt 

he did not propose at once to fine the owner stood by cities and by the consumers thci 

of a building the chimney of which was selves, and especially the tremendous savii 

smoking. He said that he would go into the from complete combustion of coal being u 

fireroom of the offending building and would derstood, it seems very natural that in t 

study conditions. He and his advisory board course of another generation smokeless dti 

would then map out a plan for the preven- will be the rule rather than the exceptio 

tion of smoke, taking into consideration the This is an optimistic outlook, but it sea 

grade of coal habitually burned. He would to be warranted by the one thing whi 

submit this plan free of cost to the owner would make this consummation possible,- 

of the building and would give a reasonable the fact that complete combustion of coal 

length of time for the compliance of the the cheapest thing in the long run for t! 

owner with these requirements of the city de- man who owns the building. 



THE GOVERNMENT AS A SPENDER. 

BY ERNEST G. WALKER. 

r^ONGRESS, holding the pursestrings, has piles, 5^0 feet high, reaching from the mon- 

determined the national disbursements ument's foundation to its ver>' top. 

for the fiscal year of 1908-1909. It recently To count a billion silver dollars, the best 

adjourned with a world record for voting Treasury expert, working eight hours every 

public money, and the executive and the business day, would require a century and 

administrative authorities are dutifully cer- three years more. 

tain to score a new world record in spending Where will all this money go? It was 

die unprecedented total. appropriated through fourteen great supply 

This annual chapter in budgets reads large bills, under more or less arbitrary classifica- 

Bi every line. It was as ambitious in its be- tions. The disbursements may be roughly 

ginning as it has been in its ending. The grouped in three grand divisions, as follow^s: 

procedure was begun last September, when Postal Service ?j25.ooo.<)oo 

^»'.l k.. ^o:^: 1 u u L 1 ^ Military Service ."ioo.ooo.ooo 

oflicial by otticial, bureau by bureau, depart- other government service 225,000,000 

mcnt by department, contributed to building , , 

op the book of estimates, till it comprised 700 millions in salaries and pensions. 

broad pages of federal print. When the The bi-monthly, monthly, and quarterly 
Secretary of the Treasury, in December, dis- pay-rolls figure tremendously in all three 
pitched wagon-loads of those documents to totals. Employed by the Government, draw- 
thc Capitol, they constituted formal and ing a regular stipend, will be more than half 
offidal notice that almost $1,100,000,000 a million men and women, — more than could 
would be required of Congress at that ses- be assembled with any comfort in the ten 
aon for the maintenance of the national square miles of the original District of Co- 
Government, lumbia. Twenty thousand disbursing agents, 

Probably a more valiant defense of the scattered through every State and Territory 

Treasury was never made and possibly none and in every insular dependency, will be oc- 

was ever less successful. Designs upon the cupied in handing out the pay-envelopes to 

national strong-box multiplied and were sup- this tax-consuming host, 

ported by Congressional majorities. The The salaries of almost 500 Senators and 

ten-thousand-dollar items grew into hundred- Representatives will approximate $4,000,000, 

thousand-dollar items. Millions were piled without including mileage and other per- 

upoo millions, heedless of all watchdog warn- quisites. But there are something like 300,- 

inp, until at last the towering total of ten 000 persons in " the Executive Civil Service 

Sgurcs, solitary and alone among the high of the United States." Ninety per cent, of 

pwks of Government expenditures, was these are employed outside the city of Wash- 

raichcd. ington. While a considerable portion arc 

Treasury officials are at a loss for descrip- clerks of various grades and capacities, whose 

tions that will bring the billion-dollar term duties are multifarious, the 60,000 and odd 

within the average mental grasp. The sum postmasters are included, as also scientists 

will require every penny from customs, in- and experts, customs and internal revenue 

temal taxes, and postal supplies. It will also collectors and their thousands of deputies, 

<lrain low the quarter-billion reservoir of sur- laborers skilled and unskilled, law officers 

plus. It is almost one-third of all the money ranging from bailiffs to United States attor- 

wthe land, more than half the value of all neys and judges, — all whose places come un- 

thc cargoes and carloads of annual exports, der the classified civil service or make up the 

wd only $200,000,000 less than the value of fruit on the tree of patronage. 

>I1 our imports. The military rolls, always large, are larger 

A billion of money in twenty-dollar yellow this year, since the pay of every man who 

Ittcb would weigh over seventy tons. Com- carries a musket or wears shoulder straps has 

pactly stacked against the Washington Mon- been materially increased. At the head of 

wncnt, they would make twenty-five separate the military list are 4000 active and 900 re- 

67 



68 THE AMERICAN REI/IEIV OF REVIEWS. 

tired army officers, followed by 70,000 pri- to the sun. There are 39,000 rural md 

vates, the latter representing the authorized routes and as many rural carriers, who wH . 

enlisted strength to which the army will be require $30,000,000 from the postal revenoai, 

recruited before many months go by. for delivering mail at the farmer's door; \^ 

Then comes the navy force, distributed at 000 drivers on as many " star routes," Ofdf 

yards and stations on both coasts, and aboard which coaches and buckboards with mail wiff 

ships of war, cruising in nearly every ocean travel more than 100,000,000 miles, at in 

of the world. They number 2500 active and average expense to the Government of molt 

750 retired navy officers and 36,000 blue- than 7 cents a mile. 

jackets, of whom 6000 are just entering the The Postoffice Department does not pif 
service under provision of the last Naval its administrative force of 1000 persons, em- 
Appropriation law. There are 330 officers ployed at Washington. The general Gof^ 
and 8500 enlisted marines; 250 active and 60 ernment attends to that on an entirely sept- 
retired officers and 1 500 men of the Revenue rate account. But the department docs pif 
Cutter Service. working forces of tens of thousands, whowffl 

Pensioners of all our wars, approximating take a billion pieces monthly from boxes inJ 

1,000,000 people, will draw $175,000,000 other mail receptacles and speed these to do* 

out of the public funds that Congress has tinations among 90,000,000 people. Thoe 

just appropriated. About 800,000 are for- nimble-fingered, well-disciplined soldiers of 

mer soldiers, — all but 100,000 Civil War in- the postal armies are handling 700,000 le^ 

valids. Their annual pension, paid quarterly, ters and postal cards and making out 200,000 

averages close to $200 a year. The rest, domestic money orders for every hour of the 

some 200,000, are widows. twenty-four. 

But the vast pay-roll does not end here. On the postal roster are 27,000 city ctr- 

At least 200,000 more people concerned in riers and an equal number of clerks in oflfco 

governmental activities will draw compensa- of the first and second class. Many of these 

tion therefor, chiefly contractors and laborers, are to have a promotion forthwith, by the 

THE POSTAL BUDGET. '••'«^*'°" ^ Congtts,, and an additjond $I00 

a year. Besides its postmasters, the depart- 
Quite one-quarter of the billion dollars is ^ment is paying this year 2000 assistant post- 
easily segregated. It is the money for the masters, 10,000 clerks in third-class offices, 
support of the Postal Service, the greatest of 17,000 railway mail clerks, 4000 special d^ 
all the federal utilities and the service closest livery messengers, and 25,000 mechanics, 
to all the people. The Postoffice Department The pay-roll for watchmen, messengers, and 
is a little government by itself ; for it collects laborers exceeds $700,000. 
nearly all the revenues it needs and disburses Congress has placed the Postal Service ofi 
them without intervention from the Treas- a more generous basis than ever. The dcfi 
ury Department. The cash tills at every cit will be large, much larger than the $i3i 
stamp-window are emptied into one common 000,000 deficit for the year just closed. Tb 
postal fund. The Postmaster-General, not Postmaster-General warned Congress agains 
the Secretary of the Treasury, honors the this to no purpose. When the uplift of cos 
requisitions and draws the warrants. The for the service was apparent he pleaded fo 
income, as a rule, approximates the outgo, authority to establish a rural parcels post 
but whatever is lacking to meet the postal He demonstrated that if only fifty pound 
budget of $223,000,000 this year will come, was transported daily on each route it woul 
as heretofore, from the general revenues. obliterate the great postal deficit loomin 
The postal budget, a record breaker, will ahead. No additional equipment would h 
be disbursed through thousands of channels, needed. The income would be clear profit 
The eyes and ears of the Postal Service, — its But he was not allowed even to set up a 
force of 355 inspectors, — will alone cost, experimental service in one county, 
with their clerks, their traveling expenses, and ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ military expendi 
rewards for yeggmen, almost $1,000,000. tures 
Railroad companies, hauling mail over more 

than 3000 different lines, will get $50,000,- The military account is larger than eve 

000 of the money before the fiscal year is up. before in time of peace, and has been rard 

The aggregate of travel by mail trains in that exceeded when the nation was engaged ii 

time will exceed 400,000,000 miles, — a dis- strife at arms. In the most comprchcnsiv 

tancc greater than two round-trip journeys sense Congress voted for this account at it 



THE GOyERNMENT AS A SPENDER, 69 

leoent session $500,000,000, or one-half the sailor, marine, and rcvcnuc-cuttcr private 

I Md of all the budget, and approximately was increased $5 a month ; of their officers 

r tbt sum will be expended for wars past and $500 a year. Two new Dreadnoughts, in- 

; prospective during the fiscal year just be- stead of four, were authorized, each of the 

'' ginning. It covers the deficiencies; liquidates floating fortresses to cost for hull, armament, 

^5,000,000 of interest for the public debt, — machinery, and equipage close to $10,000,- 

incunred in war operations, — supplies nearly 000. The annual cost of maintenance for 

$60,000,000 for the sinking fund ; furnishes such a ship, including repairs and pay of of- 

$10,000,000 needed to replete the pension ficers and men, who must be supplied as fast 

fund, and $163,000,000 more for current as the ships are commissioned, will approxi- 

pension demands ; assures $6,000,000 to sup- mate $1,000,000. The navy now compre- 

port the score of State and national homes hends fifty-odd ships, built and building, of 

for invalid soldiers; builds and maintains ar- which thirty-one are heavy ships-of-war. Sev- 

scnals, armories, and navy yards ; allows $2,- eral of these are about to be commissioned or 

000,000 toward the support of the militia; will go into commission within a couple of 

keep big guns frowning from emplacements years, which means that the navy mainte- 

at every important harbor, from San Juan nance item must increase by leaps and bounds, 

and Boston to San Francisco, Honolulu, and Good judges say that the $150,000,000 mark 

Manila, and, finally, puts the army and navy will be reached in half a decade, 

nearer that standard of war efficiency, which Even the navy deficiencies, not carried in 

b said to make for peace. the regular budget, are mounting to many 

The ramifications of military expenditures millions at every session. Four years ago 

extend to Government enterprises of a purely Congress prohibited the making of deficien- 

dvilian character, such as the improvement of cies by officials of the executive departments 

harbors to accommodate our largest ships of and attached penal clauses thereto. But the 

war. The roadsteads at Hilo, in the island army and the navy are exempted. The defi- 

of Haw'aii ; at Santiago, where there is a ciency item for navy coal at the recent session 

coaKng station; at Pensacola; the East was $2,700,000, — a little more than half the 

Branch of the Potomac, near Washington, amount of the coal bill for the battleship 

and harbors at two or three other places are fleet on its voyage around the world, 

bring deepened beyond commercial require- ^^^^^^^ disbursements. 
oents for the advantage of the navy. 

?hrt of the fourteen annual budgets per- An outline of the disbursements making 

tain exclusively to past and prospective mili- up the remaining quarter of a billion dollars 

tai>' operations, but include only a portion of can be had from a table of the other appro- 

thc expenditures just enumerated. The priations as follows: 

aiDounts carried on these several appropria- ..gHcuiturai bin ni.072.ioo ^^^I^'^i^ 

tion laws for the current year, and the m- Diplomatic and Consu- 

crcases for each of those laws over the previ- District of Columbia lii'ii i'o'iit'ogs •322.930 

OUS fival vp-ir «;tand • Indian bill 9,253.347 •871.729 

uuMiscai )ear, srana. r«^^«.^, Legislative hill 32.8.33.821 707,488 

»«.. Kill torooooiT •iftftirffft'^ Sundry Civil bill 112,937.313 2,168,102 

i™'^ fSS'SIH^ ^o?-?03 978 l><>flcloncy bills (3). 59,995,973 46 848,075 

JJ3« . •••^•,.'. nS?y?5S oIVoi42 IVrmanont appropri- 

rortiflcatlons bill 9,317,145 2,419.134 *|q *'*' l-»4 104 2n-» 4 ^n7 «7-» 

MUitiry Academy bill. 845.634 •1.084,069 ^''^°* i.> 4,lJ4,J»o 4.^^)^.})^o 

^ion bill 103.053,000 16,910,00 ^ ^otal $394,581,986 $55..-.46.927 

^ Total $391,260,511 $58,596,782 " ^^^^'^ase. 

•t>ecreaso. From this list of titles indicating ordinary 

Interest, sinking fund, deficiencies, ar- Government expenditures must be deducted 

sfnals, armories, soldiers* homes, and militia about $150,000,000 for the military account 

are carried on other budgets, and would es- as classified. Interest on the public debt and 

ape the attention of the casual reader of the sinking fund, both carried on the perma- 

railitary items of expenditure. Many of the nent appropriations, make half of that sum. 

"jcrcases which Congress voted during a They are items which Chairman Tawney, of 

billion-dollar session were for making the the House Appropriations Committee, char- 

>nDy and the navy more formidable. The acterizes as charges " on acount of wars." 

campaigns for the increased size and effi- The federal Government's contribution to 

OflKy of the two military arms were con- the development of agriculture is shown in 

ducted aggressively and, on the whole, sue- the $11,000,000 total of the Agricultural bill. 

cessfuUy. The pay of every enlisted soldier. That pays for the Weather Bureau Service, 



70 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 

the Forest Service, and many scores of farm and Geodetic Survey, It likewise '^arrkr 
and soil investigations that occupy a small most appropriations for public works, whtf 
army of experts. They are soil physicists, are taking many millions annually from dr' 
entomologists, biologists, chemists in many Treasury. This year it will be dose to $75^' 
branches, plant pathologists, crop technolo- 000,000, and may far exceed that sum. IIk 
gists, taxonomists, and many, many more. Panama Canal project, which will wed tlr 
They duplicate some investigations and ex- two oceans and make real the dream of oen- 
periments that State governments are con- turies, leads all the public-works items. It 
ducting. None the less, the service is close is now costing $3,000,000 a month, and the 
to the people and very popular with the rate will be larger as the enterprise pro- 
farmer vote. North and South. The cost has gresses. 

been increasing at a rapid pace. Ten years Dredges and derricks and like equipment 

ago it was less than half the present figure, now dot almost every navigable inland wate^ 

The Diplomatic bill pays the salaries of way. They constitute the outward cvidenoe 

ambassadors, ministers, and consuls and meets of the Government's activity in river and bar- 

divers expenses incident to the foreign serv- bor improvements, comprising 600 projects 

ice. under the supervision of army engineea 

In the business of conducting a municipal- The engineers are spending about $2S)000,- 

ity in the District of Columbia Congress au- 000 of Government money this year. Of 

thorized the disbursement of $10,000,000, this $18,000,000 is under continuing ooo- 

but half of that sum is collected by taxation tracts for building breakwaters, deepening 

in the District, which sum should be ac- channels, excavating turning basins, and 

credited as national revenue. These are the otherwise extending navigation facilities al- 

only direct taxes levied since 188 Si and are culated to encourage trade. There are still 

collected through local municipal authori- Congressional authorizations for eighty-five 

ties. projects, to cost $31,000,000, which must be 

The Indian bill represents the sentimental paid for by this or the next Congress. 
side of legislation and includes a large civil There never was a time before when the 

service for the education, support, and wel- Government was building so extensively and 

fare of a multitude of vanishing tribes, most so expensively as now. Omitting new and 

of them on reservations in the West. modem lighthouses, rising on every shoal and 

The Legislative, Executive, and Judicial danger point where the mariners are not ade 

bill supplies the administrative force for most quatcly protected, the trowel and the ham 

of the Washington departments, for the mer and saw are erecting structures in hun 

Army, Navy, and Postoffice departments dreds of towns and cities that will fumisi 

among the rest. It is sometimes called " the an ocular demonstration to the citizen of hi 

engine-room force." Its numerical strength Government. A law has just passed tha 

is more than 25,000 clerks and officials. They assures 515 new postoffices, courthouses, an< 

are the Government employees of whom it is custom-houses all the way from Maine t 

said that none die and few resign. The California. It will double the number c 

records also show that the salaries of this public buildings, toward the erection c 

faithful, patient force are rarely raised, for, which the Supervising Architect of the Treai 

with all the increase in their numbers with ury will spend this year close to $i5,ooo,O0( 

the growth of the Government business, the T*he money goes in part for sites, which con 

total of the " Legislative " bill is hardly a mand fancy prices when the Government : 

third larger than it was thirty years ago. The a buyer, and in some part for enlarging an 

same measure carries the compensation for all extending old buildings which the publi 

Congress and its legion of employees and for service has outgrown, 
most of the federal courts. , 

THE GOVERNMENT S RECEIPTS. 
UNCLE SAM's BIG PUBLIC WORKS. c J- i * J -ir r -.u 

bpending unprecedented millions for thcs 

The Sundry Civil is the great odds-and- and hundreds of other items, where wi 

ends appropriation, but it has swelled in ag- Uncle Sam get the money? 
gregate and importance as the years have The postal revenues and the Postal Sen 

passed. Big bureaus are provided for from ice can well he eliminated from the answe: 

this budget, particularly the Geological Sur- In round numbers, $1,000,000 comes jing^in 

vey, which conducts operations in nearly through the customs-houses every businei 

every State and Territory, and the Coast day. A year ago it was almost $1,000,00 



THE GOI^ERNMENT AS A SPENDER. 71 

dar day, but times have changed. congress and the estimates, 
iai and industrial depression has 

panied by a falling off in imports, The House organization is built to curb 
IS a falling off in duties. It is a extravagant tendencies. The Appropriations 
I campaign year. That always Committee, which prepares and handle3 
iness unfavorably, and if it does about half of the annual budgets, — and keeps 
imports this year, as usually a supervision over all of them, because it has 
c prospective revision of the tariff jurisdiction over all deficiencies whatso- 
« such an effect. ever, — is composed of seventeen seasoned, 
lal modern years nearly another steady men. It is now the big committee of 
comes in every business day for the House and its membership is very care- 
axes. These represent chiefly fully selected. The law requires that the 
d as a tax on distilled and malted Secretary of the Treasury shall have the esti- 
tobacco and cigars, and for spe- mates by October 15, in ample time for print- 
s, wholesale and retail, for those ing, so that this and other appropriation com- 
Thesc internal-revenue totals are mittees of the House, where all bills affect- 
much the same influences as de- ing the revenues must originate, can have the 
)tal of customs dues. In the last information by December, 
iths they fell to $260,000,000. The Committee on Appropriations, — or 
us other sources of federal reve- some subcommittee thereof, — is in almost j 
irge sums. They are hardly more daily session from the time that Congress con- 
rts, however, when the Govern- venes. It conducts comprehensive and care- 
antic operations are considered, ful hearings, at which the estimates for fu- 
ids from the sale of public lands ture expenditures are reviewed. Hundreds 
,000,000, practically all of which of witnesses are called, including cabinet of- 
rcd to the fund for agricultural ficers. The President is alone exempt. The 
mc in every State and Territory, — committee took 3000 printed pages of testi- 
fund for the reclamation of arid mony at the last session. The Naval Affairs 
racts. The District of Columbia Committee, which prepares the Naval bill ; the 
same sum in realty and personal Military Affairs Committee, which prepares 
£ which IS spent on the Washing- the Army and the Military Academy bills; 
government. Miscellaneous re- the Agricultural, Indian, Postoflice and For- 
i other sources, including patent eign Affairs committees, that prepare the re- 
nake about $60,000,000. spective appropriation bills within their juris- 

S YEAR'S BALANCE SHEET. '^'"•°"^' P™^f' y ^°^'^. ^ ™^y ^^OMS»n^ 

pages more. In every mstance there was a 

estimates are made of what the determined effort to scale the estimates for 

'ill be for this billion-dollar year, the various budgets. 

probably will not exceed $600,- The Speaker keeps a hand on all appropria- | 
irith the postal revenues it will be tion work. If he fixes a limit for a bill, it is 
00 more. The exact appropria- reasonably certain that the committee will 
ng the entire session were $1,008,- comply. He is, perhaps, less influential in re- 
Phis included deficiencies, some of straining the House from increasing a budget \ 
e used before this fiscal year be- by the amendment process, but, in the main, 
the total for the fiscal year will re- his wishes prevail even there. He follows the 
: the same, because other deficien- measures through the Senate, where increases ^ 
be provided for this year, when are invariably made, some for " trading pur- \ 
ext assembles. poses." While he is never a conferee, the 1 
spect, therefore, remains for a defi- Speaker watches proceedings in conference, ■ 
0,000,000 before June 30, I909» and not infrequently gives the word that a 
I, which will be far and away the certain proposed appropriation must not be 
rficit of any year since the Civil allowed. His influence in that regard is 

meet it the Treasury has a $240,- potent. His efforts during the period of final 

irplus, which should suffice. If it adjustment of the big supply measures save 

i^, there remains the expedient of the Government from many millions of ex- 

ids. penditures. 



( 






D Lewb Na«U«. 



Bishop Wlllltiin A. Qaarle. 



THE NEW METHODIST BISHOPS. 



BY FERDINAND COWLE IGLEHART. 



QNE person out of every twelve, one 
Christian out of everj' five, one Prot- 
estant out of every four, in the United States 
is a member of the Methodist Church. 
Hence, the significance and interest of the 
Quadrennial Sessions of the Methodist Con- 
ference to people of all religious creeds. Be- 
sides the measures adopted as outlined in the 
editorial paragraphs in the Review last 
month, the Baltimore Conference abolished 
the six-months' probation as a condition of 
church membership, consolidated the Eastern 
and Western Book Concerns, changed the 
name " Presiding Elder " to " District Su- 
perintendent," declined to make any change 
in the rule of the church on amusements, re- 
fused to return to a time limit on the pas- 
torate, and adopted with enthusiasm the ma- 
jority report on temperance read by Gov- 
ernor Hanly, of Indiana, endorsing the 
Ami- Saloon League. 

The business of the Conference culminated 
in the election of bishops. Eight were elected 
from the more than loo candidates voted for 
on the first ballot. 

William F. Anderson was born in Morgan- 
town, W.Va,, April 22, i860. He was gradu- 
ated from the Ohio Wesleyan University and 
from the Drew Theological Seminary, and 
began at once a successful pastorate in New 
York City and vicinit>-, which terminated 



four years ago in his election to the secre- 
taryship of the Church Board of Education. 
Bishop Ander^n has dignity of bearing, « 
kindly in spirit, just in his estimstes of 
men and measures, and is possessed of singu- 
lar tact and executive ability. He is indus- 
trious, and has succeeded in his churches by 
his ability as a preacher and devotion as * 
pastor, and in his secretaryship by his wis- 
dom, zeal, and fidelity to duty. 

John Lewis Nuelsen was bom in Zun'cti. 
Swit?,erland, January 19, 1867, his fathC 
being a German Methodist missionary »*»■" 
tioned in that city. After a liberal educati<"* 
in Germ.iny and this country, the young^*" 
Nuelsen spent some years in pastoral and ^'*^ 
ucational work in Alissouri. At the time «»" 
bis election to the episcopacy he was a pr**" 
fessor in the .N'.ist Theological Seminary •* 
IJerea, Ohio. He has written books wort" 
reading; he edits a theological publication^' 
and reads and speaks four languages. H** 
technical theological study has not dried uJ^ 
the streams of human affection in him, n*"" 
the fountains of his spiritual life. He V** 
the candidate of the German Methodists. 

The parents of William Alfred Quayl«= 
came from the Isle of Man, and Hail CainCv 
also a native Manxman, calls the heroine o» 
his novel, "The Christian." Glory QusylCr 
after the bishop's family. The boy is * 






Blatuv WllMB S. LcwiJ. Bliihop Edwin tt. Hueb«B, Bishop Frank M. BilatnJ. 



product of Kansas, having been student and 
professor and president of Baker University 
in that State. At the time of his election he 
tiid charge of the important St. James 
Church in Chicago. Bishop Quayle is an in- 
dustrious worker, an omnivorous reader, a 
fascinating author, a popular dramatic lec- 
tuitr, and a powerful pulpit orator. 

The grandfather of Charles W. Smith 
mj received into the Methodist Church by 
]<An Wesley himself at Belfast. The father 
of the new bishop came from Ireland, and 
ho son was bom in Fayette County, Pa, He 
is in his sixty-ninth year, the oldest man ever 
dtcted a Methodist bishop. Dr. Smith has 
b«n for nearly a quarter of a century the 
•bit and successful editor of the Pittsburg 
Ch'utian Advocate. He is an eminent eccle- 
nutical ]au7er, and it is understood that a 
oun of his judgment and knowledge was 
enatly needed on the Board of Bishops. 

Wilson Seeley Lewis is a native of St. 
UftTtnce County, N. Y. He has, however, 
ipnitinost of his life in Iowa, devoting three 
I^R to the pastorate and a score or more to 
'emiiury and college work. For eleven years 
ht lus bten president of Morningside College 
« Sioux City, Iowa. Senator Doliver, a 
"•onbtr of the General Conference, who 
fajfwthe strong mental and moral qualities 
of Dr. Lewis, did much to secure his election 
« Baltimore. 

Edwin Holt Hughes was born in 1866. 
Graduated from the Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sitjind from the Boston Theological School, 
* ocoipied important pulpits in and around 
■ Bwon, and has for five years been president 
of the De Fauw University. He is a man 



of keen mentality and an orator of remark- 
able power. He has been a brilliant success 
as a college president, doubling the student 
attendance and the endowment under his 

Robert Mclntyre comes from Scotland, 
having been born in Selkirk. The father, 
who moved to Philadelphia when his family 
was young, soon died, leaving Robert, at 
seventeen years of age, with a stepmother 
and a large family of small children to sup- 
port. The young man learned the brick- 
layer's trade and took good care of those 
dependent on him. He is one of the most 
fascinating public speakers in the United 
States. His six years' pastorate in Los 
Angeles has been phenomenally successful. 
He is also an author, with a volume of 
poems and a novel to his credit. 

Frank Bristol worked on a farm near 
Kankakee, III., in the summer and clerked 
in a drug store in the winter to support and 
educate himself. He was graduated from 
the Northwestern University at an early age. 
He preached for many years with great suc- 
cess in the most important pulpits of Chicago 
and Fvanston, Bishop Bristol has a charm- 
ing personality, a virile mentality, and an 
esthetic temperament. He has been for 
eleven years pastor of the Metropolitan 
Church in Washington. President McKin- 
ley more than once declared he had never 
heard Dr. Bristol preach a poor sermon. 

It is interesting as proving that Metho- 
dism is true to her tradition in remaining the 
church of the common people that not a 
single one of these eight bishops was the 
child of wealth or ease. Two were poor 



74 



THE AMERICAN REI^/EIV OF REt^/EIVS. 



immigrant boys; three others were the sons 
of immigrants. Of the eight, one was the 
son of a weaver ; three others had poor 
Methodist preachers for fathers; three were 
the sons of humble farmers, and one was the 
child of a merchant, and he while yet a mere 
lad was compelled to " get out and dig for 
himself." The homes of these boys, however, 
were rich in the highest thought, the noblest 
ambition, and the finest character. These 
very sons of poverty and toil arc now the 



(a"orites cf wealth and culture as well ts 
the proud possession of the plain people 
and the poor. Not all of the good bitbop 
timber was exhausted in the election. It 
looks as though the Methodist Episcoptl 
Church had made no mistake in the selectioa 
of the men who are to wear her honors and 
lead in her contests: men of character, of 
abilit>', of availability, of devotion to the 
temporal and spiritual interests of their fel- 



QUEBEC, THREE HUNDRED YEARS AFTER 
CHAMPLAIN. 



BY LOUIS E. VAN NORMAN. 



T^HE first world-gathering to which Can- 
ada has bidden the nations is not a 
commercial or industrial world's fair, but a 
birthday fete, the celebration of the three- 
hundredth anniversary of the founding of the 
city of Quebec, the " Cradle of Canada." 
Just three centuries ago (on July 3, 1608), 
the stout-hearted French navigator, Samuel 
de Cham plain, who 
had come to Canada 
in the service of a 
wealthy French mer- 
chant and with the 
the authorization of 
his king, began the 
erection of a block- 
house on the heights 
of Quebec, laying the 
foundation of the city 
which still bears that 
name. The era of 
French discovery and 
exploration in the New- 
World, of course, 
actually dates from 
Jacques Cartier's first 

visit to Canada, in samtel de champi.ai: 
1534. His attempted {FT„m an 

settlement at Cap 

Rouge, however, failed, and there was no 
further French exploration until Champlain, 
on that third day of July, 300 years ago. 
laid the foundation of the Canadian nation. 
In this month of the year 1908 the inhabi- 
tants of the Dominion, no longer merely 
French or merely English, but of a real dis- 
tinct type, Canadian, will celebrate with fit- 




ting ceremonies the three-hundredth birti)- 
day of Quebec. Beginning July 20, ind 
continuing for five or six days, there will be 
a splendid pageant in the old city, under die 
direction of Mr. Frank Lasceiles, who con- 
ducted the successful Oxford pageant in 
England last year, 
i'he three centuries of Canadian history 
will be recalled in this 
pageant, from the 
landing of Cartier 
until at last, in one 
great final scene (to 
quote Mr. Lasceiles' 
words), the like of 
which 

taxe» one's imagination 
to the utmost, we shall 






the 

nnd beyond them some 
''* [Tlnt.p thousands of soldiers of 

France, of England, and 
of .\nierica sont to Qitthtc to do honor to this 

great terccnienary celehration. 

The historic battle on the Plains of Abra- 
ham will be reproduced, the fight between the 
French and the English on September 15, 
'759. and also the French victory of a few 
months later, Wolfe will again be victo- 
rious, and Levis will again defeat Murray. 



QUEBEC, THREE HUNDRED YE^RS AFTER CHAMPLAIN. 75 




the Colonies, the Earl of Crewe; the 
The British Empire will be reptesentcd French Government by a full admiral, 
on this memorable occasion bj' the Prince and nur own (5ovemmcnt by Vicc-Presi- 
i\ Wiles and the Secretary of State for dent Fairbanks, Besides these eminent rep- 
resentatives of govern- ' 
n-ents, which will include 
al«} officials from Aus- 
tralia, South Africa. New 
j^caland, and Newfound- 
land, there will be a repre- 
sentative of Brouage, the 
French birthplace of 
Champlain. and the liv- 
ing descendants of Wolfe, 
Montcalm, and other great 
names connected with Ca- 




iTtalB Mluntratlan appoan In rliBmplKtn'H 

Ilihcd In 1418. A, Ktorehouiv ; B. dov«cite: _ _ .. _ 

lnd|tin«: !>. wnr1tini>n'ii li<dj^n|E : K. ilal : ¥, lilHi'kHinllh nhnn Hint nir-- 
i-hulm' lodRlns: <i. icallprln all atwiil (bp ilwillnin ; II. i.'liniuiilniD'x 
boas* : I. Kite and drawtirldgp : I« proini^nilt-, ii-n f>vl u-lrI-< : JI, uii'in : 
S. ;«lB.lfi>m for nmnan : (). Cliainpl«ln'n KnrdHi ; I', klti-livn ; y, cii»'n 
ipan : It, Ht. Lawrence River. 



nadian histon^ 


The Heeti 


of three natio 


IS,— Britain, 


France, and 


the United 


States.— will 


be in the 


harbor and 


take hon- 


oran' part m 


the celcbra- 


tiiin. 




The projet 


t for cele- 


hrating the 


three-hun- 


drcdth birthda 


of Quebec, 


while generalU 


ascribed to 


the initiative o 


Earl Grw, 


Ciovcrnor-On 


ral of the 


Dominion, wa 


rrally .-on- 


a-ivcd in the 


summer nt 



76 



THE AMERICAN REI^IE]V OF REk'lEWS. 



1905, when the St. Jean 
Baptiste Society of Quebec 
adopted a resolution calling 
upon the civic authorities to 
commemorate in some way 
the anniversary. This society, 
in its resolution, emphasized 
its belief and desire that such 
celebration should not assume 
alone a French-Canadian 
character, but that it should 
be Canadian in the broadest 
sense of the term. All in- 
habitants of the Dominion, 
without distinction of origin 
or creed, the resolution asked, 
should be invited to partici- 
pate in the celebration cere- 
monies. Other bodies and 
private citizens also urged 
the matter upon the civil au- sr. lovis o. 

thorities, and in May, two 
years ago, a general committee was ap- 
pointed to organize the present celebra- 
tion. It was Earl Grey's desire that in 
connection with the celebrations there should 
be some lasting memorial of the three cen- 
turies of Canadian historj' in Quebec. He 
suggested a national historical museum, but 
it was finally decided that the event would 
best be commemorated by the national- 





LEE, UlEBEC. 

the battlefields surrounding the old 
city and the creation of a Dominion national 
park. The plan includes the building of a 
wide driveway around the cliffs and the erec- 
tion of a great monument to peace in the 
harbor, a monument to rival the Statue of 
Liberty in the bay of New York. The Land- 
mark Commission purposes naming the park 
which they intend to encircle the city of Que- 
bec King Edward Park. This would be per- 
haps the only public popular resort in the 
world consecrated by battlefields upon which 
two peoples have met with honors cquallv 
divided. 

Nature and history have combined to give 
Quebec, with its glorious traditions of old 
New England and old New France, a unique 
location for a national park in the Heights 
and Plains of Abraham, A sturdy, thrifty 
Scotsman in the service of the French Gov- 
ernment in Canada, a pilot known as Maitre 
Abraham (Martin), secured, by means of 
a deed authori/.cd by Champlain in 1635, a 
homestead overlootinc the valley of the SL 
Charles River. His slieep and cattle grazed 
over all the high ground looking over the St. 
Lawrence and were watered at a Stream 
which has given a name, Claire Fontaine, to 
one of tlie principal sections of modern Que- 
bec. It was on these plains and within sight 
of their green slopes that all the strug^es for 
Canadian national unity were waged. It is 
a narrow mistake to connect these plains only 
with the victory and death of General Wolfc 
in 1759. All Frenchmen, as well as all 
French Canadians, remember that on that 



QUEBEC, THREE HUNDRED YE^RS AFTER CHAMPL/tlN. 




THE MEMOUAL 

Sdd anii with equal glory the French gen- 
erml Montcalm was stricken and died. If 

" HERE DIED WOLFE VICTORIOUS" 

equally true and dignified is the inscription 
on the grave of the French commander : 

" HONNEUR A MONTCALM 

Le Destin 

en lul derobant la victoire 

l'a recompense 

par une mort glorieuse." 

Five battles took place around Quebec, in 

twti of which it was Englishmen who were 



victors, while three are to 
i:redit of France. The gov- 
monument, indeed, is 
erected to both Wolfe and 
Montcalm. If, within sight 
of these fields, the American 
general Montgomery fell in an 
attack upon the city of Quebec, 
Canadians remember that Amer- 
ican rangers accompanied Wolfe 
in his victorious campaign, and 
Americans cannot forget that 
the great Champlain not Mily 
founded Quebec; he discovered 
one of the most beautiful lakes 
within the boundaries of their 
own country. 

In emphasizing the national 
character of the celebration and the sig- 
nificance of the event as indicative of the 
emergence of a real Canadian national type, 
the report of the Landmark Commission 
closes with this stirring paragraph : 

These few famous acres are no dilettante sou- 
venir of a dead and buried past, but the living 
embodiment of her [Canada's] ancestral spirit 
at the zenith of its aspiration and achievement. 
Reverence for ihe mighly past is always the 
most inherent stimulus for bringing national re- 
sponsibility home to ihe present and insuring 
care for the future. It is the mark of all great 
peoples : it is taught by the faith of all religion, 
by the records of all history, and by the most 




WOLFE S MOKUMI 



78 THE AMERICAN REk'IEW OF REk'lElVS. 

modern science of heredity. Science and his- Commons and broke her word of honor to h 

tory also prove that the same essential energy deserted allies. But to what adTantage d 

assumes different forms to meet different needs, forefathers appeared when on our fields of ba 

So it is no idle sentiment, but a scientific fact, tie! Here they set us forever an example ■ 

that most of the national energy now displayed ^^^ highest self-sacrifice and disdpline. Fi 

m bridgmg the St. Lawrence at Cap Rouge ^ ^^^ u^^^ ^^^^^ j„ ^y^ ^^^ 5^, 

buildmg new transcontmental railways and .^^ ^ .^ ^^ . ^ , 

transoceanic steamers, prospecting and survey- ^*"* "v^ / ^ . " t ? r j \' 

ing and pioneering far and wide, repatriating tensest fire of war; tried and not found wantir 

French-Canadians in the Quebec hinterland, or • • • • and here, on these world-cclebrau 

directing toward the waiting prairie the full Heights and PJams of Abraham, to-day Xlu 

flood tide of human life that surges so eagerly unite us all forever in a single glory and on 

through Winnipeg Station — it is a scientific fact single field." 

that most of this transmuted energy is inherited rj-i ^ "di«:«« ^r Ak*^k«^ *««11«. »«.«•« J «>1m 

from the national heroes of the Plains of Abra- The Plains of Abraham really Stand aloi 

ham. We call them national heroes advisedly, among the world s battlchcids. Here an ec 

because they represented all the dominant ele- pire was lost and won in the first clash « 

nients of Canadian life to-day. We might call a^ms, " the balance of victory was redress 

them international with equal truth, — for . ^, i j ^.u-. k^v-,^* «.i — ^k •»««« «. 

France, the British Empire, and the United jn the second, and the honor of each army >^. 

States all shared alike in glorious victory and in heightened in both. 1 iliS jomt CClebratK 

defeat with honor. This makes the Plains as in the British colony comes at a happy m 

happily unique as they are undoubtedly immor- ^^^t, when England and France, the moth 

tal, because every race was seen there at its ' . ^ , ^ _ ° «,^ ^.^^-.-.k-*- ;^ * .^-JUl tt 

best. The corruption that ate out the heart of countries, have come together m a cordial u 

New France under Bigot was only an intensifi- derstanding. The entente cordtale wni< 

cation of the evils in old France under Louis now unites the two peoples really began vca 

Xy. ; the bickering politics of the British Col- ^^ ^^^h^n the Dominion Government erccti 

onies were beneath the contempt of statesman- r • • ♦ ^«^, ,.„««#. ;^ Oi,«k./* P«-lr ♦« W/il 

ship; and England under Bute simply boodled the joint monument m Quebec Park to Wol 

her way to peace through a venal House of and Aiontcalm. 



THE OLYMPIC GAMES IN LONDON. 

BY EDWARD G. HAWKE. 

[The following account of the prcparati ->ns for the celebration of the fifth mo'.er 

Olympiad this month in the grounds of the Franco-British Exposition is contributed by 
London correspondent. — The Editor.] 

TpHE idea of reviving the ancient Olympic vived, and was won by a Greek peasant. 

games under conditions suited to the was generally felt, after this festival, th 

modern world arose in the fertile brain of Baron de Coubertin's idea had justified itse 

Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the French pub- and that the Olympic Committee must go • 

licist, in 1894. He propounded it at an ath- with its work. A second Olympiad was 2 

letic congress sitting in Paris and it met with cordingly celebrated at Paris in 1900, and 

a cordial reception. An international Olym- third at St. Louis in 1904. The fourth \i 

pic Committee was formed; the larger states held at Athens again in 1906. Circumstan< 

sent three members apiece, the smaller states prevented the Italian committee from can 

one member each. This bodv at once began ing out their plans, and they ceded their tu 

to organize the first modern Olympic fcs- to England. The British Olympic Assoc 

tival, which was held at Athens in 1896, in tion took up the work with great ardor a 

the ancient Stadium, reseated with marble for secured the co-operation of almost all \ 

the occasion by a wealthy Greek merchant of powerful bodies controlling various forms 

Alexandria, M. AveroflF. This festival was a sport in the countrj'. At its head is Lc 

great success. No longer confined, as the old Desborough, who, as W. H. Grenfell, v 

games in the Altis at Olympia had been, to a famous Oxford oarsman and athlete, a 

men of one race, the Athenian games at- who is deservedly popular at court and in 

tracted competitors of many nations, and the ciety. On the council are eminent sportsm 

athletes of America distinguished themselves like Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, the mot 

by winning nearly all the chief events. The ist ; Lord Cheylesmere, the leading spirit 

long-distance race from Marathon, associated the National Rifle Association; Sir Lh 

with the old games at Athens, was also re- Knowles, the old Cambridge athlete; Maj 



80 THE AMERICAN REI/IEIV OF REk'lElVS. 

Egerton Green, of Hurlingham, and as hon- of the lawn is a great tank of water, lOO 

orary secretary, the courteous and popular meters in length and 15 meters wide, for the 

Rev. R. S. de Courcy LafPkn. The late Sir swimming contests; it varies in depth froir 

Howard Vincent, whose recent death is much four feet at each end to about twelve feet in 

regretted on both sides of the Atlantic, was the center. A staging has been erected ovei 

also a member of the council. Although, at the deep water for the diving matches ; a dive 

the time of writing, the entry-list for the chief of thirty feet can be taken from this in safety 

events has not yet been closed, it is already It will be apparent from this brief descrip- 

certain that the London Olympiad will be tion that the Stadium is well adapted for all 

the most representative yet held, since twen- kinds of athletic sport. It has a far largei 

ty-two countries have announced the inten- arena than the Coliseum at Rome, where the 

tion to send competitors in one or more of space for games measured about eighty yards 

the numerous branches of sport that figure on by fifty yards, and it will probably seat as 

the program. many spectators. The typical Stadium 

^,,T. or., ^vrr^w,. ^r ^«r o^*r^T»Ti.* ancicnt Grcek cities was about as long bu 

THE SPLENDID NEW STADIUM. , , -^ • . j 

was much narrower, because it was mtendec 

The first duty of the promoters was to se- only for foot races, in which the runners ran 

cure a suitable arena for purely athletic con- backward and forward, and not in a circle: 

tests. The new Stadium attests their sue- as on a modern track, 

cess. No such building has ever been seen in ^^^ «,^„..^^^ « «. 

1 17 •••jj*^ -«-. AN EXTENDED SERIES OF GAMES. 

modern Europe; m size, indeed, it appears to 

surpass the most famous amphitheaters of an- The Olympic games in the Stadium begia 
tiquity; and if it has not their romantic as- on July 13. But the contests in some sport 
sociations or their architectural grandeur, it are of necessity decided elsewhere, and sev 
testifies to the incomparable skill of the eral of these take place earlier. Thus, thi 
modern engineer. The Stadium is elliptical Olympic racquet matches were played ir 
in shape. All round it rise seemingly in- April, the covered lawn-tcnnis matches anc 
numerable tiers of seats, supported on a the tennis matches in May. The polo corn- 
strong but light framework of girders ; there petition will be played at Hurlingham in thi 
are broad entrances at frequent intervals, and week beginning June 15 ; unfortunately, onlj 
the intervening spaces are given to dressing- two London clubs and an Irish team have en- 
rooms and refreshment-rooms, with an out- tered. The lawn-tennis matches, for which 
side belt of galleries for an exhibition of a good entry is expected both from America 
sports and pastimes. The Stadium is so well and the Continent, begin on July 6 at the 
planned and so lofty that it seems at first to All-England Club, Wimbledon. On July c 
be a comparatively small inclosure, since the the shooting contests will start at the Bislc> 
eye has nothing to guide it in estimating the ranges, where the great volunteer rifle meet- 
size. It is in reality stupendous, affording ing is held ; twelve countries at least are send- 
seating room for between 70,000 and 80,000 ing riflemen to compete for the Ol5rmpic 
spectators. Along the outer edge of the trophies; there will be both individual and 
arena is an excellent cement cycle- track, team competitions, with service weapons and 
banked up very high at the curves; this is with match rifles, with fixed and with wav- 
twelve yards wide, and the lap is 660 yards, ing targets. Revolver shooting forms a sepa- 
or three-eighths of a mile. On the inner rate section. Clay-bird shooting is alsc 
side of the cement track is a strip of turf five included in the program ; this competition 
yards wide, intended to prevent accidents to will be held at the Uxendon Shooting Club, 
racing cyclists who may leave the track, not far away. Another outside event will b< 
Within this, again, is the cinder-path, eight the motor-boat race in Southampton watei 
yards in width, measuring three laps to the on July 11. 

mile, and now in perfect order. The central The Stadium program is so comprehen* 

space is one immense lawn, — in length a sive that it must take many days. For it in- 

furlong, or rather more than the ancient eludes athletic sports in the ordinary sense, 

Greek "Stadium" of 210 yards, and in cycling, swimming, water polo, and wrest- 

breadth lOO yards. There will be ample ling, — all from July 13; gymnastics on Julj 

space on this magnificent grassy field for the 14, 15 and 16; fencing, in a special ground 

short-distance events r-i^ch as hurdle races, adjacent to the main inclosure, from Jul) 

and for gymnastics, archery and other sports. 16; and archery on July 17, 18, and 20. Th< 

This is not all. On the western edge athletic events number 25 ; thty include (bH 



THE OL YMP/C GAMES IN LONDON. 81 

races over IC», 200, 400, 800 and 1500 as for short distances; that in swimming 

metres, and five miles, a steeplechase over there will be a race over 1500 meters ^nd a 

3200 meters (two miles), a three-mile race 2CX)-meter race for national teams of four, 

and a relay race of a mile between national and that the wrestling competitions in both 

teams, hurdle races over 1 10 and 400 meters, styles are well arranged in five weights for 

walking races over 3500 meters and ten miles, " catch-as-catch-can " and four for Graeco- 

jumps, throwing the hammer, putting 'the Roman. In g>'mnastics both individuals and 

^'eight, and a tug of war. Two revivals teams (varying from sixteen to forty) will 

that will of course be popular are the con- compete. This should be, from the spectacu- 

tests in throwing the discus and the javelin; lar point of view, one of the most novel fea- 

elaborate rules are provided for hurling the tures of the Olympiad. 

discus either " in the free style " or as at When the Stadium games have ended, 

Athens, after the manner shown in the famous there will still be many events to decide. 

statue of the Discobulus, *' from a rectangular From July 27 to July 29 there are to be 

pedestal.** yacht races at Ryd^, each country being al- 

The most thrilling of all,, however, will be lowed to enter two boats in each of the five 

the ** Marathon race " on July 24, over roads classes. On July 28 will begin the Olympic 

for an approximate distance of* twenty- regatta at Henley. It is already known that 

five miles 600 yards, finishing with one lap Hungary, Sweden, Italy, Belgium, Holland, 

round the Stadium. The course laid down Germany, and Canada will be represented, be- 

for this great race has, curiously enough, a sides England, so that it will be the most 

close association with the poet Milton, the notable international regatta ever held. The 

tercentenary of whose birth falls this year. English eight will be selected with special 

For it starts from Windsor and runs through care, as there is a keen desire to beat the 

Slough to Uxbridge, skirting a part of South- Belgians, who surprised every one by winning 

em Bucks, which the poet knew well. From the Grand Challenge Cup at Henley. Nor 

Uxbridge the course bends northeast to Ruis- will the regatta end the festival, for the in- 

ly's and Pinner, then southeast through Har- defatigable committees have arranged Olym- 

ron and Sudbury to Willesden, and thence pic contests at football, hockey, lacrosse, and 

across the open space called Wormwood skating for next October. Baseball and golf 

Scrubbs to the exhibition grounds. Most of seem to be almost the only outdoor games 

this route lies over comparatively quiet coun- that have been omitted. But baseball is not 

try roads, as far as Harrow, and the roads understood in England, and golf has been 

connecting the rapidly growing suburbs be- deleted from the program because the Royal 

tween Harrow and Willesden are not very and Ancient Club of St. Andrews, the 

busy with traffic. There is a steep hill be- benevolent despot of the game, would not 

tween Slough and Uxbridge, and after that consent to organize an Olympic competition. 

the road undulates to Harrow, but the sur- The golfers are alone in holding aloof. In 

face is as a rule gcod, except after heavy rain, all other branches of sport the efforts of the 

The American athletes who compete will Olympic Committee have been well received, 

not at any rate suffer so much from dust and and all that English sportsmen can do will be 

heat as did the runners in the Marathon done to make the London Olympic- games 

race at St. Louis, won, as every one should both interesting and memorable. A fine club 

remember, by Thomas Hicks, of Cambridge- house,' the Imperial Sports Club, close to the 

port, Mass., after a magnificient struggle. Stadium, is being rapidly made ready for the 

_ , many fellow-sportsmen whom they hot)e to 

OTHER ATHLETIC EVENTS OF THE PROGRAM. , ^ / *u /-*•-. j r 

welcome from the Contment and from 

It would take too long to innumerate all America* Englishmen are curious to see 

the other events to be decided in the Stadium. \^hether America will sweep the board of 

But it may be noted that there will be cycle trophies as they did at the four other Olym- 

raccs over twenty and 100 kilometers as well pic festivals. 



ON THE OTHER SIDE. 

BY TRUxMAN A. DeWEESE. 

A BOUT the time you make up your mind Fortunate indeed is the traveler who, by 

to go to Europe some widely traveled accident or intention, finds himself on a slow 

friend wjU show you some snapshots taken boat. You have time to get acquainted with 

on Lake Maxinkuckee or Little Traverse people. A five-day boat is also apt to be full 

Bay, and will say to you quietly and earnest- of machinery, sailors, and coal, and you 

ly: ** Why don't you see America first? " haven't the lounging-room you have on an 

The question is tantalizing to a patriotic eight-day or ten-day boat. Moreover, you 
American. Of course you haven't seen your must bear in mind that you pay for your 
own country. But no American ever will meals when you purchase your passage ticket, 
see his own country; it's too big. If your and it is cheaper than living in a foreign 
doctor understands you as every doctor hotel. If the boat loses her rudder or breaks 
should understand his patients, he will fur- her propeller, and you are delayed two days, 
nish you with ample excuse for going abroad, you are just that much ahead of the corn- 
He will tap your chest with his little ham- pany. They will have to board you until 
mer, listen to the pumping machinery^ in your you reach your destination, 
cardiac region, and then solemnly advise you Listen patiently to the advice of the man 
to take an ocean voyage. ** It will quiet your who travels with nothing but his pajamas, — 
nerves and strengthen your heart action. You and then forget.it. He has his notions about 
need rest and play," he says; and being a travel. It does him good to impress you 
tractable and obedient patient, you get ready with his kindly solicitude for your comfort 
to take his prescription. and pleasure. The man without a trunk is 

Of course you will take the wife and chil- more to be pitied than ** The Man Without 

dren. God pity you if you have no wife and a Country." You can do without a country 

children to take. Seeing Europe alone is dull, but civilized man cannot live without change* 

stupid, monotonous, uninteresting. Travel- of clothing. Nothing so mean and stingy zi 

ing in strange lands and hearing nothing but the man who wants his wife to live in twc 

strange voices that rasp your nerves with un- suit-cases. You want a large trunk, several 

intelligible jargon, with no sympathetic com- steamer trunks, several bags, and a leathei 

panion to pat you on the back when you have hat-box. This array of luggage not only im- 

humiliated an impudent portier, and no one presses foreigners with your importance, but 

to share your protests against exorbitant hotel keeps the portiers busy pasting labels on youi 

bills, is lonesome business, to say the least, bags and boxes. Nothing so imposing as a lot 

The chief delight of European travel comes of luggage covered with foreign labels. li 

from the sympathetic ear and the beaming you stop at cheap pensions you can always 

face of the one who knows you and under- buy a few large yellow, green, and red bote! 

standi you best, who shares your surprises, labels from the portiers and paste them or 

your disappointments, your tribulations, who yourself. 

cheers you in your hours of travail and adds a Men will naturally take a couple of busi 

joyous touch to your moments of ecstacy, who ness suits of inconspicuous and neutral ton< 

listens with patient fortitude to your opin- that are not easily soiled. A soft hat or cap is 

ions of everything European, whose gentle essential, while a good heavy mackintosh ii 

presence is a benediction, and whose cheer- much more practical than an overcoat. Foi 

ful, hopeful companionship is a better tonic ladies most travelers recommend clothing o\ 

than salt sea air, — oh, well, if you haven't a some dark material, such as blue serge oi 

wife, take your sister, your cousin, or your flannel, with thick boots and hood or cap and 

aunt. Take some one. Even your old class- heavy veil, always bearing in mind the fad 

mate or college chum is better than no one. that fancy or showy clothing will cheat th< 

Imagine a man wandering alone through the wearer out of many of the joys and delight 

palaces and gardens of Versailles, with all of ocean travel. For a trip to a Northcrr 

their wealth of sculptural beauty and horti- climate a " sweater " is an indispensable arti 

cultural grandeur, and no one to talk to! cle of the traveling outfit, while the comfor 



ON THE OTHER SIDE. 83 

of the traveler will be much enhanced by the every morning you will not need to ask the 
possession of at least two pairs of shoes, one bath steward to wake you at eight o'clock. 
light, the other a heavy pair for tours afoot. You will be awake long before that hour, lis- 
You have a lot of friends who would like tening to the mellifluous notes of the trom- 
to go to Europe, and they could aflford to go bone and the bass drum. When you get 
much easier than you can, but they don't, better acquainted with the passengers you 
They are contented to be squatters in the will do everything you can to encourage the 
valley. They will never reach the mountain band, — take up a subscription for it and cod- 
tops. You will want to make them green die the leader with generous applause. The 
with envy by buying a dozen or more Bae- noise will protect you from the bores who 
dekers, unfolding to their startled gaze the want to tell you all about their travels and 
large red, yellow, and green maps which they their family history. If it is a German band, 
contain, and by the aid of a large magnifying a little encouragement will bring on a 
glass pointing out to them the towns and " blow " that will drive all the cranky peo- 
cities which you expect to visit. Baedekers pie off the deck. It will prevent the whole- 
were made for those persons who are not sale grocer from telling you for the third time 
happy until they can classify the fleas on the how he cornered the potato crop in 1903. 
back of an Alsatian goat or can read the his- You have paid for your ticket, as I said 
tor}' of the human race while dashing through before, but you haven't paid the wages of the 
a tunnel. But you will have to carry along crew. Just when and how these fellows 
these wonderful multum-in-parvo encyclo- should be paid for their services is the subject 
pedias of foreign travel, for many of the of much dispute. Of course, you will have 
highways of European travel will be bare to pay them sooner or later. If you follow 
and empty^ without the remarkable little guide- the advice of the guide-books you will pay 
posts that invest every spot with romantic or the stewards and waiters at the end of the 
historical interest. , Take " Presbrey's Infor- journey, handing them a fixed stipend, just 
niation Guide," which gives all the informa- as the box factory pays off its employees in 
^'on one needs to have for the full enjoyment your home town. But if you follow the good 
0^ the ocean journey, reserving the Baedek- American style, you will fee them as you go. 
^rs for the matchless panorama of scenic It keeps them interested and attentive. They 
^auty and historical splendor that is to greet know what they are getting out of you ; 
his eyes on thie other side ; remember, too, what they will get out of " the other fel- 
ffiat one of the chief charms of Baedekers . low " is a matter of conjecture. They are 
^omes from their careful and leisurely perusal only human beings, and they naturally gravi- 
•ifter you return home. It is quite often ad- tate into close proximity to a sure thing. The 
Visable to invest in the cheaper and more con- daily gratuity keeps them alert, active, ex- 
densed local guides which one may pick up pectant. 

at the news-stands of the various cities that What is an ocean voyage without sea- 
arc visited. These give much descriptive and sickness? Of course you have made up your 
historical information in a very compact way, mind to be seasick and you don't want to be 
and form an agreeable introduction to the disappointed. Seasickness, however, is large- 
more elaborate descriptive material found in ly a mental condition. If you have been un- 
the more pretentious guides. fortunate enough to hand a delicious table 
The steamer chair is one of the jokes of d'hote dinner to the porpoises, don't say any- 
ocean travel. The joke is at your expense, thing about it. The fellow who can boast 
and you may as w^ell enjoy it on the trip, that he never missed a meal is looked upon 
The steamship company sells you a ticket and as a hero. The passengers get the impression 
then you pay a dollar to sit down. Of that he has the digestion of a goat. Evecy- 
course, if > ou don't like it, you can stand up. body regards him with silent envy and ad- 
Some people are mean enough to stand up for miration. He is prompt at his place at the 
eight days just to beat the deck steward out table and eats every meal. He may lose an 
of his dollar. In selecting the location for occasional meal, but the world is none the 
your chair it is well to get on the windward wiser. He carries his head erect and looks 
side of some one who smokes cheap cigars, with sympathetic condescension upon the poor 
This may spoil the fresh crispness of the salt devils who are blue behind the gills, who 
sea air, but it will also kill the smells from show the traces of a bad night, and who are 
the steerage and the kitchen. glued to their steamer chairs all day long, 
If the band plays under your window while the steward brings them salty and acid 



84 THE AMERICAN REl^/ElV OF REyiEWS. 

m 

tidbits to tempt their uncertain appetites, underwear, you close your boxes and bags and 

After all, the best cure for seasickness is to again throw yourself upon the mercy of the 

keep the stomach busy. Neptune always burly hij^hwayman with the blue blouse, who 

finds some mischief for idle stomachs to do. rcshoulders your luggage, and you trudge 

Eat five or six meals a day. If you give up along after him, wondering w^hat he is going 

a meal, put in another one as quickly as pos- to do with you next. He soon builds another 

si')le. You have already paid the company pyramid with it, and you stand guard over it 

for your meals, and if the meals will not stay while he searches for a carriage to haul you 

put, keep on eating until they do. to the hotel. You shout the name of the 

How you will miss your dear friend, the hotel through all the various changes of ac- 

baggage-chcck ! In deep, penitential contri- cent and inflection. The driver looks at your 

tion you will ask forgiveness for all the male- motions with the intelligence of a Long 

dictions you have heaped upon the head of the Island squab. Finally you think of the 

American baggage smasher. If Sancho Panza printed card or letterhead of the hotel stored 

had been a traveler in the twentieth century away in your pocket. You flash it upon him, 

he would have said, ** Blessed be the man there comes a gladdening gleam of almost 

who first invented baggage-checks." Sleep human intelligence into his stony count^ 

was a good thing to invent, but how can a nance, and off you go to the hostelry of your 

man sleep when his baggage is in the hands choice. Always carry a printed card of your 

of strangers who cannot imderstand the Eng- hotel in your pocket, for there is no possibility 

lish language? On the Continent your bag- of your pronouncing its name in such a way 

gage will be weighed the same as any other that the average Frenchman can understand 

freight, and yon will pay for it by the pound, it, I called a taximeter in Paris and said to 

receiving in return a receipt covered with the driver: 

strange and unintelligible hieroglyphics, " I want to go to the Hotel Lord Byron." 

which constitutes the only visible evidence The jabbering jehu -shook his head and 

you have that you are the owner of the bag- shrugged his shoulders, 

gage. While this receipt is better than no " I want to go to Hotel Lord Bee-ron/' I 

clue at all, it is a poor substitute for the fa- repeated. 

miliar baggage-check of your native land. He again gave me a look that was hope- 
Instead of resting serenely in that calm and Icssly and helplessly blank, 
trustful feeling that comes from the posses- I tried another one on him. I said: 
sion of a little pasteboard tag, you will be on ** I want to go to Hotel Bcer-ong." 
the jump as soon as you reach your destina- He gave his shoulders another shrug and 
tion. And when vou have *' assembled " all was about to drive off, when I suddenly 
your luggage, you climb to the top of the thought of the envelope on which was printed 
heap and yell like Alonte Cristo for a por- the card of the hotel. I pulled it from my 
tier. No use trying to find one who under- pocket and showed it to the puzzled cabby, 
stands English. \'ou are lucky if you can and the gutteral explosions that came forth 
find out who understands your motions. as he worked his jaw up and down showed 

If your luggage is to cross the frontier that he had seen a great light, 

from Germany into France, it will all be " Oh, wee-wee, Hotay Lor Bee-rah, Hotay 

piled on a bench, while a fiend with dirty Lor Bee-rah." 

face and greasy hands, who looks like an iron- We climbed in and away wc went to " Ho- 

moulder on a strike, w ill run his smutty tay Lor Bee-rah." 

fingers under all your clean linen to see if If you happen to be blessed, or cursed, 
you have hidden away any cigars, liquor, with friends who have traveled all over Eu- 
Ynatches, or playing-cards. To watch these rope on thirty dollars and fifty-eight cents, 
coal-heavers go through your baggage you you will want to spend a day or two hunting 
would think that the entire political and in- up those quiet family hotels known as ^in- 
dustrial structure of Europe rested upon sions. Your friends have given you letters to 
matches and playing-cards. The grimy offi- them, and of course you must present them, 
cials and the absurd performance are all in These family hotels are great institutions. In 
striking contrast to the businesslike methods America, where we are all a plain-spoken 
and the clean, dapper, gentlemanly officials people, we call them boarding-houses. In 
which greet you in England or in your own Europe they print the menus in French, add 
port at New^ York. After these stokers have a few hotel " touches," and call them pen* 
wiped their hands on your boiled shirts and sions. The pension is a boon to those who 



ON THE OTHER SIDE. ^ 86 

want to get away from such vulgar things as cles. Mark the words " business circles.", 
elevators, electric lights, steam-heat, and other The Londoner does business in » high hat. 
comforts. Climbing eight flights of stairs to He will not remove it even while he eats 
your room and rummaging around in the noonday lunch. Keeping the^hat on, how- 
darkness for candles so you can find the bed ever, is a European habit not confined to 
add a touch of romance to the situation and London. If you go to the opera in Paris you 
make you feel that you are traveling in for- will find the men in the audience keep their 
eign lands. Better go slow on the candles, hats on until the curtain goes up. Even then 
for you will find them charged in the bill they remove them slowly and reluctantly. In 
when you come to settle. You will find sev- London you need not worry about wearing a 
eral other things in the bill. You will find suit that goes with a high hat. Everything 
candles in the bill no matter whether you ** goes " with a high hat in London. A high 
have burned them or not. If you don't light hat and a fourteen-doUar brown business 
them, you may as well eat them, for you will suit are not an unusual combination in I^n- 
have to pay extra for butter and eggs any- don. Your American idea of plug hats be- 
way, and a few candles will help to supply longing exclusively to politicians, bartenders, 
the oleagcnous elements needed in your food, and bunco men doesn't go in London. The 

Of course you will disregard all the tradi- grocer's clerk who sells you a pound of tea is 

tions and customs by asking for a fire in your very likely to have on a frock coat and a high 

room. If you should chance to find a small hat. He may also have a handkerchief tucked 

stove in your room, you will have to yell like into his left coat sleeve. 

a Comanche Indian before you can persuade 'Tis sweet to hear the smiling clerk ** bay 
the portier to bring up coal, and when he deep-mouthed " as you draw near a hotel 
brings it up you will get enough to fill a after a long and tiresome journey, — but you 
crow's nest, and there will be nothing to will neither hear him nor see him. You will 
light it with. Wood and coal are precious never see a real ** hotel clerk " again until you 
commodities in Europe. They are displayed plant your feet once more upon American 
in the windows of stores the same as dia- soil. This iirportant individual, who is a 
monds and other jewelry. The reckless man- national character in our own country, is al- 
ner in %vhich we use pine boards for all sorts most unknown in Europe. You will register 
of purposes will seem like criminal waste and with the " secretary " in his office before en- 
extravagance after a trip in Europe.' Speak- tering the hotel proper. The secretary is not 
ing of fires, if you are in Cologne, — and of a lord, or a duke, or a Member of Parlia- 
course you will want to visit Cologne, — you ment, as you may imagine from his closely 
will see a portier building a fire in the hall- buttoned frock coat and his faultless get-up. 
way in your hotel. He is not trying to set He is the secretary to the general-manager of 
fire to the hotel. He is poking wood into a the hotel. If you have letters of introduction, 
hole in the wall just outside your room, and or have telegraphed in advance, he will know 
when you get into the room you will find it you are the real thing, and he will quote you 
full of warm air. It is a great "scheme. By prices on various rooms or suites. If you 
this system the smoke and ashes and dirt are have not attended to these preliminaries, the 
all in the hall and not in your room. secretary is likely to tell you that the rooms 

\i you go to London in October you will are all taken. Having passed the secretary 
want to take a hot-water bag and a high and been admitted to the rotunda of the 
hat, — the hot- water bag to keep you warm at hotel, you will find what seems to he the of- 
night and the high hat to put you next to fice, and you will begin to feci at home, until 
warm propositions, in the daytime. In Paris you learn that it is merely a place for getting 
vou will find steam-heat. In the best London your mail and the key to your room. There 
hotels you can have a fire made in the grate is no ** clerk " to give you the glad hand and 
in the reception-room or " lounge " by getting call you by your front name, no one to hear 
up a petition or a subscription. But don't your complaints or your kicks, 
forget the high hat. It needn't be a late shape Be sure to linger long and lovingly over 
or pattern. It needn't have any shape at the English breakfast with its cereal break- 
all, — in fact, the older the " vintage' ' the fast food and its toothsome, deliciously flav- 
better. You can dig up the one you were ored ham and bacon. English pigs are fed 
married in, brush it up a little, and it will on juicy vegetables and other good things in- 
take you anywhere in London and give you stead of corn. On the Continent you will 
an entree into the most exclusive business cir- have to live on the memory of American or 



86 ' THE AMERICAN REl^IEH^ OF REVIEWS. 

English breakfasts. Continental races do not man being until you arrive at the station. No 

have the ** breakfast habit." If a Frenchman conductor comes through every few moments 

eats any breakfast at all, it is merely a hot roll to tell you how far it is to your destination, 

and a cup of coffee, and he wants it brought no brakeman to keep you company, no " pea- 

to his room." The idea that the first meal of nut butchers.'* You will have to poke your 

the day should be generous and substantial head out of the window at each station to sec 

seems to be peculiarly an Anglo-Saxon notion, if it is the one you want to get ofi at. In 

You will also miss the sleek, pompous, and England you will have to do something more 
well-fed landlord you have known in your than poke your head out of the window, for 
native land. In German and Dutch hotels the names of the stations are not visible. If 
the portier and the waiter are the whole you are going out to Purley or some other 
thing. The landlord or manager may assign suburb of London, the only sign you will sec 
you to rooms, but that is the last you will see is " Bovril " or " Beecham's Pills." But how 
of him. From that time on you are in the those dinky little engines run! They whiz 
hands of the portier and waiter. You settle through fields and forests and shoot througji 
for your rooms and meals with the waiter, tunnels and dash through cities at a speed 
and all other matters that concern the com- that seems almost incredible when you con- 
fort of guests are in the hands of the portier, template the little turtle-back locomotives 
You will miss pnany of the little comforts with drivers hidden from view, with screech^' 
that go to make life worth living in your own little whistles, and tiny little cabs for the cn- 
countr>\ You will not find a " lift '* with gineers. And very reluctantly you will finaA- 
red plush cushions and lounge to carr>' you to ly confess to a liking for the cozy compa«^- 
the tops of all the towers, cathedrals, and ments which offer such comfortable security 
other high buildings. You must use your against the presence of undesirable pass^ti- 
legs. Such things as baths and stoves and gers. It is true that half the passengers i' 
furnaces are all enervating and tend to de- one of these compartments must ride ba^irk 
stroy that physical robustness which you read ward, but this is a small penalty to pay :^Fo 
about but which you seldom see in Europe, the privileges of privacy and exclusion t 
No use to look for an American hair-cut, or those who do not care to mingle with ^^^ 
an American shave, or an American '* shine." variegated sorts and conditions of human. *t' 
Europeans run to whiskers, anyway. In Paris which fill up the average railway coach. * 
the barber-shops derive their greatest revenue There is much diversity of opinion as ^o 
from selling false hair to women. what is the most convenient form of carryi^^ 

If you arc a "strap-hanger " at home, you money in Europe. As a matter of fact, rou 
will have to get rill of the habit in Europe, will not want to carry any money except for 
The first time you grab a strap in the street- the small and incidental expenses of trave/. 
car you will be told to sit down or get out. The strain imposed upon your suspenders 
No use of growing indignant when you are by the coin of the realm would be too 
denied the American privilege of hanging great. \'ou will miss those soft paper bills 
on a strap. It is not worth going to jail which you loved to roll up and stick in your 
for, — you can wait until you get back to free vest pocket. Everything is silver and gold 
New York. Each car seats a certain number and copper. When you do see a banknote 
of passengers and the number is plainly you are apt to mistake it for a printed hand- 
printed on the inside. In The Hague and bill or dodger and throw it away. The art 
other cities of Holland an officer stands at of engraving has not yet found its way into 
each end of the car during rush hours to see the manufacture of paper money in Europe, 
that only the allotted number is admitted. In England, when a banknote reaches the 
In Paris numbered tickets may be found in bank, it is taken out of circulation before it 
the rooms near the waiting-stations, which are has a chance to accumulate any bacteria, 
procured by passengers before they attempt to What you want is some sort of paper token 
get on the cars. These numbers are called that is readily convertible into the coin of the 
out by the conductor of the car, and if you country you are traveling in. For this pur- 
happen to hold number 431 you are reasona- pose I have found the American Express 
bly certain that the person who holds number Company's checks the most convenient and 
432 cannot get in the car before you do. the most widly recognized as legal tender for 

Once on a European railroad train, when all kinds of obligations. Whether you arc 

the door of your compartment is closed and eating lunch at an out-of-the-way inn in the 

locked, that is the last you will see of any hu- Black Forests of Germany or purchasing 



ON THE OTHER SIDE. 



87 



ts in the Rue de Rivoli in Pans, the 
s checks are as good as gold and are 
y cashed by innkeeper and shopkeeper, 
bound in small books and arranged in 
lient denominations, you tear them out 
all the ease and abandon of the man 
cars business cards from a vest-pocket 
ook. And you don't realize that you 
ending money until the books begin to 
in thickness and number. When you 
' one of these checks in payment for a 
»r a pair of shoes the change you receive 
d or silver is not so heavy but that the 
t may be distributed evenly through the 
s pockets of your clothing, and they 
3u the bother of computing the amcnmt 
icy you are entitled to receive for a ten- 
check in any country you happen to be 
!ng in, for the amount is plainly printed 
:ir face. The only persons who will 
ccpt these checks are the railway ticket 
, and if this fact is kept in mind much 
uice and inconvenience may be avoided, 
all the gentry that take advantage of 
can guHibility, none grabs the travel- 
icck with such rapacious greed as the 
shopkeeper. The sight of an American 
n on a shopping tour with several of 
xx>ks on her person is the signal for the 
ibsequious and servile attention and for 
cral advance in prices throughout the 
store. While these checks, which are 
not only by express companies but by 
►hip lines and tourist agencies, answer 
J requirements of a convenient and ac- 
Ic circulating medium, it is best, as a 
re of safety and security, to be fortified 
a letter of credit for £200 or more 
by the local banker in your own town. 
uld be carefully pinned in your inside 
ocket, safe from the nimble fingers of 
icquisitive individuals whom one some- 
meets in crowded railway coaches or 
•the- way places in southern Italy. You 
lot use tlie letter of credit except in 
encies such as the loss of your travel- 
eck-books or other unforseen accidents. 
an draw money on this letter of credit 
or more banks in nearly every city and 
in Europe, but the bank never opens 
nough for a live, active American, and 
3t always convenient of access. A let- 
credit, however, is a certificate of char- 
and this, together with your passport 
by the Secretarj' of State, will give you 
! financial and social standing that may 
Hired to meet any emergencies that may 
in European travel. You will want 



three separate coin-purses, — one for gold, one 
for silver, and one for copper. And you 
finally fall in love with the gold pieces of 
Holland and France. They are beautiful 
coins and they soon impress you as being real 
money. By the time you are ready to go 
home you will find it difficult to repress the 
wish that gold would take the place of the 
limp and flimsy rags in the circulating 
medium of your own country; but when you 
reach New York how good those " rags " feel 
and how pleasing the face of the Father of his 
Country on a twenty-dollar-gold certificate! 
And other things will look good to you be- 
sides the gold yellow Treasury notes. There 
are the skyscrapers, not beautiful at all, but 
how beautiful they look to the wanderer re- 
turning home from strange lands ! Of course 
the streets will look dirty, — almost any street 
will look dirty after being in Berlin, or Paris, 
or The Hague, — but you won't mind the 
dirt. American dirt is cleaner than any other 
dirt. It is newer and fresher. And how good 
the wideness and vastness, the splendid dis- 
tances, the Jboundless spaces, seem to you as 
you pull out of New York into the country 
that God made. But you will want to cross 
again. There are so many things you didn't 
see. You will want to go abroad before the 
splendid monuments and palaces of France 
crumble away, — even now they are badly in 
need of soap. They were built " in the days 
of the Empire," when they could squeeze mil- 
lions out of the people whenever the King 
wanted to change the wall-paper in his draw- 
ing-room. The dear old ladies who show 
you your seats in the Grand Opera House 
will not always be there. Some day the peo- 
ple of Vollendam and the Island of Marken 
will discard their quaint and picturesque 
Dutch costumes and will look just as much 
like Americans as the people of Rotterdam. 
The giant arms of the glorious old wind- 
mills that sweep the blue skies of dreamy 
Holland will give way before the onward 
march of gasolene. Better go before the elec- 
tric motor drives the gondolas of Venice into 
the limbo of forgetfulness. Go while the 
children are still feeding the pigeons of St. 
Mark's. Go while the guide at Cologne is 
still able to show you the chest that contains 
the bones of the Magi. Some day he will die, 
and no one else can tell the story with such 
feeling as the fine old fellow who can show 
you the exact spot where Napoleon's horses 
kicked chunks out of the altars in the Ca- 
thedral. Go while the old is new and the 
new is old. Better go now. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES FOR THE PRESIDEN 

- - - - -- I jIip c],jpf <]iie-.tioii is the chance of Buci 

the im medial el) ensuing ekciions. Und 
head must bt tonsicicred fir-it the stren 
himsilf mcaiurctl b> the |)opu!a 
hu poaiiion upon questions which divide 
opinion and sccondlj hia strength of ihi 
compared uith Iliat of his probable or p 
antagcm I Ihe leader of the opposing par 

Mr Thomas thinks that the questii 

the minds of the electors 

le influence of wealth upi 

expressed buth overtl] 

IS shown in the successful 

II attempt within the ranks 

party to revise the -t*!)?, 

•iocailed government bj injunction, 

punishment of small offenders while 

Nw", aiKiin''t the big criminals are per 

to -.lumber in the corruptmg of 

tue and legislativt officers the corru 

rangement with party managers to i 

ante election promises and the suppi 

of the people s voice in the elections 

scUes 

Oiilsidc the ma Innery of govcmme 
ini<(iii us effoit .)f thi iiifiiuncc of we 
ftrt m the discriinm id n f the raiirn 
fnor of the hr(,tr shipper iiid the explr 
(f thi inifhc ihrtngh tht di honest ma 




Iromtl ; ,B(„,Mn iWnshlnBtonl 

POR those who have the welfire of the 
UemoLr-itii pirt\ -it heart the present 
must be a somewhit anxious time Not in 
many jcars has tlic outlook been so unassur 
ing the prospect of umnimity in the choice 
of a Presidential nominee so dim As no 
ticed in our last issue so thoughtful a poll 
tician as Mr Thomas Mott Osborne is 
prompted to ask, Has the Democratic part> 
a future?" There is, however, no lack of 
aspirants for Presidential honors. The North 
Anirrinin Rrvicw for May contained a 
series of articles on the Republican candi- 
dates; and in the June number of the same 
magazine are set forth the claims of no fewer 
than ten possible Democratic nominees. Of 
■ these, limitations of space prevent our notic- 
ing more than the following: 

WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN. 

Mr, Augustus Thomas, the well-known 
playwright, in presenting the claims of Mr. 
Bryan, says that " the reasons for the 
nomination of a candidate of either party 
may be divided broadly into those of ex- 
pediency and those of sentiment" In the 
first of these divisions, 



11 of c 



rp r 



-tjcks 



Mr Bryan more than any other n 
the United States says Mr Thomas, 
indelibly associated with the protest j 
all these evils. To his advocacy and 
ence was due the insertion in the last 
Democratic platforms of planks dem: 
the correction of the evils of railroa 
the vigorous prosecutii 



trusts, and the 

over, it is 

a fact (hat the principal reforms whid 

come to lie associated with President Ro 

in the public mind, and in (he demand for 

his parly is by no nie.ms unanimous, we 

indicated by Mr. Bryan. 

In considering Mr. Bryan's strengt 
candidate it is recalled that in 1904. 
the Dem(H:ratic party abandoned the fo 
movement inaugurated by him, " m 
treateil ro the parade-ground domJnai 
Mr. Parker," the total Democratic vo 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 89 

7,280,000 behind that of four years before; torney, some one sugested Folk. Folk de- 

and when his strength is compared with dined. 

fhat of the Republican candidate, — '* prob- n,,.-.! 1 • • * 1 n- n u . i_ • 

, , T- , '{_* Ti 1 >» • • ^^ut the bosses insisted. Folk began ^o hesi- 

ably 1 aft, possibly Roosevelt, —it is a ques- tate. Finally be said. " Yes. I will accept the 

tion whether public faith and allegiance will nomination, but if elected I shall obey my oath 

rally round standards borrowed from De- <^f office." The bosses heeded not the remark. 

niocracy and "raised by Mr. Roosevelt • ,• • ,^X^^^ ^^'^^ an oath of office in a city 

, -^ . r^ ^ where bribery had so long been, as an attorney 

above a mutinous Congress. ... or f^r some of the boodlers afterward declared, 

-whether they will follow the same standards ''merely a conventional ofTcnse"? How well 

in the hands of Mr. Bryan, who first raised ^'"'k obeyed his oath of office they soon 

trhem." \^^nx^d, ... 

The personal affection of a large body of The St. Louis bosses threatened to destroy 

The Democratic voters is, in Mr. Thomas' Folk after he had prosecuted the corruption- 

3 udgment, a powerful element in Mr. Bry- ists, and throughout his term of office he was 

2ui's candidature. His Sunday addresses and "hounded, villified, and slandered"; but 

The lectures delivered by him in his regular he kept up the fight, and at the end of his 

Tours have probably brought him into con- four years he had ** convicted more boodlers 

Tact with more than a million and a quarter than were ever before convicted by any sin- 

of his countrymen, who have thus gained a gle prosecuting officer in the world's history," 

** high opinion of his sincerity, proAmdity, His subsequent candidacy for the Demo- 

and stability." cratic nomination for the governorship of 

Mr. Bryan, temporarily deserted by the man- ^^^/psouri produced " the most spectacular 

ngers of the so-called conservative wing of his political campaign m the annals of Missouri. 

organization, regained and held the hearts of its Opposed by all officialdom, from Governor 

rank and tile by personal and fraternal contact, to township constable, with the unlimited 

He has made converts and recruits. Other can- „,^„i«.u ^i •„«...^ u«j *.• j 

didates in the partv may command equal respect. ^^^.'^^ ?\ mtrenched corruption arrayed 

but no other can so thoroughly evoke, sustain, against him, l^olk entered on the contest 

and augment the enthusiasm necessary to a mili- single-handed, and, breaking down the oppor 

lant and progressive and successful campaign. sition, secured a practically unanimous nomi- 

GOVERNOR FOLK. OF MISSOURI. nation. 

^ 1- 11 . t I • 1 -^^ Governor of Missouri Mr. Folk has a 

Governor Folk has been so much in the brilliant record ; and the many good laws 

public eye, and his fame as an opponent of enacted in response to his recommendations 

graft has spread so far and wide, that it testifv to his deep interest in the moral and 

seems incredible that it was only fourteen political, as well as in the material, welfare 

years ago ( 1894) that, as Mr. 1 . S. Moshy, of his State. Though progressive in dealing 

his pardon attorney, says, he came from the ^v|th new problems, the genius of Governor 

State of Tennessee, " a young lawyer, lately Folk is, on the whole, profoundly conserva- 

graduated from Vanderbilt University, and tive. He once said: " Let us be conservative 

schooled in the best traditions of the South." \^ charging wrongdoing; but, once sure of 

Seeking no political honors, he devoted him- the wrong, let us be radical in its extermina- 

self to the practice of his profession, makinc: tion." He has never appealed to class. He 

it a rule to accept no employment that he knows but one code,—" the laws as they are 

did nc;t know to be absolutely honest. His written, not for the rich nor the poor, nor 

clientage increased, and the young attorney, for labor nor capital, but for all alike." He 

"who was no dashing orator, no politician h^s vindicated the constitution and the. laws 

with a pull, but one who was learned in the ^ith such courage and fidelity that every- 

law and diligent in his calling," came to be ^^hcre the name of Folk is known it is known 

known as a man that could be relied upon as a synonym of law-enforcement, 
to do his dutv. At this time occurred the 

^eat strike of street-railway men in St. J^^^GE gray, of Delaware. 

Louis. The union men engaged Folk, and in presenting the claims of Judge Gray, 
the strike was settled in a manner agreeable Mr. T. F. Bayard, chairman of the Demo- 
te all parties. cratic State Central Committee of Delaware, 
In the campaign of 1900, wl\en certain says: 

political bosses were naming a Democratic r^c\\ 11. , t 

1- I ^ / ^L • X c^ T • ^u L • ^-^^ tlie many candidates now alx)nt to be pre- 

ticket for the city of St. I^uis, there being ,^,^^^,, ,,y ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ political parties for the 

no available man for the ofhce of circuit at- coming conventions to pass upon no one has 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES FOR THE PRESIDENCr_ 




pt)R these who have tlic ivdf.-irc .if tlie 
Demotratii: party at licart the present 
must be a soniewliat anxious tiiiif. Not in 
many years has the outiuok heen w> unassiir- 
ing, the prospect of unanimity in the choice 
of a Presidential nominee so dim. As no- 
ticed in our last issue, so thoiijihtful a poli- 
tician as Mr. Thomas Mott Osbtirne is 
prompted to ask, " Has the Democratic party 
a future?" There is, however, no lack of 
aspirants for Presidential honors. The North 
AmfrUnn Revuw for May contained a 
series of articles on the Republican candi- 
dates; and in the June number of the same 
magazine arc set forth the claims of no fewer 
than ten possible Domwratic nominees. Of 
■ these, limitations of space prevent our notic- 
ing more than the following: 

WILLIAM JENNrNCS BRYAN. 

Mr. Augustus Thomas, the weli-known 
playwright, in presenting the claims of Mr, 
Bryan, says that " the reasons for the 
nomination of a candidate of either party 
may be divided broadly into those of ex- 
pediency and those of sentiment." In the 
first of these divisions, 



ilie cliii-f <iut'siion is the chance of success iji 
the immcdialely ctisuing ekctions. Undi-r Ihi is 
head must lie coDsidcred, first, tlie strength caf 
the man himself measured by the popularity of 
his position uiwn ([uestions which divide publ ic 
opinion ; and, secondly, his strength of (hat kir-a <1 
coitiparttl with that of his probable or possi[>lc 
antagonist, tlie leader of the opposing party. 

Mr. Thomas thinks that the question u^*- 
pemiost in the minds of the electors to-d^a-y 
is the undue influence of wealth upon tH»c- 
Government, expressed both overtly ar» <» 
covertly, as shown in " the successful resis.*- 
ance of any attempt within the ranks of l\-»c 
dominant party " to revise the -tAiff, in tl"*^ 
so-called government by injunction, in l\~»*^ 
punishment of small offenders while "tl~»*= 
taws against the big criminals are pcrmitter*^ 
to slumber," in the " corrupting of cxec«-«" 
five and legislative officers, the corrupt a » 
rangement with party managers to nullitf^y 
ante-election promises, and the suppression^ 
of the people's voice in the elections thenrm— 

Oulsidi' ihc machinery of Rovcrnmeiit tli^ 
iiiic|uilims cllwl of ihi' inllucncc of wcahh is 
Ml in llK' rUscriminaliriii of the railrreids in 
favor iif liif larger shipper, and the exploitatiofi 
of llif public tlirough the dishonest manipula- 
tion of corpor.ite stocks. 

Mr. Bryan, more than any other man in 
the United States, says Mr. Thomas, stands 
indelibly associated with the protest against 
all these evils. Ti his advocacy and influ- 
ence was due the insertion in the last three 
Democratic platforms of planks demanding 
the correction of the evils of railroad dis- 



the 



of 



a fact tli.il (he principal reforms which have 
come to be as-;i>ciated with President Roosevelt 
in llic public mind, and in the demand for which 
his parlv is by no means unanimous, were first 
indicated by Mr. llryan. 

In considering Mr, Bryan's strength as a 
candidate it is recalled that in 1904, when 
the Democratic party abandoned the forward 
movement inaugurated by him. " and re- 
treated to the parade-ground dominated by 
Mr. Parker," the total Democratic vote fell 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. g9 



an jto hcsi- 
accept the 



7,280,000 behind that of four years before; torney, some one sugested Folk. Folk de- 

and when his strength is compared with dined. 

fhat of the Republican candidate, — " prob- i», ...1 , • • <. 1 t- n u 

, t ^^ /^ -^1 T> , „ . . *^ But the hosses insisted. Tolk beg 

ably laft, possibly Roosevelt, —it is a ques- tate. Finally he said, "Yes. 1 will _.._, 

tion whether public faith and allegiance will nomination, but if elected I shall obey my oath 

rally round standards borrowed from De- ^f office." The bosses heeded not the remark. 

mocracy and "raised by Mr. Roosevelt • ,' ' ,^^^* ^''^^ an oath of office in a city 

• ^ ' r^ ^ where bribery had so long been, as an attorney 

above a mutinous Congress. ... or f^r some of the boodlcrs afterward declared, 

v^hether they will follow the same standards "merely a conventional offense "? How well 

in the hands of Mr. Bryan, who first raised ^^'k obeyed his oatli of office they soon 

trhem." X^^^mcd. . . . 

The personal affection of a large body of The St. Louis bosses threatened to destroy 

The Democratic voters is, in Mr. Thomas' Folk after he had prosecuted the corruption- 

3 udgment, a powerful element in Mr. Bry- ists, and throughout his term of office he was 

2ui's candidature. His Sunday addresses and "hounded, villified, and slandered"; but 

The lectures delivered by him in his regular he kept up the fight, and at the end of his 

Tours have probably brought him into con- four years he had " convicted more boodlers 

Tact with more than a million and a quarter than were ever before convicted by any sin- 

of his countrymen, who have thus gained a gle prosecuting officer in the world's history," 

** high opinion of his sincerity, proftmdity, His subsequent candidacy for the Demo- 

and stability." cratic nomination for the governorship of 

Mr. Bryan, temporarily deserted by the man- ^^'^^P^]' produced "the most spectacular 

sgcrs of the so-called conservative wing of his political campaign in the annals of Missouri, 

organization, regained and held the hearts of its Opposed by all officialdom, from Governor 

rank and tile by personal and fraternal contact, to township constable, with the unlimited 

He has made converts and recruits. Other can- „.«„ui, ^i *....« k .j ^' j 

didates in the party mav command equal respect, ^^^j^^ ?\ >ntjenched corruption arrayed 

but no other can so thoroughly evoke, sustain, apmst him, hoik entered on the contest 

and augment the enthusiasm necessary to a mili- single-handed, and, breaking down the oppor 

lant and progressive and successful campaign. sition, secured a practically unanimous nomi- 

cx)VERNOR FOLK, OF MISSOURI. nation. 

^ T- II 1 • I . 1 ^^ Governor of Missouri Mr. Folk has a 

Governor Folk has been so much in the brilliant record; and the many good laws 

public eye, and his fame as an opponent of enacted in response to his recommendations 

graft has spread so far and wide, that it ^estifv to his deep interest in the moral and 

seems incredible that it was only fourteen political, as well as in the material, welfare 

years ago (1894) that, as Mr. 1. S. Moshy, ^f his State. Though progressive in dealing 

his pardon attorney, says, he came from the ^^ith new problems, the genius of Governor 

State of IVnnessee, " a young lawyer, lately Polk is, on the whole, profoundly conserva- 

graduated from Vanderbilt University, and tive. He once said: " Let us be conservative 

schooled in the best traditions of the South." jn charging wrongdoing; but, once sure of 

Seeking no political honors, he devoted him- the wrong, let us be radical in its extermina- 

self to the practice of his profession, making tion." He has never appealed to class. He 

It a rule to accept no employment that he knows but one code,—*' the laws as they are 

did not know to be absolutely honest. His written, not for the rich nor the poor, nor 

dientajie increased, and the young attorney, for labor nor capital, but for all alike." He 

"who was no dashing orator, no politician has vindicated the constitution and the. laws 

with a pull, but one who was learned in the ^fth such courage and fidelity that every- 

law and diligent in his calling," came to be ^^hcre the name of Folk Is known it is known 

known as a man that could be relied upon as a synonym of law-enforcement, 
to do his duty. At this time occurred the 

jrreat strike of street-railway men in St. J^^^GE gray, of Delaware. 

Louis. The union men engaged Folk, and in presenting the claims of Judge Gray, 

the strike was settled in a manner agreeable Mr. T. F. Bayard, chairman of the Demo- 

to all parties. cratic State Central Committee of Delaware, 

In the campaign of 1900, wl\en certain says: 

political bosses were naming a Democratic .^r * , ... , , 

1- L -. r -u • r c^ I • ..u k«-«^ ^^^ ^"<^ many candidates now ahout to he pre- 

tickct for the city of St. I^uis, there being ^^^^^^^ |,y i^^^,, t,^^ ^^^^^ political parties for the 

no available man for the office of circuit at- coming conventions to pass upon no one has 



do TH£ AMERICAN REl^lEU^ OF REf^IElt^S. 

had the experience and training which should of the Superior G)urt of that State, whei 

quahfy the nommee of either great party such h^ ^.^^ jojnej ^y Joseph B. Forakc 

as Judge Gray has had, and no one who has held i , j l i • • • i- - 

office at the gift of the people has rendered a ^"° afterward went back into active pohtiC 

finer or more conscientious account of his stew- In 1887 Judson Harmon resigned his judg 

ardship. ship to become a partner in a New York !»• 

Mr. Gray, having been admitted to the fi"""™' fn*^ l°J mo/^ tl)an eight years hevn 

Delaware bar in 186?, was appointed Attor- «"* ^^ P"Wic hfe. In 1895, when 01n« 

ney-General for his State in 1879, and was yi;p "i^de Secretary of State, Preside* 

reappointed in 1884. The learning and abil- Cleveland appomted Harmon to the vaca» 

ities which he displayed in this office led attorney-generalship, and the latter om 

to his selection as United States Senator *'""^<* ,'" *"e office till 1897. The one fei 

from Delaware in 1885. He soon became *">■« °/ Attorney-General Harmons wor 

one of the leaders on the Democratic side, "o^ of most public interest is the establisl 

He opposed the so-called " force bill " in "^^"^ «* t"^ tederal power to deal with coi 

1892; and with regard to trusts, as is well Pf^^^ aggression under the commerce claus 

known, he holds that the administration of "J ^^^ Constitution. When he took offic 

law in regulation and restraint thereof th^ general opinion of the bar was that th 

should be directed toward the individuals Sherman Anti-Trust law was impracticabl 

who operate them. °' enforcement. Attorney-General Harmo 

At the" close of his Senatorial term Mr. fi""** a"f. ^^^f" t't"e demonstrated Jts er 

Gray was appointed United States Circuit fo/ceability. He took up the so-called Trans 

Judge, and his occupancy of this position has M'/so"" case, briefed and argued it himscli 

afforded further opportunity for the display ^"^ ^O" '* ^V », ^^^^ of 5 to 4. He sub« 

of his ability. In 1903 Judge Gray was ap- ^"«'?'iy Proposed several amendments to th 

pointed head of the arbitration commission Ant'-T rust law, one of which was the ir 

which settled the differences between the section of a clause casting upon the defend 

anthracite miners and operators ; and f."^* ^^^ °}'r^'] V P™"* p *° matters pecti 

liarly within their own knowledge. Som 
to-day his name is a helovcd household word years later he was retained with F. N. Jud 
among all the coal-miners of the country, and a „f gt. Louis, as special counsel for th 

synonym for justice and fairness with all em- ^ ' . \ ^ , , r \ i 

ployers of labor. Liovernment tor the punishment ot unlawfu 

rebates granted by the Atchison, Topcka i 

Since 1903 other strikes have been re- Santa Fe Railway Company. They recom 

ferred to him for arbitration, and he has mended that " all its principal officers am 

quietly and successfully adjusted the differ- agents who had during the period namei 

cnces in question. power and authority over traffic agreement 

Judge Gray's name was presented to the anj freight rates be arraigned for contemp 

National Democratic Convention in 1904; of court." The recommendation was no 

but * the circumstances leading to Mr. acted upon, and Messrs. Judson and Har 

Parker's nomination were too strong to per- ^^on withdrew from the case. The nomina 

mit any show of success " for the Dela- tion of Judge Harmon for the Presidcnci 

warean. To-day, "when every one, regard- would, Mr. Whitney holds, be an endorse 

less of party," is seeking a good man for the nient of his theorv of how to deal with cor 

Presidential office, ** many Republicans as poratc abuse and corporate crime, 
well as Democrats find in Judge Gray the 
man of their choice." governor johnson, of Minnesota. 

JUDSON HARMON, OF OHIO. Governor Johnson's sponsor in the Nortl 

Mi?i 1 u \\7U'^ '.' ^u American Review is Mr. Thomas D 

r. Ldward n. Whitney, writing on the ri»Ti^;«« t.,^....^ ^ n • • c ^./f 

,. rri u !_/ u ^-^ onen, Insurance Commissioner of Mmne 

claims of Judge Harmon, says that, for the ^^^^ f^^^ ^^ ^^ maintains thai 

purpose of familiarizing its occupant with candidate for the Presidential offia 

the whole machinery of the federal Govern- .< ^ ^ ^^.^^^, ^^j ^ ^j 

ment, no office below the Presulency is supc- ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^e elected." and that 
nor, perhaps none equal, to that of the At- 
torney-General. " what is required in a chief magistrate at thiJ 
Mr. Harmon was admitted to the bar in time is honest purpose, intelligence. knowledg< 
.0/:^ J *^i 1 • f^' • ^« T 0^0 J Ot aitairs. calm, deliberate lU'Jcmcnt. and cool 
1 869 and settled in Cincinnati In 1878 and serene courage, the courage to ftav the spoilt' 
again m 1003 he was elected to the bench hand, no matter whose it may \w.; withal h< 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 91 

should be a constructive statesman, for we are iron mines, the usual demand for troops was 

in a period of transition. ^^^^ j,y ^^^ gteel Trust. Instead of com- 

Though these are very severe tests to ap- plying, Mr. Johnson went to the scene of the 

ply to any candidate, yet, judged by them, disturbance, gave definite interpretation to 

Governor Johnson evinces peculiar fitness the respective rights of both parties, ** and 

for the Presidency. the strike passed into history with a record 

Govcraor Johnson has fought his way to of less disorder than would have occurred in 

his present position under particularly ad- the affected region under normal conditions 

verse drcumstances, — he has, by the way, in the same length of time." 
been newspaper editor, captain of militia, and Governor Johnson, in making appoint- 

State Senator, — and he holds the unique po- ments to office, has always been careful to 

sition of Democratic Governor of a Repub- select men of the highest standing regardless 

lican State. As such he has been a closely of political effect. 

T^'atched man; but the Legislature and the In Mr. O'Brien's judgment, Mr. John- 
other executive officers of the State, though son is the most available candidate the 
differing from him in politics, have accorded National Democratic convention could select, 
him loyal support; and on his advice ** reform He is 
after reform has been introduced . . . 

until now it can be said that Minnesota is ^ l><^7ocrat in the prime of life who has suc- 
^ , , 1 c ^ • ^u ceedecl m everything? he has undertaken, who as 
one of^ the best-governed btates m the Governor of one of the great progressive States 
^ nion." has compelled the love of his party and the ad- 
One characteristic of Governor Johnson is miration of his opponents, who has in his pri- 

that of going directly to the heart of a situa- ^'^^^ ''J P"^^',^ ^'[^ nothing to explain or apolo- 

♦:«« T^ L *.-.•!• R'^*^ ^or, and who, by reason of his residence, 

tion. Last summer, when a great strike in- antecedents, race, and personality, gives the very 

volvmg some I7,CXX) miners occurred in the highest promise of success. 



DOES PROHIBITION PAY? 

W/^ITH the current number of Appletons physician. "Yes," was the cynical reply, as the 

Magazine is inaugurated a series of n?edical man poised his glass of wine in mid- 

,,♦• i^ J *u u^ ^ \. 4.;«^ ^^^r>^^,^:,^r^ ^^r. Nineteen fools and one wise man. 

articles under the above caption, concerning 

which the editor, in his introductory note, It appears that eighteen years later the 

says: twelve survivors of this gathering met at an- 

In almost every consideration of what we o^^^i* ^;""^''- ^f^'' ^i// of the twelve drank 
characterize broadly as "the liquor question," THineral water, ? or reasons of health or of 
the point really at issue is prohibition, whether business they had become convinced that 
or not that word comes to the fore. People are Hquor-drinking did not pay. In that inci- 
not discussmg temperance in the sense of mod- i _^ i^f t *u- i • -. u r ^j 
cration, on which there is no respectable dif- ^^^nt, Mr. Lawrence thinks, is to be found 
ference of opinion. ... Few now deny the the true explanation of the present wide- 
wisdom of some restrictive legislation as to the spread legislation against liquor-selling, 
manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages ''Look around among your friends and as- 
. . . Altogether outside the commor. range of •*•!.• »> u << *u 
discussion as to the efficacy of legislation there f^^^^^es in business, he say's, the men you 
is a question truly American and deserving of know and meet, and note the change within 
reply: Does prohibition pay? your own recollection.*' In the army at the 
Applying the individual test, Mr. George close of the Civil War practically every 
C. Lawrence discusses the question from the officer drank; " to-day one-third are total ab- 
economic side. He begins his article with a stainers, and drunkenness costs a man his 
reference to a notable dinner which was commission. 

given twenty-two years ago to a famous phy- Economic conditions, — in common par- 

' sician. There were nineteen guests, all of lance, " It doesn't pay,"— form the great un- 

whom applied themselves assiduously to the derlying factor of the anti-drink movement, 

rare wines placed before them. The host which is primarily neither moral nor relig- 

meanwhile '\o\iSy but " a cold matter of dollars and 

. . , . , , , .- , ,. , , , cents." Steadilv man has been forced to the 

sat at the head of the table nibbling dry toast , . ^\^ '\ * xi j *. i *«! 

and siopinK mineral water. " Isn't that pa- conclusion that he cannot afford to drink. 

thetic?" said one of the guests to the famous 1 he economic aspects of the anti-Hnnk 



do THE AMERICAN RE^/ElV OP REf/IEll^S. 

hnd the experience and training which should of the Superior Court of that State, whc 

qualify the nominee of either great party such j^^ ,^,^8 soon joined by Joseph B. Forake 

as Judge uray has had, and no one who has held i r^ j ^ i_ i • ^ • • i- • 

office at the gift of the people has rendered a ^^'^o afterward went back into active pohtic 

iiner or more conscientious account of his stew- In 1 887 Judson Harmon resig;ned his judg 
ardship. ship to become a partner in a New York la 

Mr. Gray, having been admitted to the ^™> ?"^ J^f T/^ ^'j^ ^i^ht years he w 

Delaware bar in 1863, was appointed Attor- ^"^ ^^ P^^l^c life. In 1895, when Obi- 

ney-General for his State in 1879, and was ^'p "lade Secretary of State, Prcsidci 

reappointed in 1884. The learning and abil- Cleveland appomted Harmon to the vacai 

ities which he displayed in this of!^ce led attorney-generalship, and the latter coi 

to his selection as United States Senator tmued m the office till 1897. The one fe 

from Delaware in 1885. He soon became ^"^^ «/ Attorney-General Harmons woi 

one of the leaders on the Democratic side. "«^ of most public interest is the establis, 

He opposed the so-called ** force bill" in ment of the federal power to deal with co 

1892; and with regard to trusts, as is well P^^ate aggression under the commerce clau 

known, he holds that the administration of ^f the Constitution. When he took offi. 

law in regulation and restraint thereof ^^e general opinion of the bar was that tl 

should be directed toward the individuals Sherman Anti-Trust law was impracticab 

who operate them. °' enforcement. Attorney-General Hanii( 

At the* close of his Senatorial term Mr. ^''^^ \".^. ^^^f^l ^'"^^ demonstrated jts c 

Gray was appointed United States Circuit forceability. He took up the so-called Trar 

Judge, and his occupancy of this position has Missouri case, briefed and argued it himsel 

afforded further opportunity for the display ^^^ ^'^n »t by a vote of 5 to 4. He subs 

of his ability. In 1903 Judge Gray was ap- ^"^^^^j^; Proposed several amendments to tl 

pointed head of the arbitration commission Anti-Trust law, one of which was the 1 

which settled the differences between the s^r^»«" ^f a clause casting upon the defen 

anthracite miners and operators; and f."^^ ^^^ .7.^^^" °/ P^'^^f p ^^ matters pec 

liarly within their own knowledge. Son 
to-day his name is a helovcd household word years later he was retained with F. N. Ju 
among all the coal-miners of the country, and a ' ^^ g^ Lo^j 5 j j , f ^, 

synonym for justice and fairness with all em- ^ ' . \ ^ . , r 1 r 

ployers of labor. Cjovernment tor the punishment of unlawf 

rebates granted by the Atchison, Topcka 

Since 1903 other strikes have been re- Santa Fe Railway Company. They recor 

ferred to him for arbitration, and he has mended that " all its principal officers ar 

quietly and successfully adjusted the differ- agents who had during the period nam« 

ences in question. power and authority over traffic agreemcn 

Judge Gray's name was presented to the ynj freight rates be arraigned for contemi 

National Democratic Convention in 1904; of court." The recommendation was ni 

but " the circumstances leading to Mr. acted upon, and Messrs. Judson and Ha 

Parker's nomination were too strong to per- ^^on withdrew from the case. The nomin: 

mit any show of success" for the Dela- tion of Judge Harmon for the Prcsidenc 

warean. IVday, *' when every one, regard- would, Mr. Whitney holds, be an endor* 

less of party," is seeking a good man for the ^ent of his theory^ of how to deal with co 

Presidential office, ** many Republicans as porate abuse and corporate crime, 
well as Democrats find in Judge Gray the 
man of their choice." governor johnson, of Minnesota. 

JUDSON HARMON^ OF OHIO. Governor Johnson's sponsor in the Nori 

»yr 1? I lu wTU'^ •.• .u /American Review h Mr. Thomas I 

Mr. hdward n. Whitney, writing on the n»R^.*o« t«o,,..««^-. n • • «• t \f ^ 

,. /Tj Tj L/.L ^^ ijrien. Insurance Commissioner of Minni 

claims of Judge Harmon, says that, for the ^^^ f^^^ ^^ j^^ maintains th 

purpose of fam.l.ar.zmg its occupant w.th candidate for the Presidential offi. 
the whole machinery of the federal Govern- » ^„,^ f ^^ ^^.^^^^ ^„j ^^^^j ^ 
ment, no office below the Presuiency is supe- ^^^^ „^ ,;,^^,^, ^^ ,,^ ^,^^^^j .. ^^j ^^^^ 
nor, perhaps none equal, to that of the At- 
torney-General. " what is required in a chief magistrate at th 
Mr. Harmon was admitted to the bar in time is honest purpose, intelligence, knowledj 
,0/^ 1 ^^^-.1 1 • r^* • a.* T .CO J o* affairs, calm, deliberate judgment, and coc 
1869 and settled m Cmcmnati In 1878 and serene courage, the courajrc \o stav the spoiler 
again m 1003 he was elected to the bench hand, no matter whose it may Ik-; withal I 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 91 

should be a constructive statesman, for we are iron mines, the usual demand for troops was 

in a period of transition. ^^^^ by ^he Steel Trust. Instead of com- 

Though these arc very severe tests to ap- plying, Mr. Johnson went to the scene of the 

ply to any candidate, yet, judged by them, disturbance, gave definite interpretation to 

Governor Johnson evinces peculiar fitness the respective rights of both parties, ** and 

for the Presidency. the strike passed into history with a record 

Governor Johnson has fought his way to of less disorder than would have occurred in 

his present position under particularly ad- the affected region under normal conditions 

verse circumstances, — he has, by the way, in the same length of time." 

been newspaper editor, captain of militia, and Governor Johnson, in making appoint- 

State Senator, — and he holds the unique po- ments to office, has always been careful to 

sition of Democratic Governor of a Repub- select men of the highest standing regardless 

lican State. As such he has been a closely of political effect. 

watched man; but the Legislature and the In Mr. O'Brien's judgment, Mr. John- 
other executive officers of the State, though son is the most available candidate the 
differing from him in politics, have accorded National Democratic convention could select. 
Him loyal support; and on his advice " reform He is 
after reform has been introduced . . . 

until now it can be said that Minnesota is « I^^ocrat in the prime c.f life who has sue- 

- , , J c • ^L ccedecl in everything he lias nndertaken, who as 

one of^ the best-governed btates in the Governor of one of the great progressive States 

Lnion.* has compelled the love of his party and the ad- 
One characteristic of Governor Johnson is miration of his opponents, who has in his pri- 
trhat of going directly to the heart of a situa- ^'^^e or puhlic Hfe nothing to explain or apolo- 
. T ^ L ^ ^ •! • t?'7^ i<^>r. and who, bv reason of his residence, 
tion. Last summer, when a great strike in- antecedents, race, and' personality, gives the very 

volving some 17,000 miners occurred in the highest promise of success. 



DOES PROHIBITION PAY? 

\X7 ITH the current number of Appletons physician. " Yes," was the cynical reply, as the 

^ Magazine is inaugurated a series of medical man poised his glass of wine in mid- 

_. 1 1 ^1 i_ ^° ^-^ ^«^^,«;nrr ^t^^' Nineteen fools aiid onc wisc mail. 

articles under the above caption, concerning 

which the editor, in his introductory note, It appears that eighteen years later the 

says: twelve survivors of this gathering met at an- 

In almost every consideration of what we ''^^^^ ^;""^''- ^^^J" "^^^ «/ the twelve drank 
characterize broadly as "the liquor question," mineral uater. For reasons of health or of 
the point really at issue is prohibition, whether business they had become convinced that 
or not that word comes to the fore. People are liquor-drinking did not pay. In that inci- 
not discussing temperance m the sense of mod- ,^, ^^^ »'' ^ ..u'l • ^ u c «i 
eration, on which there is no respectable dif- ^^^"^^ ^^^' Lawrence thinks, is to be found 
ference of opinion. ... Few now deny the the true explanation of the present wide- 
wisdom of some restrictive legislation as to the spread legislation against liquor-selling, 
manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages "Look around among your friends and as- 
. . . Altogether outside the common range of . ^ • u * « »» u *< -.u 
discussion as to the efficacy of legislation there f^ciates in business, he say-s, the men you 
is a question truly American and deserving of know and meet, and note the change within 
reply: Does prohibition pay? your own recollection." In the army at the 
Applying the individual test, Mr. George close of the Civil War practically every 
C. Lawrence discusses the question from the officer drank; " to-day one-third are total ab- 
cconomic side. He begins his article with a stainers, and drunkenness costs a man his 
reference to a notable dinner which was commission. 

given twenty-two years ago to a famous phv- Economic conditions, — in common par- 

' sician. There were nineteen guests, all of lance, " It doesn't pay,"— form the great un- 

whom applied themselves assiduously to the derlying factor of the anti-drink movement, 

rare wines placed before them. The host which is primarily neither moral nor relig- 

meanwhile '\o\is, but " a cold matter of dollars and 

, . , ,, ., -,. , ^ , cents." Steadilv man has been forced to the 

sat at the head of the table nibbling dry toast 1 . ^y '\, *, a \ ^ j..-«i 

and siDpinR mineral water. " Isn't that pa- conclusion that he cannot afford to drink. 

thetic?" said one of the guests to the famous The economic aspects of the anti-dnnk 



do THE AMERICAN REt^lElV OP REl^lEU^S. 

had the experience and training which should of the Superior Court of that State, whei 

qualify the nominee of either great party such ^e was soon joined by Joseph B. Forakc 

as Judge dray has had, and no one who has held ■ i^ , ^ l i • ^ • • i-^- 

office at tlie gift of the people has rendered a ""^ afterward went back into active politic 

finer or more conscientious account of his stew- In 1 887 Judson Harmon resigned his judg 
ardship. ship to become a partner in a New York la 

Mr. Gray, having been admitted to the fi™> ^^ [°J "^P/^ ^^^ '^l^^^ V^^ *« *" 

Delaware bar in 186^, was appointed Attor- «"* «* P"''l'C I'fe- I" '»95, when 01n« 

ney-General for his State in 1879, and was )^f* J"ad« Secretary of State, Preside* 

reappointed in 1884. The learning and abil- <-leveland appointed Harmon to the vacai 

ities which he displayed in this office led attorney-generalship, and the latter cm 

to his selection as United States Senator tinued m the office till 1897. The pne fe: 

from Delaware in 1885. He soon became ^"""^ °J Attorney-General Harmons woi 

one of the leaders on the Democratic side. "o«^ of most public interest is the establisl 

He opposed the so-called "force bill" in ment of the federal power to deal with co: 

1892; and with regard to trusts, as is well P^^ate aggression under the commerce dws 

known, he holds that the administration of "^ «"« Constitution. When he took offic 

law in regulation and restraint thereof ™^ ^ticrnl opinion of the bar was that th 

should be directed toward the individuals Sherman Anti-Trust law was impracticabl 

who operate them. o^ enforcement. Attorney-General Harmo 

At the close of his Senatorial term Mr. ^''^ »"f. ^"^f" »";"<= demonstrated Us e. 

Gray was appointed United States Circuit forceability. He took up the so-called Traij; 

Judge, and his occupancy of this position has Missouri case, briefed and argued it himsel 

afforded further opportunity for the display ^nd won it by a vote of 5 to 4. He subs 

of his abihty. In 1903 Judge Gray was ap- 'i}'^']^}^ P^Posed several amendments to tl 

pointed head of the arbitration commission Anti-Trust law, one of which was the 11 

which settled the differences between the s"tion of a clause casting upon the defen< 

anthracite miners and operators; and f."'^ ^^^ °}^r^" °J P™"* f* '» matters peci 

liarly within their own knowledge. Soir 

to-day his name is a heloved household word years later he was retained with F. N. Juc 

among all the coal-miners of the country, and a ' „£ g^ Lo^; 5 j , ^^^ , f j^ 

synonym for justice «ind fairness with all em- ^ ' ^ \ ^ , , t \ e 

ployers of labor. Cjovernment for the punishment or unlawh 

rebates granted by the Atchison, Topcka 4 

Since 1903 other strikes have been re- Santa Fe Railway Company. They recon 

fcrred to him for arbitration, and he has mended that "all its principal officers an 

quietly and successfully adjusted the differ- agents who had during the period name 

ences in question. power and authority over traffic agreement 

Judge Gray's name was presented to the ynj freight rates be arraigned for contcmp 

National Democratic Convention in 1904; of court/' The recommendation was no 

but " the circumstances leading to Mr. acted upon, and Messrs. Judson and Hai 

Parker's nomination were too strong to per- ^^on withdrew from the case. The nomma 

mit any show of success" for the Dela- tion of Judge Harmon for the Presidenc 

warean. To-day, " when ever>^ one, regard- would, Mr. Whitncv holds, be an endorse 

less of party," is seeking a good man for the ment of his theorv of how to deal with coi 

Presidential office, *' many Republicans as poratc abuse and corporate crime, 
well as Democrats find in Judge Gray the 
man of their choice." governor johnsox, of Minnesota. 

judson HARMON, OF OHIO. Governor Johnson's sponsor in the ^ort. 

\% T?j ID \\7\.'^ •.• .u American Review is Mr. Thomas D 

Mr. Ldward n. vVhitney, writing on the n»R^;o« t^o.,^««^-. n •,^- «- r \/f 

,. rri Tf L/ L ^^ linen, Insurance v^ommissioner of Mmne 

claims of Judge Harmon, says that, for the ^^^ f^„^ j,, ^^^ maintains tha 

purpose of familiarizing its occupant with candidate for the Presidential offic 
the whole machinery of the federal Govern- .. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^e ^^•orthv. and. second, avail 
ment, no office below the Presidency is supe- ^^e, or likely to be elected," and that 
nor, perhaps none equal, to that or the At- 
torney-General. " what is required in a chief magistrate at thi 
Mr. Harmon was admitted to the bar in time is honest purpose, intelligence, knowledg 
,0/^ 1 ^*.*.i 1 ' r*' ' ^- T .0*0 J ^^ attairs. calm, aelinerate iii'JKment, and coo 
1869 and settled in Cincinnati. In 1878 and serene couraRe, the courajre to stav the spoiler' 
again in 1003 he was elected to the bench hand, no matter whose it may he; withal h 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 91 

should be a constructive statesman, for we arc Iron mines, the usual demand for troops was 
in a period of transition. ^^^^ by ^he Steel Trust. Instead of corn- 
Though these are very severe tests to ap- plying, Mr. Johnson went to the scene of the 
p\y to any candidate, yet, judged by them, disturbance, gave definite interpretation to 
Governor Johnson evinces peculiar fitness the respective rights of both parties, ** and 
/or the Presidency. the strike passed into history with a record 
Governor Johnson has fought his way to of less disorder than would have occurred in 
h\% present position under particularly ad- the aflFected region under normal conditions 
Verse circumstances, — he has, by the way, in the same length of time." 
been newspaper editor, captain of militia, and Governor Johnson, in making appoint- 
State Senator, — and he holds the unique po- ments to office, has always been careful to 
sftion of Democratic Governor of a Repub- select men of the highest standing regardless 
lican State. As such he has been a closely of political effect. 

'W^atched man; but the Legislature and the In Mr. O'Brien's judgment, Mr. John- 
other executive officers of the State, though son is the most available candidate the 
differing from him in politics, have accorded National Democratic convention could select, 
him loyal support; and on his advice " reform He is 
after reform has been introduced . . . 

cintil now it can be said that Minnesota is ^ I^emocrat in the prime of life who has sue- 
i \ X J c -. • ^u ceodecl in evervtnmg he has undertaken, who as 
one of^ the best-governed States in the Governor of one of the great progressive States 
T^^nion." has compelled the love of liis party and the ad- 
One characteristic of Governor Johnson is miration of his opponents, who has in his pri- 

rhat of going directly to the heart of a situa- ^'^^^ ""/ P"^^'f ^'/^ nothing to explain or apolo- 

• T i_ -.-.•!• g'^<^ i^r, and who, by reason of his residence, 

tion. Last summer, when a great strike in- antecedents, race, and personality, gives the very 

volving some 17,000 miners occurred in the highest promise of succe- 



'SS. 



DOES PROHIBITION PAY? 

\^7 ITH the current number, of Appleton's physician. " Yes," was the oiiical reply, as the 
Maeazine is inaugurated a series of niedical man poised his glass of wine in mid- 
articles under the above caption, concerning ^''- Nineteen fools and one w.se man. 
which the editor, in his introductory note, It appears that eighteen years later the 
say's: twelve survivors of this gathering met at an- 
In almost every consideration of what wc other dinner. Ten out of the ticelve drank 
characterize broadly as "the liquor question," mineral water, Por reasons of health or of 
the point really at issue is prohibition, whether business they had become convinced that 
or not that word comes to the fore. People are Hquor-drinlcing did not pay. In that inci- 
not discussing temperance in the sense of mod- % ^^ \/r t ^u* i • -. u r j 
eration, on which there is no respectable dif- ^^^nt, Mr. Lawrence thinks, is to be found 
ference of opinion. . . . Few now deny the the true explanation of the present wide- 
wisdom of some restrictive legislation as to the spread legislation against liquor-selling, 
manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages ''Look around among your friends and as- 
. . . Altogether outside the common range of • ^ • u • »» u «< -.u 
discussion as to the efficacy of legislation there f^^iates in business, he say-s, the men you 
is a question truly American and deserving of know and meet, and note the change withm 
reply: Does prohibition pay? your own recollection.'* In the army at the 
Applying the individual test, Mr. George close of the Civil War practically every 
C. Lawrence discusses the question from the officer drank; " to-day one-third are total ab- 
cconomic side. He begins his article with a stainers, and drunkenness costs a man his 
reference to a notable dinner which was commission. 

given twenty-two years ago to a famous phy- Economic conditions, — in common par- 

' sician. There were nineteen guests, all of lance, '* It doesn't pay,"— form the great un- 

whom applied themselves assiduously to the derlying factor of the anti-drink movement, 

rare wines placed before them. The host which is primarily neither moral nor relig- 

meanwhile \o\x% but ** a cold matter of dollars and 

, . , .. ..... , ^ ^ cents." Steadilv man has been forced to the 

sat at the head of the table nibbling dry toast 1 . ^\, '\, *. ix j -. 1 • 1 

and siopinK mineral water. " Isn't that pa- cone usion that he cannot afford to drink. 

Ihetk?" said one of the guests to the famous The economic aspects of the anti-drink 



92 THE AMERICAN RE^IEli^ OF REVIEWS. 

movement are many. There is the all-im- In the United States, according to life- 

portant one of productivity. insurance tables, the percentage of the actual 

Man is, if you will, simply an engine, and the cieath loss to the expected loss was: among 

question of running that engine most cheaply abstainers, 78 to lOO; among non-abstainers, 

and efficiently is the question of its highest g6 to lOO. The increase in mortality among 

productivity,--its greatest economic value ^^^ Indians, when alcoholic liquors were sold 

. . . Purchasers of labor.— whether that ^ ^, . ^^ r 1 ^^ i«j«,^ 

labor be of a sewer-digger or a Senator,-want to them, is a matter of common knowledge, 

results from the human machine. And it has The economic waste of alcohol is recog- 

been demonstrated that the human machine run nized by many classes of professional men. 

on alcohol falls far behind that which is not. Lawyers are no longer drinking men, as 

.. . . No one has ever made a practical inter- x ^u • u j ^^r a «„ 

nal explosive engine operated by gunpowder, "jany of them were m vhc days of Aaror 
though many have tried. No one has ever Burr and Daniel Webster, l- itty years age 
evolved an efficient human machine working on many a doctor steadied his nerves for an op- 
alcohol, though millions have tried. ^ eration with whisky. To-day few, if any 
In discussing the aspect of longevity, Mr. do so. Why? Simply because it doesn*i 
Lawrence presents some remarkable figures pay. With the workingman the question is 
prepared by the eminent English actuary, Sir still more vital. Figures show that he, too 
Victor Horsley. Where the average mortal- is decreasing his consumption of drink. H( 
ity among adult males of all classes is 1000, has found that alcohol is not* the right kinc 
that of saloon-keepers is represented by 1642, of fuel for the human machine, and thai 
and of total abstainers by 560. Out of therefore it is an economic waste to use it 
. . 100,000 inhabitants at thirty years of age. In many cases the use of intoxicants while 01 
only 44,000 ordinary persons reach the age duty is prohibited. Some firms require thei 
of seventy years, whereas 5 5, 000 abstainers employees to sign a pledge, 
do so. Consequently, reckoning the popula- The higher one goes in the social scale thi 
tion of the British Isles at 44,000,000, it is more general is the acceptance of the fac 
evident that if they were all abstainers the that the use of liquor is economically wronj 
kingdom would be the gainer every year by for the individual; and the same economi* 
more than 4,000,000 work-years; and, fig- law applies to groups of individuals, th 
uring the average annual earning capacity at towns and cities. " This is the explanatioi 
$500, temperance, if adopted in England for of the national spread of prohibition whicl 
economic reasons, would increase the labor has made 55 per cent, of the country, wit) 
output by $2,200,000,000 annually! 33,000,000 inhabitants, ' dry territory. *^ " 



COMMON SENSE ABOUT THE ENGLISH LICENSING 

BILL. 

^J^OT in a long while has the atmosphere " It is not the drinks themselves," says Si 
of British politics been disturbed by Oliver, " that should be reprobated." 

such a storm as that produced by the gov- Reprobation should be kept for the condition 
ernment's Licensing bill. Anything that which adulterate and render noxious the liquk 
trenches on what the brewers and the beer- and all the other conditions which tempt mai 

retailers are pleased to call their "vested ^^ ^^^^ "J?/*.^ than is good for him One 
. ML a • -1 ^1. r ^u these conditions is said to be the mode of r« 

interests has an ettect similar to that o\ the tajung ^^ ^^^ multitude, whereby social intci 

proverbial red rag on a bull ; and the liquor- course and , comradeship can only be obtainc 

dealers and the brewers combine to fight i" places where custom requires the ordering 

tooth and nail in their common defense, drink. 

When one comes down to hard facts, how- A number of earnest people think that th 

ever, it is found that those engaged in the present British system of licensing privat 

manufacture and the sale of liquor have persons to retail liquor for their own profit 

somewhat exaggerated ideas in regard to and so to thrive on the excess drinking of th 

their " rights," as is well illustrated in two community, has turned out ill. A^umtn 

articles in the June number of the Contem- they are right, in what way, asks Sir Olivei 

porary Review, by Sir Thomas P. Whit- does reform of the conditions of sale affec 

taker, M.P., and Sir Oliver Lodge, respec- the producer? There is no doubt the chang 

tivelv. in t^c licensing system will fall a little htr 



LBAUmO ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 




on the retailing dealers, but, as Sir Oliver 
mnarks, they must realize that it is in the 
ioterest of the nation. 

It is a link hnrii on a man in the Reserves, 
somelimeis. after he; h.is ■settled down lo a peace- 
ful home industry, lo be called out nni! sent to 
i seat of war. Bnt il is for Ihe good of Ihe na- 
tion, and he acqniesces. . . . Penplc do not 
try out when called upon for sacriliee for the 
national good. 

The chief outcry over the present Licens- 
ing bill has come from the shareholders in 
liquor concerns and from the brcHers who 
have also become retailers. With regard to 
the latter, Sir Oliver very pertinently re- 
marks: 



If, for Ihe sake of cxlra profits some of them 
have stepped out of their province, have made 
tlleni.stlves responsible for retailing as well, and 
have regarded public- house licenses as part ot 
Iheir as-icn. — well they nnist stand the racket of 
what may have been wisdom in the past, and 
may turn out uimisdom in the future. It was a 
speculation, and it may succeed or it may fail. 

Sir Thomas Whittaker says that alt the 
talk of the retailers about robbery and con- 
fiscation is sheer impertinence, inasmuch as 
no license-holiler has any right to a renewal 
of his license; he has only an expeclathn of 

With regard to the loss which the retailers 
may sustain, Sir Thomas points out that dur- 



94 THE AMERICAN REVIEIV CF REyiEWS. 

4 

ing the time limit of fourteen years provided liquor traffic. Sir Thomas Whittakcr shows 
for in the bill there v^ill be a large reduction that many of these companies are overcap- 
in the number of licenses, for which com- italized and imprudently managed. Of 
pensation will be paid to the amount of $12,- sixty-one companies cited, four are in liquida- 
000,000, and that the amount of license tion, and fifty-seven failed to pay any divi- 
values to be provided for at the expiration of dend on either their ordinary or preference 
the time limit will be about $415,000,000. shares last year. " Those concerns which are 
Toward this many brewery companies have weakest and most need ample reserve funds 
already set aside su*bstantial reserve funds, are precisely those which have distributed in 
and it is probable that the sum actually to be dividends nearly all their profits, and made 
made up at the end of the time limit will not the least provision for times of stress and 
exceed $3cx),ooo^C)00. To provide this difficulty," and it is from these that most'of 
amount the trade would have to set aside an- the outcry comes. On the other hand, in- 
nually about $i5,0(X),ooo, — "a compara- vcstigation demonstrates the fact " that mod- 
tively small and perfectly manageable sum." erate capitalization, sound finance, good re- 
Further, a considerable sale of drink would serves, and substantial dividends have gone 
te transferred from the closed houses to the together." Put briefly, the results of Sir 
survivors. Thomas' inquiry show that the sound, well- 
As mentioned by Sir Oliver Lodge, the managed concerns will be easily able to ad- 
loudest objectors to the Licensing bill are just their finances during the time limit 
shareholders in companies engaged in the which is proposed.^ 



SOME PROPHESIES OF A WOMAN SUFFRAGIST. 

T^HE battle for woman suffrage has now has been largely recruited from " the most 
been waging in America for more than intelligent and reflective part of the corn- 
half a century. That the clause has a large munity " ; and when such a stage is reached 
and constantly increasing number of stanch in any movement founded on a plea whose 
supporters among college women there can abstract justice is admitted, " it is certain 
be no doubt ; yet other women, — many of that the end will soon be attained ; and it 
them prominent ones, — have declared them- is no particular foresight which prophesies 
selves unalterably opposed to it in principle that woman suffrage will eventually be 
and in practice, writes Miss Annie R. Ram- tried." 
sey in the current number of Lippincott's. Four arguments of the anti-suifragists are 

The inception of the movement antedates disposed of as follows: 
the birth of the Republic; for two days be- (i) It is said that women will not vote 

fore the signing of the Declaration of Inde- when they get the ballot, because the ttoe 

pendence the State of New Jersey changed jority of women do not want to vote. 
the wording of the enfranchisement claose No, of •course not! Who docs want tc 

of its Provincial Chart from " Male free- vote just for the sake of voting? But give i 

holders worth fifty pounds " to ** //// inhab- woman something to vote about, and she ii 

itanis worth fifty pounds," thus giving the not slow- in doing it. In three successivt 

ballot to women as well as to men. As Wyoming elections 90 per cent. of the womet 

democratic principles and ideas spread, the voted, as against 80 per cent, only of th< 

property qualification became very unpopu- men. 

lar; and in 1807 a law was enacted under (2) It has been prophesied that, once th< 

which only white males whose names were poll-habit is formed, the house and childrei 

on the State or county list were permitted to will be neglected. 

vote, women and negroes being disfranchised. It does not appear that a man neglects hi 

It was not till 1847 that any concerted action shop or office in order to vote: why thei 

was taken toward the enfranchisement of should a woman take a different stand 11 

women. Wyoming was the first State to regard to her business? — for assuredly home 

give them the ballot (1869) ; and since then keeping and child-training arc the busines 

Colorado, Utah, and Idaho have followed of all women happy enough to poeseas 1 

her example. ^ home and children. 

In the last fifteen years the suffragist army (3) The effect of the ballot given i 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 96 

n-oman will be the degradation of her char- So they may for a time ; and I would re- 
ader, spectfully submit that in these things they 

Is it possible that thinking about politics would imitate the men they knew best. Very 

K so degrading? How have men escaped little else could be looked for at first, if 

contamination ? Arc reading and discussion every woman fit or unfit rushed to the polls ; 

upon themes and schemes of good govern- but the mass of women is being slowly ed- 

ment so pernicious that no woman can ap- ucated. 

proach them and retire unsoiled ? What we The thought -and energies of many earnest 

say among ourselves and in our homes might women have for thirty-five years been de- 

surely be said on a slip of paper with as little voted to this subject of education and up- 

harm to our morals. lifting, and the result must be forthcoming 

Do the prophets mean that going to the in future generations. 

polls on election day is degrading? It has The Lippincott suffragist condenses the old 

been claimed that the coming of women to prophecies with their refutation into the 

the polls has improved the condition thereof, following form of recapitulation : 

The prophecy may be founded on the fact ( i ) Woman suffrage will be tried ; per- 

that voters are not exempt from military and haps not soon, but in no very distant time. 

jury duty. Priests, — who do not even give (2) It will not destroy the home and 

sons to the State, — are practically so exempt ; woman's work therein, 

and doctors rarely sit on a jury. And women (3) It will not degrade woman or pro- 

;o-day follow the drum as nurses quite as duce any very great change in her character. 

faithfully and fearlessly as their brothers, the (4) It will not fail because of woman's 

chaplain and the doctor. indifference. 

, (4) That the vast majority of women arc (5) It will not overwhelm our present 
uninformed, and not informable, on political Government by a great tide of crude and ill- 
subjects ; -that they will be the followers of considered opinion. It is far more likely, for 
the most successful intriguer and " ward a while at least, to bring strength to reform 
heeler." and lifeblood to vital issues. 



PORTO RICANS AND AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP. 

M OW that Porto Rico has become United No one now doubts that thejsland will 

States territor>% the inhabitants of remain under the Stars and Stripes, and, ac- 

that island cannot understand why citizen- cording to Mr. Feuille, the natives, with but 

ship is extended to foreigners after a few few except'cn^, desire no other destiny for it; 

years' residence, and yet is denied to those *' but tney 3sk to Se permitted to come under 

who are natives of territory of the United tlie'flag with a'l t'le attributes of American 

States, savs Mr. Frank Feuille in the new citizenshin." He savs: 

• • • 

magazine. The American Colonial Review 

and Intertropical Magazine (also published ^^ is a wcll-kiMnvn ^act t^at for years prior to 

j« c • L J ^i_ \^^^ n • ^ r* 1 • i our acquisition of llie i^'^iid manv of its people 

in Spanish under the title Revtsta Colonial ,-^,g^ ^^ ^^^ 1^^^^,^ tl^,,. ^;,^ ^„^^,/^ would bring 

dmmcana y Magazine Intertropical). Ow- them under the sovcrc:eniy of the United States. 

ing to its proximity t6 our Atlantic seaboard, They sought for polit'cal 'iVals in the history 

and its favorable location, in the track of ^{ «"r country, and rointcd to Washington and 

r^^^ I ^u ^ L J J *.u« Lincoln as the two great modcis of civic virtue, 

commerce between that seaboard and the ^ 

Isthmus of Panama, the island will in time. Congress has given the Porto Ricans a 

this writer thinks, become as well known to territorial government. The island pays no 

the people of the United States as any terri- revenue to the national Government, but all 

^ory on the mainland. It has an agreeable the public dues are appropriated to local uses 

climate, the soil is very productive, a good exclusively; when abroad the Porto Ricans 

school system has been established, hundreds receive the same protection from our Gov- 

of miles of good macadamized roads traverse ernment as that accorded to our citizens ; 

the island, and the construction of highways they may come and go between the island 

is being rapidly extended. A large number and the mainland and bring with them their 

of American citizens are now located there goods and chattels as freely as any American 

permanently, engaged in agriculture and citizen : so that \n everything but name they 

in industrial enterprises. are citizens of the United States. 



96 THE AMERICAN REI/IEW OF REI^IEIVS. 

There are those who hold that the Porto In order to grant the Porto Ricans dri 

Ricans should be satisfied with the many zenship it will not be necessary to chang 

advantages that have come to them under their present form of government with it 

the flag; but such persons overlook the fact appointive upper House in the Assembly 

that the Porto Ricans* desire for American which form of government,. Mr. Fcuill 

citizenship is purely sentimental. The as- says, has answered every purpose well. T< 

piration to citizenship is akin to patriotism, this remark the editor of the Amencai 

and it should be encouraged. Moreover, the Colonial Review, Mr. L. V. de Abad, take 

Porto Rican asks for citizenship in order exception. Under "Editorial Notes" in th 

that he may have a share in the upbuilding of same number he says : 

our institutions. He hopes that some day his ^^ ^^^^^^ j^^ree with the writer . . 

island may become a State, and he realizes where he speaks of the merit of the political foi 

that without citizenship this can never come mula or status of Porto Rico. Contrary to Mi 

to oass Feuille's opinion, we do not believe that it re 

r\ \ / 1- • ••!•-.• J suits in the best interests of the people, eithc 

On the score of religion, civilization, and ^^ p^^.^^ ^j^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ United States, whe 

racial condition there is nothing of a basic viewed from the standpoint of America's inlei 

character to prevent Porto Rico and its peo- ests. The present constitution of the island, wit 

pie from being incorporated into the United jjf upper House made through appointments b 

^ b t- Ihg President of the United States and it 

otates. bureaucratic character and functions, is of 

^, . .. .., . ,, . 1- -^^ «r ♦u- :oi««^ ^«yi posed to the democratic spirit of American in 

Christianity is he rclig on of the «>and f nd l^;^^^^:^^^^ Qn the other hand, it has been a Ml 

?^ " u A^ ~ f f rn^ .^.r. in cl.m. hS ?4 ^^ disappointment to the Porto Ricans, and. i 

though diflferent from ours .n some details^ s ^^^^^'^''^i l^^^ ^ step backward in the MA c 

western in its fundamental prmc.pl^ ^ diplomatic achievement of the United State 

Tl (\u iil^A ?;^^ti« U .™<^ nf r^^, ■ . We call attention to the fact that thei 

that of the United States is comiwsed of Cau- ^ ^^^ jj^; , ; . p j^j ^ 

cas ans and descendants of Africans According ^ ^,^ f ^.^ platforms hold out self-goUn 

to the census, the former are in the majority m ^ ^^ ^j^^ desideratum of the DeoDle-4 thin 

Porto Rico. Some pronounced Indian types are distinct from the oresent svston ' 

still to be found there, and, no doubt, there is ^ery aistinct trom tne present system. 

a mixture of Indian blood among the people. To the argument that the large perooi' 

but whatever is left 01 the Indians has long since ggg ^f illiteracy in the island makes* 

been merged in the body of the population and °_ .. _ , _.'. , . ,_ . , , .. 

has lost its Indian Characteristics So that there ^.^^"V"^ P\ citizenship undesirable. M 

are no racial conditions in the island that are Teuille rejoins that citizenship and sultrtg 

not found in the United States. are by no means synonymous terms, and thi 

An argument advanced against granting ^f^^ "^l 1"'»« «JJ«i"« I™'".!*'''' ''^^^': ^ 

citizenship to the Porto Ricans is that they ^i*" S'*'''' the point that the protection ( 

cannot adapt themselves to our political 't«= P»!«''»» ^anal when completed M 

institutions maintenance of its neutrality, will d 

volve upon the United States, and that b 

If by that is meant that tliey are not now well these purposes a naval base will be require 

versed in the practical workings of our Govern- f^o better base than Porto Rico could pc 

ment, the point may be conceded. It cannot be _;i.i,, i.-. i^„^A 

expected of them, in the short space of time ^^^^^ °^ round. 

since the change of sovereignty, to have acquired It is our territory, rich in its natural f 

full knowledge of pur system. Had they done sources, with a million of people whose dev 

so, the fact would entitle them to the distmction tion and respect for the flag can be assured ' 

of being the. most wonderful people in history, conferring American citizenship on them. Th 

The true test of their adaptability does not re- are making great moral and material progre 

quire them to be familiar at this time with our and, with their status in the nation definttt 

political organizations, but if they have shown established, the island would become a stror 

a desire and aptitude to learn our ways of gov- loyal American community which could be i 

emment. that is sufficient. That they have done pended upon to protect our navy base in case 

so and are now doing so is demonstrated by the war. 

record they have made for themselves under the The American members of the insular go 

civil government established for them by Con- ornment favor the admission of Porto Ricans 

gress. ... . citizens of the nation, and the President, in t^ 

The natural inclination of any people is to ad- annual messages to Congress, has recommend 

here to the laws under* which they have been that the privilege be granted to them» and 3 

educated for generations; yet the Porto Rican Congress has failed to act. It is to be hop 

House of- Delegates voted to repeal all the laws that this act of simple justice will not long 

of Spain considered incompatible with the Amer- withheld from a people who have shown in ma 

lean ideas of government, and adopted admin- ways that they are more deserving of it th 

istrative legislation in harmony with that pre- others on whom the privilege has been co 

Tailing in the States. * ferred. 



LEADING ylRTICLES OF THE MONTH. 
THE GROWING SOUTH. 



U^!fV 



i th« above heading President Ed- 
win A. Aiderman of the University of 
Virginia gives a very comprehensive article 
in ihc li'orld't fVork for June. Taking as 
his particular theme the " building spirit now 
3X Morli in the States of the South," he says 
thai, 10 understand properly the present 
Somh, one must have for a background five 
nihrr Souths. Up to 1830 there was what 
h( Wrms " the nationalistic and imperiai 
South." From 18.10 to i860 was the " sclf- 
nnttred and defensive South." The attitude 
of buoyant nationalism and growth of the 
formfr period now changed into one of in- 
ira^ieciion and defense. 

This is the South that has fixed itself in the 
imiBinatioti of men. This is the South that, 
imiitt i generation of harsh criticism, developed 
ibiKiraial popular sensitiveness, so that it 15 
still vtrj- hard for a man who loves the Soiith 
ani) knows its virtues and tragedies to criticise 
it bluntly, or for the people themselves, who 
liavt endured that criticsm, and suffered under 
Ihtsc tragedies, to receive such criticsm imper- 
jonilly and patiently. . . . This defensive 
Stiiilli »a* a land wherein a tumultuous love of 
libenj- and of chartered rights existed side by 
sid( with human slavery; wherein aristocracv 
ind ikmocracy went arm in arm together for 
ihc lut time in human history. 

The period from 1861 to 1865 saw the 
miliant South " counting it a privilege and 
a gloi)' to stake all for its faiths and 
diMries on the issues of war," To this 
[iKtnded the subinerged South {186";- 
1880), "the silent, the enduring, the pa- 
tiflit, the grim South, walking in an cco- 
nwnic and social valley of the shadow of 
death." 

Our poor human nature has never been put 
lo a tevcrer test than was this enduring South i 
and nur poor human nature has nowhere cn- 
•InieJ ihai test more finely. For the first time 
in lii>lory it was sought to place over a white 
fact as their rulers a hlack race, recently held 
bflhem in slavery, ... It was a sad time, 
aixl left behind a bitter deposit. 

From 1880 till the present time there has 
bnn what President Alderman designates as 
"the emergent and growing South," trans- 
ferring its energies from combating and en- 
during to building and growing." The 
Southern States devoted their chief energies 
to education; and here many difficult condi- 
tions had to be faced. When plantation life, 
instead nf communit}' life, was the unit, the 
free public sclitml was not possible. The 
South was sparsely settled; it was biracial. 




;md it was the overburdened section of 
America. 

No other .Americans have ever known, in its 
direst form, the discipline of war and defeat. 
No other region ever lost in less than a decade 
over one-tenth of it-; ijoimlation, three and a half 
hiilious of its wenlli. and the very genttis of its 
hfe. No other region except Poland ever knew 
such losses; and Poland teased to exist. The 
year igoo had conte and gone before ihe South 
had regained its ptT capita wealth of i860. 

There was also the prime difficulty of " an 
untaught and back«,ird race, newly and sud- 
denly projected from slavery- to citizenship 
and economic respunsibility." 

How successfully these difficult conditions 
were coped with is seen in the interesting 
data which President .Alderman gives. 
Forty-five per cent, of all their public rev- 
enues arc expended by the Southern people 
upon education; they have increased their 
school revenue Sii.SQO.ooo in the last five 
years; (jso public high-schools have been es- 
tablished in the same period; 120 institution:; 
of higher learning have been revived or es- 
tablished ; ami to-day there is scarcely a town 
of jooo papulation in t!ie Southern States 
that does not have its s.\-«tcm of public schools 
free to all. Also, the pcrtTntage of illiteracy 
among whites has btrn reduced from 2^ per 
cent, to 15 per crnt., and among the colored 



98 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REyiEWS. 

race from 87 per cent, to 45 per cent. Gen- will be gained for the attainment of those 

eral Assemblies devote one-half of their rev- higher things which the heart of man de- 

enue and two-thirds of their time to the pas- sires.** 
sage of laws relating to the welfare of youth. Last year 2400 farmers from other States 

Of the negroes' achievement, suffice it to came into Virginia and invested $10,000,000 
say that the negro race owns nearly $300,- in farming. In the South Atlantic States 
000,000 worth of property; from absolute the area of improved lands has increased 62 
illiteracy they have, as stated above, become per cent, since the passing of slavery, while 
literate to the extent of practically 50 per the increase in the actual number of farms 
cent.; I73»352 farms are owned by negroes; doubled between 1880 and 1900. The pro- 
and 2,600,000 colored children are enrolled duction of garden vegetables, an unknown 
in the common schools. ** Is there," Prcsi- enterprise in 1861, left $85,000,000 in South- 
dent Alderman asks, " any parallel in history crn pockets in 1900. 
to such progress under such conditions?** Side by side with this rural growth there 

On the attitude of the white race toward has been a " resistless growth ** of the cities 
the negro, the following things have been and towns. Thirty years ago Massachusetts 
settled " at the court of present public opin- bought the South Carolina cotton crop, con- 
ion in the South **: verted it into cloth, and pocketed $100,000,- 

(i) That the white race shall control 000. To-day South Carolina does its own 

the political development of the Southern converting, and keeps the $100,000,000. 
States. Six thousand enterprises for the conversion 

(2) That, in insisting upon absolute so- of raw materials into salable products began 
cial separateness, the South is pursuing a operations in the South in 1906. To-day it 
policy of justice, both to the negro as a race is using its own accumulated wealth as work- 
and to the higher groups that inhabit this ing capital. Its total property values in 1908 
nation. exceed those of i860 by $6,000,000,000. 

(3) That the emphasis laid by Arm- As regards the political outlook, whereas 
strong, the most heroic figure in the whole before the war the Southern voter was pcr- 
struggle and the wiser leader of the negro haps the best-informed man in America on 
race, upon training in the industrial and man- national politics, and careless about the needs 
ual arts, promises the best returns in the de- of his own township, now his interest in the 
velopment of the masses of that race. Presidency or the Philippines is mild as com- 

(4) That no form of peonage or helotry pared with his zeal for the schools and high- 
shall creep into the life of the Southern ways of his county. This detachment from 
people. national politics is, however, abnormal and 

(5) That the negro shall be trained for temporary. 

citizenship, and that the South shall exert in- jhe reuniting of Southern political ability to 

telligent and determining influence upon that national service must wait upon time to free it 

training, because it is its duty so to act. utterly from hesitation and fear arising from the 

(6) That the final policy of the South Pr<^sence of the African in our society. . . . 

toward the colored man shall be a scientific When this fear is swept out, the reign of 

investigation as to the facts of his progress, leadership dependent on that fear wfll be 

causing its thinking people to discriminate swept out also. '* An inherently capable and 

between the good individual negro and the pure political genius will be loosed/' tnd 

negro considered as a mere perplexing prob- ** Southern men will win the Presidcncy» her 

lem in sociolog>'. cause they will incarnate the things the peD*- 

With regard to the constructive rural pie desire a President for. After a half 

changes in the South, President Alderman century of national effacement, the South b 

remarks that agriculture remains, as of old, cool-headed enough to know that the regain* 

the chief economic interest. The great plan- ing of its prestige in federal politics will be 

tation has been supplanted by small farms, brought about in no frantic, hysterical wiQr» 

necessitating intensive and diversified produc- but by educational influences and profound 

tion. Under this great subdivision formerly changes in point of view, 
ill-tilled and untilled lands are now being "There will be a rebirth of party goven|^,, 

made to yield fifty or sixty bushels of corn ment, and two or more parties representing., 

to the acre, where the yield was only twenty the intelligence and patriotism of these States 

bushels; and when this becomes generally will divide, debate, and consider issues on. 

the case the " basis of material prosperity their merits." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 
ROMANCE OF THE COBALT MINING DISTRICT. 



(Y mining towns have histories that 
oA like fairy tales, but it would be 
to imagine one more romantic than 
he town and district of Cobalt, some 
s north of Toronto. When the pre- 
worlc of constructing the Temiskam- 
t'ortbem Railway was in progress, 
[r. Frederic Robson in the Canadian 
t. the excavators 

I blasting their way through rocks 
stened with silver vi/ins, yet they did 
' the lumps for other purposes lliuii 
■llent railroad bullae). At one place on 
they cut through Ihc end of a cliff 
ch hundreds of thousands of dollars' 
' silver has since been taken. The 
, heavy, rough fragmt-nts were ciir?eil 
able barriers to a railway. Had you 
1 that the ballast for ihe track was 
out $3000 a ton. what a laugh there 
v< been ! Meanwhile the construction 
rushed ahead, and millions went beg- 
an owner. 

pie of weeks later, as two lumber 
lis were strolling through the woods 
ult Lake, they noticed a silver vein 
id indiscreetly poked its head abnve 
ce of the ground," and, marking the 
</ lost no time in forwarding their 
in form to the Mining Registry Of- 
KX then the property has brought 
eral fortunes; and it gives no sign 
J out. 
member, lyoj. Professor Miller, the 



provincial geologist oi Ontario, in company 
with Professor Parks, of the Dominion Sur- 
vey, had visited the district; and the reports 
made b>' these gentlemen have proved to be 
remarkably accurate. They held " that it 
was a matter of only a few years when every 
foot of the land would be prospected, with 
the probability of finding important bodies of 
ores anywhere among the rocks." Professor 
Miller picked up some pieces of glittering 
rock with blue streaks running through them, 
and he exclaimed : " VVe shall call this place 
after the blue; we shall call it 'Cobalt.'" 
A French-Canadian blacksmith made a re- 
markable discovery in a remarkable way. 

If you niect him lo-day on Ihe sircels of some 

Eastern cily, or lolling in the cl)mfo^t^ of a 
Pullman car, he will tell you that one day four 
years ago he was husy at his forge, at the 
northern end of Cobalt Lake, when he spied a 
red fox in a nearby bush. It was a very im- 
pudent, curious sort of a fox. ami it jarred on 
his tired nerves. I le resented being watched 
even by a [ox, and so, pieking up his hammer, 
he tlung it with might and main at Reynard. 
. . . Me threw a good hammer, and thcrc- 
fiirc felt called upon to go over to where it lay. 
[le !>aw that it had struck a rock, and that the 
blow rcsult.'d in a bright metallic streak, which 
he at lirsi allribnled to lead in the ore. Sam- 
ples of ihe ore sent to Toronto, however, 
showed a very high grade of silver in paying 
i|uantilies. Thus the coinhinalion of a French- 
Canadian blacksmith, a hammer, and a fox 
worked another discovery of surpassing ini- 




THE AMERICAN REyiEH^ OF REyiElVS. 




THE COBALT 



The Tretlifufy and Coniacas Mining 
companies h;i\c evolved from two locations 
made at Cobalt in May, 1904, by Mr. W. C>. 
Trethewey, tlie name Coniajjas being made 
up of tlie chemical svmhois of cobalt (Co), 
nickel (Ni). silver (An), and arsenic (As). 
Rails were not laid to these mines till Octo- 
ber. i'jti4; nevertheless, in two months of 
that year isH tons of ore, worth $111,887, 
were sold and shipped. 

Discovery followed dli 
that in i'^)6 the pro<hjct 
value of :?4.<XK),(x>"i; and 
bait silver has brought 
$iO,Ocx.,(«K.) in i-old 
of mininjr en^;! 



iverv so rapidly 
n had reached a 
1 the present Co- 
line-owners over 
It is the opinion 
s that Cobalt will live at 
Hore with its present cvi- 
ilcn*.'es of vi;i()r. 

As a minini; town Cobalt has one unique 
characteristic: it is a temperance town. Not 
a drop of liquor is dispensed U'Kallv from one 
year's eml to the other ; and the only place 
where the miners can obtain strong drink is 
four miles distant. 

As a municipal itv, however, the place I's a 
failure. 

Huge cliiinks of rock in tlic middle of the road 
jiby haviic wilh llie horse and vehicle lliat al- 
tenipl a |»a>*;(Ke over tliviii. (jarU'iKc is thrown 
inln Ihe 1i;iokyards : cows and iiiRs feed on tlie 
n-fiisi.- lyiiiK .iloiiK tlie main ilreel; llicre is iii) 
I'n-;il wiiliT in <lriiik. and nearly everv drop con- 
sumi'cl i> linnik-hl fn.iu Montreal and sold at 5" 
Cfnts a .j;.!!..,!. , . . Ktnf^ of mere shacks 
rnn fron". .",-;> vi ?(it> a niiolllh. 



On the other hand, obedience to the law 
rules in Cobalt; and the town has been free 
from the violence and turmoil generally inci- 
dent to mining camps. 

Cobalt is at the present moment passing 
under a cloud. The success of the paying 
mines led to innumerable wildcat proposi- 
tions, which were sprung on an unsuspecting 
public. \\'hile there arc two score undoubt- 
edly valuable properties in the district, there 
is an ciiual number of companies exploiting 
mines that may turn out profitably or the 
other wav. The foolish scramble of a year 
or so ago for mines in this m\-sterious dis- 
trict afJtirded unsi.-rupulous promoters and 
brokers opportunities to set their traps. 

iirokfrs who have never been within twenty 
niilos iif tlifir prfipi-rty, and who very often 
know next to iiolhinK abunt mining, have 
ailripitd [In: si'lifmc nf issiiinfi gorgeously col- 
ori'il litiTalnrf di'scriiilive of ilieir holdings. It 
.v.iix callvd at Ihi-ir oHict* yon wouhl see sam- 
pli-s of ore conlaiiiinK n<i\i\. silver, and copper 
Mruwii li!.i'rally alioiit the ili'sks. and tlic stock- 
seller woiiM cari-lcs-ly chip y,iii off a tew leaves 
f Ilie -iilviT ;ind ItU yon iliat llie company tx- 



i> 111- shijipinK ihat snri of stuff 11 



a few 



inonlhs. 

Thousands of dollars passed thus from the 
unv.ary, and about a vear aso came the utter 
cidlapse of "The Cobalt Hooin." To put 
money into a Cohalt nn'iie that is paving good 
dividends is a prettv fair investment; but 
investment in a l'i;st>iilirf mine had better 
be left to some one on the spot. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 101 

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE N[ACED()\IAN UUESFION. 

^^\VO highly significant developments in rcaclic.s to her snutluni fruiiticr thmugh the 

the apparently interminable Macedonian ^"rkihh sanjak, ur i)n)vnK\.-, of Nuvipa/ar, 

problem marked the history of the past few ^!^,•/^'^1'• "';!"' '^ /'"^^^ m.rthwanl frrm, 

L- • ^L n 11 o L' I Salonika, the I nrkisli i)(»rt on the /1--Kean Sea. 

weeks m the Balkans. Baron bpcck von As will he seen, thi.s would ^ive Ani^iria an«l 

Stemburg, the German Ambassador at (lennany a thnmj^h line fn»ni n«.rili to suuth. 

Washington, made a noteworthy statement -^^ '^ connterhahnice Ku^-i propoM-s t.> huild a 

OQ behalf of his government, setting forth n\^"\^;rH:it'^'^!';^^^'"^ V'"" '''^' ^^^'^' ^'V 

^ , .J* J 1 'XT ^"*- -^<lriatic, cnnnectnig hncs (»i)er;itMij:: ni the 

Ijeraianys attitude, and the entire Mear eountries in which her influence has heai hitherto 

Eastern question was discussed at length in prediiminant. The othcial joint inve^ti^ationN of 

the RUSSUBI Duma. In publishing the state- Kussia and Austria have accmph-^hed some 

mcnt of the German Ambassador the Oi//- ^^::ii\! ''; '"n''*''"'^' •?[ Mac.duni.j hv tuo ^ireat 

. , m J- • 11 i -ii • • Kuropean railways will ]»n)hahlv ihi nmre. But 

/OO* gIVCi editorially a clear, lllummatmg the (mly permanent and radical retorni would he 

witline of the whole situation, the substance a return to tlu- treaty nf San Stefano. and the 

ot which W€ reproduce here. estahlishnu-nt f<»r Macedonia «it >eli'->^iivernnient 

under a luiropean pn»tectorate. 
The treaty of San Stefano. which brought 
peace b rtwc e t t Russia and Turkey [after the In his piibh'shed statement, the German 

last warl provided that Macedonia should enjoy Ambassador says : 
a large degree of autonomy under a Christian 

{EOvcmor. But the European governments felt ^'Tom a general i)oint (»f view Cermany holds 

that Russian inHui*iice, already predominant in ^1^^' t'l"'.""" ^^^*}^ the maintenance ..f the status 

the Balkans at that time, would receive further </"" '--^ «" the interest of all the powers. Ger- 

and unwarrantahle acquisition of power; and '"any agrees with the whole civilized world 

the OmRress of Merlin ... at which all that the unhearahle .state ni alTairs ni Mace- 

ihe Krtat European nations were represented, dnnia urgently calU for a remedy, and that .stens 

thans;e«l the provisions of the trcatv of San "["-f he taken t.. put a st-.p to the continuous 

Stei.m.i regarding Macedonia, and substituted a hl<H»dshed. murder, and outrages there. Hut 

pnir^o l.v all the p<iwers to institute needetl re- ^'t^rmanv is conviiKvd that all measures hearing 

tV-mi^ in .Macedonia, and to give to that province "1"^» tins suhject will only have a p.)vsil)ility of 

a> nuioh as i>ossihle a government which should -^"^'^'^^J^^ »f they receive the firm suppt.rt of all 

Ik- imdiT international suiKTviMon. the powers, acting in absolute harimmy with 

Thcjxnvers have completely failed in the per- ^'i'^'" other (.crinanv is really to consnler se- 

tV.nnaiicc .^i this dutv. Several years ago, how- rinusly and favr.rahly any smtahle proposal, from 

CMT. Russia and Austria, as the countries most whatever sM«ie it mav ome. hv which the present 

'mmediatelv interested, were intrusted with a '^tate »)f aflairs m Macedonia can he remedied 

>pccial mission, and in uyy^ the emperors of '>»<1 !^ prepared to give her full con^-nt heret(.. 

R^iaand .\u^tria met at Miitzsteg in the Aus- provided that it incet< the cn^^eiit of the other 

Iran .\l|.s and concluiled an agreement, as a re- Powers. I he r|uestion. What measures are 

-lit .-t which Europe's intervention in Mace- '"ost suitable . is a matter ot discussion. At 

'l.iii:i btcamc for the first time direct. Two or- tm- hrst glance it srenis douhttiil to the derinan 

caib.fcontrol. or buffers, were created between <'''^'t'ninieiit if a lan-er or smaller increase of 

thc'i'irki^h authorities and the Christian peas- Jhe police force w..uld give the desired result. 

::rt* ..I Macedonia. The first buffer consisted '^"^ ■'''^^; '^/■;^t* *roin reieding thi-; nUa ah initio 

■fiWM civil agents, one a Russian, the other an '^ "!'l*'-^^'V'^*- * "•niiany regards with soine 

Atiqrinn. who were anth«iri/ed to contnd the ^keptKMsinliowev.r, the idea of placing the coni- 

:^^:i":i -f the Turkish authorities. Thev were "V"^.'' ."» ^'-V ' "rkish ti-Mops m the hands ot 

'•■^•rnitnl t.> shadow llilmi Pasha, the 'lurkish < hristian orticers e -en it l i-s is done by allow 

^HnM^.r-Keiieral, to indicate tr> him at everv '"^' Kuroi)ean othcers to direct the movenients 

P"i:'H!it- p.«rticular reforms which thev thought '*^ the troo|,s uithotit tluir being actually in 

■A'-.!:M i»n.ve helpful, and to listen to'the om- ^'^""i^and •»* such troops when actiullv oper.-il- 

l'1.-.:iit^ Mf Christian inh.ibitaiits. Unfortunatelv. '"^; 'I' ■';">' ''''^*'• ** ''"'''"' V''' •'I'lnion that the 

t^^f iiivMiuatinns of these complaints had al- ta«^k ot elaborating pnictical mea^ires d.-simed 

•*■!)' t.» Ik: held in the presence of a Turkish to chinmr or at least to anieb..rate the state ot 

JV.clin„arv : and under these circumstances, with ■',».-urs m Mace.lMina ;md its deplorable leatures 

'fu- tra.iiti.ms of six ronturies of vengeance from 7'^"''' ''^'^^ ''•■ ^:'»""'hMl to the representatives .,f 

"■"rki.h nftcials. no Christian peasant would tli • p..wers ;it C .mManlniopb.. 

:.Tr tell the wli..le truth. The con.litions in - MxciDns\.\ " F\ TMh Rissi \n DIM \. 

^l-jCuilf.iiM under the unspeakable I urk grew 

-■> int'.KTable as ;it last to arouse a popular [„ .^ rtreiit aiidress to the 1 )uira the Rus- 

*tntinieni for the oiipressed piM)uIation. and the .-,,, h\.^..-.. Af«: *. ^ i r . i .k >i ■* •., 
r.,..„ • ■ 4- r ».--..!:.,». ^^'"^ rorei^n .Minister < efinci the .Mutzsteii 

I'.ttorN j^ive some indication of greater rea<Iiness ^^ n ,• • 

•■' >y a<ide their iealousies and act t«>gether. a^'reeineiit as a ' imitiKiIh .Iisinti-iested ob- 

Tlie ultimate pacification and development of h'lration, not barren of results to Marrdonia." 

Macerlonia can best !>e brought about bv the in Jj^. ^,{^^.,1 ( ^y^ ^,^^^^^^. ^\^^, Ru.sdyiivti I'ynln 
'^■'Stion of railwavs. I'nder a right con- .v i . , i • .u u ■. r..i 

'>rrM,„».n her J.v the trcatv ..f Berlin. Austria ""'•'" ^ f'''' '"'>'.'' I"^ ^^' "' '" '^ '^"'""'='" ''".''"■ 

now proposes to connect her railway, which niacy rcndcri'd it iiiipossililc to prote^t against 



lOJ THE AMERICAN REl^lElV OF RE^/EIVS. 

the A us tro- Hungarian concession for the lion. He reminded his hearers of the ma&y 

Sandyalc railroad. Pointing to the " disin- auspicious moments thrown away wh 

terested attitude " of Russian diplomacy in Macedonian question might have been 

the Balkans, he asserted that something seri- He told how, offended at the ingratitude^ 

ous must be undertaken for the amelioration the Hulgarians, Russia has for a decade, 

of the condition of the Christians on the missed all thought of the Balkans, leaviiq 

peninsula, particularly in Macedonia. De- Christians there to shift for themselves^'' 

spite its sympathetic basis, he regarded the opening a wide field for the play of die 

English proposal as at present not feasible, tical Austrian policies in the Balkans. 

and justified Russian diplomacy in offering an posed to the Minister's view, MilyuktnTi 

independent solution, explaining its practica- signed an importance both strategical : 

bility. He also reported that the Russian political to the Sandyak railroad, and' 

scheme had met with favorable response not jected the value of the other. He repros 

alone from France and Italy, but even from Russian diplomacj' with not foreseeing 

England, Austria- Hungarj-, and Germany, forestalling this step of Austria's. Milyi 

and that Russia had no special aims in the favors the widest autonomy for Macedonift, 

Balkan peninsula. Her policy is one of peace but regards the English proposal as net 

and solely for the betterment of the condition realizable. In conclusion, he called (he 

of the Balkan Christians. Duma's attention to alarming rumors of ■ 

In the discussion which followed the Min- pan-Turkish movement in the provinces uf 

ister's speech Paul Milyukov took the most Asiatic Turkey near to Transcaucasia. He 

prominent part. The latter is h^II informed also expressed the wish that the Minister 

in Balkan matters and the Macedonian ques- might furnish some light on this Near East 

tion, and avails himself of the opportunity of question. His speech was applauded not only 

presenting in its true light the role of the by his own faction, but also by many on the 

Russian representatives in the Balkan ques- Conseri'ative benches. 



WINSLOW HOMER'S RANK IN AMERICAN PAINTING, 

JJ AREI.Y in the history of the painter's Gulf Stream," by the Metropolitan Museum, 

art is found an instance of such quick this writer remarks: 
and complete absorption of the elements^ of ^^^ jt,j, ;„ ^^-^^ „f „,^ f,^, ,hat in his method 
that art and ready conception of its essentials of rendering Mr. Homer outrages ihe strongtst 
as is recorded of one of America's greatest of convictions of perhaps nine-tenthsof the present- 
living painters, if not the greatest in his spe- "l^y painters. There is none who, from the 
i-i-ii fioM leclinical standpoint, commonly pamts more 
ciai neia. . . , , .i hatefully than lie. an.l vet at the same time none 
_ A short term in a night class at the Na- „lio. as a rule, prndu'ces greater pictures. He 
tional Academy of Design, two years of lias something to say, and he says it wilhoot 
magazine illustrating, a month's lessons in a circumlocution or affectation, but apparently ihe 

Boston studio, and lo! this genius ,vas T'"'*'' .<>* /^''y"!" .^"^^ Vf T"c? '"'ilV'*''^ 
,.,',.. J L L J me point of suiceritv and Irnlh. Strength, vigor- 
ready to take up his palette and brush and force, and action appeal to him rather than mere 
paint landscapes. beauty,— art to him is a means, not an end. 

Leila Mechlin, in the current issue of the That the Homer paintings arc unique the 

Inlfrnational Stnd'w, tells the life story of writer of the critique admits, but this qualiti" 

Winslow Homer, of whom this lad)- says: does not suffice to set off certain alleged outre 

An art writer, eight years ago. ventured IUl' methods adopted to secure results: 

opinion tlwt if at that lime the artists of ilie ,,. 

United States were called upon to declare who '^'^ I'lclures arc different from other mens 

in their estimation was the greatest hving (lis- pictures withuni iifcessanly bemg better or 

tinclly .\nicrican painter ihe majority would )\"J^'~'- , '" '■■'"uc acruss niie m a current exhi- 

rast their votes for Winslow Homer, and wiih '"".'"" ,'» ^ refrcsimieiii, siuli as turning from a 

little douht this would be equally true to-dav. Itnnled pajii'. no m;itt<r how inlcrcsting, to an 

',> I 11 I !■ ■ ■■■•'• iincn wukIow. lliDuuli tlicv concern themselves 

Oddly enough, his reviewer while giving |j',„,. ^.i„, „,^ i„„.>„ „f y,^^^^ ^^^^ atmosphere. 

Mr, Homer credit for his work, is unusually lim iho critic is .ihli^ed lo discard his cherished 

se\'ere on what arc deemed to he grave de- vocal lulary. for llie set phrasi-s which are cofti- 

fects. After noting the fact that Mr. Homer's '"""'>■ "'>l''ica''''- «-"e lo have signifiomce. as 

II 11 1 1 1 L coiiifileli' V as tliiumh the Milnect luider con- 

colleagues "not only recommended hut ,iH,[ation were a l.it <.f the oi.idoor wotH a 

urged the purchase of his painting, 1 he piece of nature's painting. It would, in fact, be 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 




iS senseless to talk of the artistic manner 
ti the birds rendered their songs as lo 
in Mr. Homer's method any aesthetic 
1. _ The truth is, he has never learned lo 
Rting:, — he does it because it is necessary 

writer's allegation that Winslow 

has never loved painting,—" has 

learned to love it " — seems unthinlc- 

thc lay reader, who -has understood 
le written traditions of the craft that 
iting, as in music, enthusiasm. — an- 
une for love in the sense in which it is 

the above, — is as essential tn success- 
ft as the palette and the brush. It is 
; charge to make and one worthy of 
00. Another paragraph in the writ- 
lew of Mr. Homer's life and work is 
more encouraging: 

the first Mr. Homer has been ,i law 
nielf, — what other people thought or did 
it seem to have influenced him in the 
le has witnessed the nprisinn of several 
but he has never been tempted from ihc 
originally chose to advenlnre alon^ those 
out by others. Not that he is prejudiced 
nv-minded. but strong in his own convic- 
il sure of himself. His 'ilyle has ahered 
ltd the first, but the character of his work 
ergone several changes. 

nounarize the reviewer's opinion as to 
its of Mr. Homer's work, as distinct 
s alleged demerits, it is her decision 
: "paints greater pictures than his 
»"; he has "strength, vigor, force 



and action" depicted on his canvases; he is 
"sincere and truthful" in his presentations; 
he " is strong in his own convictions and sure 
of himself." The above remarks are made 
with reference to Mr. Homer's efforts in oils. 
In the matter of water-colors, the reviewer 
is not so gentle in her criticisms, yet extends 
felicitations on special admirable traits that 
meet with her approval. 

A group of Mr. Homer's paintings lent by 
public museums and private collectors has 
been made the feature of the Carnegie Insti- 
tute's exhibition this year, and by the organ- 
izers of exhibitions in other cities than Pitts- 
burg his works are eaii^erly sought and gen- 
uinely honored. 

Since the first this painter has been what the 
world calls successful ; his pictures have met 
with little adverse criticism, m.idc many friends, 
and found ready sale. If, therefurc, in these later 
days he does nut care lo affiliate with his fellow- 
wnrkcrs, it is not because he has ausht ajjain.it 
Ilieni or complaint to make. I-ivinft snn|)ly 
liiroufjh choice, he finds his chief ple.isiire in soli- 
tary sport, but is not entirely unmindful of whiil 
!■; (lassing in the wnrld which he has deliK'raiclv 
.Inil out. Indifferent lo sales, to praise ;,iid ti. 
hiame alike, he still goes on his way with fixed 
[luriiose. iiianifestuiK ;it .ill tinii'S solf-resource- 
fulness and independence. In the world of 
.American art lliere is lo-dav no more imiqnc 
figure than his, and lo the field of .-\inericaii 
painting none hns m.ide nolilcr contribution than 
he. 



Miss Mechlin's article is illusi 
■•any reproihiciiuns of paintint^s. 



THE AMERICAN REl^IEU^ OF REVlEi^S. 



BAEDEKER OF THE GUIDE-BOOKS. 




JSjUMEROUS travelers, who on their 
tours through Europe and elsewhere 
have come to regard Baedeker as " guide, 
philosopher, and friend," will thank Mr. 
Edwin Asa Dix for his interesting notes in 
the June Traifl on the man himself. 

It is now three-quarters of a century since 
a young bookseller of Cohlenz, tramping 
along the Rhine in what the German calls 
his JVanderjahr, found himself often at a loss 
to know where to stop for the night. He 
had with him the handbooks of (he historic 
river that had been published bv the English- 
man Murray and the German Klein; but he 
found that these, while eloijuentlv describing 
the legends and the scenery, frequently failed 
to supply the information most needed by the 
tired and hungry wayfarer. It was this that 
gave to the young tourist, who was none 
other than Karl Baedeker, the germ of his 
idea for a new kind of book, says Mr. Dix. 
He lx)iight out Klein's copyright, and rewrote 
the book almost entirely. His methodical Ger- 
man mind evolved n precise and utilitarian sys- 
tem of treatment. He put the hotel first and the 
scenery afterward. He stated distances and 
times and prices. He blue-pencited many of the 



lluwery descriptions. He sought to give luD 
rather than impressions. His aim was to nuln 
travel more an exact science and less i «». 
lure into the unknown. In 1639 his yetlow-coT- 
ered "Rhine Handbook" first appeared, and, u 
he expected, it tilled a want and met an immi- 
diate welcome. 

Making personal tours through each coun- 
try, he next brought out similar books fn 
Holland, Germany, Austria, and Up|Ki 
Italy, the last volume evincing a great d^ 
velopment of his original ideas, and being tM 
widely different in form and arrangemcnc 
from the Baedekers of to-day. Two yeui 
later his " Switzerland " was published, xA 
this proved to be the most successful and pap- 
ular of the entire series, 

Baedeker wrote his books for the tourifl 
of moderate means; and to this fact m 
largely due his initial success. For tnanr 
years after the Napoleonic wars the En^idl 
were the only persons rich enough to trivd 
in any luxury; and the guide-books "pre- 
supposed more or less dependence on lackeys 
and couriers, more or less subjection to fluc- 
tuating charges." 

Baedeker sought to make travel more inde- 
pendent; he was always pointing out w»ys_o' 
lessening cost. He was himself a sturdy and »"' 
dcfatigahle pedestrian, and personally explored 
most of the routes described in his books. 

Then, again, he was absolutely indepoid' 
ent in judging hotels ; and he persistently de 
dined all advertisements. 

For a long while innkeepers used to send hi*" 
presents, or ask his terms for favorable notice* 
but the presents were sent back, and the letin; 
were not quoted. They in time discerned tb' 
uiier uselcssiiess of these overtures, and foiiii' 
that merit alone was the passport to praise. T< 
gain or lose a " star " in Baedeker may make O' 
mar a landlord's fortune. 

It was some time before the English tool 
kindly to Karl Baedeker's system. 

They were accustomed to fine writing and tc 
vaulting descriptions. They complained that h( 
had no soul. — only a stomach, a time-taUe, tivj 
a thin pocketbook. But they have long sJDCi 
■surrendered at discretion to the value of his uH' 
failing exactitude; and Fliegcnde Blalirr has : 
picture of an Knglish palcrfamilitu finding thi 
picluresquc castle 011 the right and the foamJnt 
waterfall on (he left, instead of tiVe vcrta a: 
asserted by bis infallible Baedeker, and exclaim 
ing to his flock, " Why, thi'* scenery ia al 
wrong ! " 

At the time of his death {1859) Baedeke 
had published nine guide-books. Now, un 
der his sons Karl and Frit/, and his 2'*'><^ 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



Hans, the firm has a list of twcntj-six such ihecity, 
books in German alone. Then there are the '''' ^ ■'''' 
editions in French and English. The Bae- 
deker system and supervision never relaxes. 
The members of the firm and their repre- 
sentatives travel incoEnito. 



II leavinK. said: "I i 



105 



H.ifdl'ker." 

rtie renunciation nf advertisements makes 
money-makers: it ijsiiali\' takes 



.>f ;i 



1 days al his hold while e^l^lynl1^! letters they r 



the bcHiks ; 

ten year^ to repay the first cost of a 

vnliinic. A helpful source of informatio 

piihlisliers ii the noniber of voluntarj' 






.-elers themselves. 



THK HKRSIAN REVOLUTION .AND rHE .ANGLO-RUSSIAN 
AGREKMLNT. 

TJNTIL recently Iran occupied hut an un- 
important place in European political 
preoccupations: its very remoteness kept It 
aloof equally from \Vestern and Eastern 
meddling;. Sav'c for the incessant rivalry of 
Russia and England, the country was given 
over to the researches of Orientalists and 
jrcheoiogists. The recent penetration of Ger- 
many into interior Asia has, however, brought 
anew influence into contact with Iran; and 
ihe Persian revolution and the Anglo-Rus- 
sian agreement have defiinitively introduced 
Persian 'aflairs into the domain of general 
l«litics. 

Great Britain and Russia have long had a 
liking for Asiatic arrangements, writes an 
anonymous writer in the Rn-ue dts Deux 
Mundfs. The first Anglo-Russian agreement 
on the subject of Persia dates from 18.14- It 
had reference to the Miccession to the throne, 
and thereby the two nations mutually bound 
themselves to respect the independence of the 
country. Similar agreements were from time 
to time entered into, as iHTCasions arose. When 
in the early months iif 1906 the financial em- 
barrassment of Persia and the approaching 
death of Muzaf?er-cd-Dln led to another rap- 
frochfment between Russia and F^ngland, the 
situation called for an agreement more pre- 
cise and more complete than its predecessors. 
Strong in her advantages, England ilesircd to 
relieic her diplomacy from the care of Per- 
sian affairs: Russia was not averse to consoli- 
dating a state of things supportable at any 
rate for the present, and susceptible to de- 
velopment in the future. 

The bases of the treatj- entered into by tlic 
two great powers August 31, iqo?. arc rhe 
maintenance of the Integrity and independ- 
ence of Persia, and the principle "f the " open 
door." In the deh'mitation of zones of in- 
fluence England was content with a very 
modest portion. — the two lesser provinces havi 




106 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

the defense of India and access to the Gulf of dently, Persia should have as good for 

Oman. The zone assigned to Russia with came to Siam when that country was • 

Ispahan and Yezd leaves to her future action into zones of influence under the 

the finest provinces of the kingdom. It also French agreement, 

includes Kasr-i-Chirine, to which will run a The indifference of the inhabitants, t 

branch of the Bagdad railway. Finally, the gility of materials, give to all Orienta 

treaty powers have provided for the eventual tries the same ruinous aspect. In no pan 

establishment of a financial control, " in |mpression more vivid than in the Persi 

J 1 J 11 • . / 1 • L teau. I he houses are falnng down, the 

order to preclude all mterference which may are full of gaping holes, and the facings 

not conform to the principles on which the tombs and mosques are crumbling awaj 

present agreement is based." Iranian people seem to have sunk to the 

The agreement has been variously criti- f,^P^^ ^^ degradation and misery. Still. 

• 1 L u 1.- r^ ti ' this debris persist the traces of a glono 

cised by the European press. France is n,re. a refined intelligence, an ardent pat 

jubilant because anything that removes fric- and.— strange to sav, a thing unique in a I 

tion between England and Russia also re- »"^" country,— a compact and consci 

moves another prop from under Germany." nationality: fecund germ of future efflon 

The German press is in doubt as to which So far from the Persians having be 

has the best of the negotiations, but is gen- composed by the English initiativ 

erally agreed that England has riveted her French writer holds that they hav< 

hold on the Persian Gulf. strengthened thereby. 

As to the effects of the treaty on the Per- All their latent energies have been aws 

sians themselves, the writer in the Revue des the liberal movement tends to change th 

Deux Mondes thinks that the revolution, fol- acter, it leads the Shah and his people tc 

lowed by the Anglo-Russian agreement, f^^^ ^^^ ^^"^^ P^^"f^i^ sentiment, and t. 

,, ^ „ 11 i...u^na common effort for the national up 

seems to otter an excellent chance to the ^1,^ success of which will effectively insi 

peoples of Iran." If she will only act pru- independence of Persia. 



THE WOMEN OF BURMAH. 

TpHE idea that the women of one of those representing millions of dollars or me 

^ fabulously picturesque regions that 5?^^^"""^ °"* ^^°^%P'f ^\o/^ '*!^1*^ ,^^J 

, . j4 , { V- -. ,7 „ •1^1 1 Burmese women wind about their slend 

skirt the road to Mandalay might be the ^^j^^ figures. It may almost be said of the 

freest and happiest on all the earth appears girls that they are born and bred in the 

hopelessly paradoxical at first sight. And and everything they know or are capable 

yet this is the very assertion which Mrs. Jane }^^^« \f "^^^ ^»*o"} ^'w^-i- e» niamma,-c 

J^ 1 /-«i • • J X "cr colleagues and woman friends. Of her 

Cjernandt-Claine, a prominent and tar-trav- such a girl sees very little, for this gc 

eled Swedish writer, makes in the columns of amiable but as frequently indolent gentlem 

Dagny (Stockholm) in regard to her sis- fers,— once he has visited his fields and in 

ters of far-off Burmah. She has studied them '^'^ "^^^. harvest early in the mormng-t 

, , , L 1 • away his day rather than to mix in the 

on the spot and has come to the conclusion ^n the city streets of Rangoon. And the y 

not only that they furnish one of the few members of the family are none the wo 

bright features of that portion of the globe, on this account. 

but that their state and achievements hold yj^g women have the more freedc 

out encouragement as well a> guidance to the business and for gossip, of which th 

women in all other parts of the world. Speak- equally fond, because the smaller cl 

ing of what she observed in " the Fair Land ^^^ar no other dress than a piece of 

East of India," as the Burmese themselves around the waist, and get along sple 

call their country, Mrs. Gernandt says: vvithout most of the supervision and 

Among the many reasons why it holds such a ance bestowed on the children of the 

unique place must be counted the sparseness of dent. What Mrs. Gernandt found m- 

the population and the prohibition against the j^^rkable in the Burmese women thai 

selling of the soil itself, by which the thought- ,./ , it'l-i* u* 

less men of Burmah are prevented from dispos- their freedom and their ability^ was thei 

ing of their rich fields, but also, and above all, plete lack of that hostile jealousy wl 

that the daughters of that country possess an un- supposed to be inseparable from all co 

equaled talent for business, so that the entire ^j^^ business 
intricate bazaar svstem is life to them, whether 

it be a question of dealing in precious stones Whether a sale comes to herself or 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 107 

owner of the adjoining booth, the Burmese why not?— of Nirvana, she built pagodas and 

woman displays the same proud freedom from established educational schools for boys and 

Ii:st of gain, while at the same time she remains girls, where even the poor little Chinese maids 

equally polite and yet independent in her de- might gather a little knowledge. 
nieanor. All their doings and dealings are free 

from any meanness. Nor are those women satis- The young women were seen to meet the 

tied to work and rule only in the bazaar. Since jtien of their own age in comradelike freedom 

long ume they have enjoyed communal suffrage, „^j ^„..„i;«.„ t^uZ^ *u« ^ ^ ^ i 

and political suffrage woiild undoubtedly also be ^"^ equality. Often the young people were 

theirs if it were to be found at all in the country, ^^en travelmg around m couples m the 

They are deeply interested in all public affairs, clumsy flower-decked and ox-drawn vehicles 

and whenever a Burmese husband gets into some of the land. And if a voung girl should fall 

Kind of trouble with the authorities, his wife • u,_ _«. ^ ^u ^ ' • u r u *u 

Hill he sure to appear in his place to settle the *" ^^/^ contrary to the wishes of her mother, 

matter. an elopement to the jungle would invariably 

Mrs. Gernandt found that the women in ^''f''^^ ^"^'"^> ^'^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ invariability, 

"t/je Fair Land East of India " shared with "^^ ^ ^uV^'^'a'- ""• ^^"^ ^^'^ ""^i "-^^ '^'''^'''' 

th^ men all existing educational facilities. T^^. I'-l "^'^ *'• ""'"^ '^Ti^ ^,°"^^"f ' 

Thus, for instance, they have, for more than ^^f Swedish writer ; just a wedding feast for 

'khty yem, had access to the University of ''^^latives and friends. 

Kangoon. Among the Buddhist nuns at that And if some time in the future the young 

P^ace Airs. Gernandt found many who had matron should grow tired of supporting both 

passed ^^.ith highest possible honors the exam- II"'^^,"^ ^"^, children she will simply apply to 

,naf;«^_ -c 'JTJT 'Lj/ the elders of the city for a divorce. They will 

nations in Sanscrit and Pali prescribed for then try at first to arrange a reconciliation All 

rne niglier clergy. And from their ranks had jesting aside, the marriages are as a rule very 

come many inspired poetesses of whose gifts happy. Nor do they, socially, imply any great 

Mrs. Ciernandt heard several high Catholic f ^"«« ^V^^ Ir""' ""Ia^^ Burmese women Bc- 

nrplQf**^ I -^i- ^i_ 1 ^ J • ^' ^orc, as after, the wedding, they are called Man, 

prelates speak with the deepest admiration. ^ tjtie common to young girls and married 

1 beciiine personally acquainted, she says, with women. The name of the husband is his own 

a very wealthy woman, a dealer in rubies, whose affair and does not concern his wife at all. She 

business did not prevent her from possessing a retains her own name as well as any property 

jar de^p>er knowledge of Sanscrit and Pali than she may either have inherited or acquired. If 

1, u \^ of my own mother tongue. She was in she obtains a divorce, it is she who has to care 

u o °^ impressing the fact on my attention, lor the children, but as she had to do so anyhow, 

that Bviddha never had made any distinction be- it makes no great difference in her life. And if 

tween t lie sexes. And in order to become worthy she has daughters, they are sure to open booths 

ol nigHfir forms of reincarnation or even, — and of their own at an early age. 



THE '' EUROPEANIZATION '' OF RUSSIA. 

VJ^l^ER this heading Mr. D. Protopopov, approaching revolution, like that of October, or 

in a recent issue of the Russkaya Mysl f'^'lfT t^ }^^^ French. Revolution 'Phc reason 

/p„-^: rr>i , \ J I. L ^ for this is that not a single demand of the coun- 

{l^ussian I bought ), endeavors to show that try has been complied with by the government. 

since the revolutionary movement of 1905 The lower classes are crushed, the reactionaries 

conditions in Russia have changed so quickly behave licentiously ; how is it possible, then, 

that thought is scarcely able to follow them. ^^'^^ ^^^""^ ^^^^"^^ "^^ ^^ ^ "^^ outbreak?^ 

' Before that period," says this writer, A new kind of mob has appeared in the 

' events in Russia moved so slowly that it is cities, which is just as ready to side with the 

hard to get accustomed to the new tempo. " expropriators " as with the gendarmerie. 

This writer believes that a greater freedom There is a complete mix-up of revolutionary 

has come to Russia, but not in the way the and criminal tendencies. 

^tionists imagined. /^\\ i]^^^ jg liberal or progressive has in many 

Reality has mercilessly trodden upon the places capitulated without any fight. The 

flowers of their hopes. Therefore the new con- wealthy classes are given over to material en- 

ditions are of a conflicting nature. Some think joymcnt ; and much more is spent in dress, 

that Russia has been thrown backward almost shows, and feasting than heretofore. A merci- 

^0 the time of Alexander III., and that every- less indifference to the sufferings of their poorer 

^^'"R has to be begun anew. The adminis- neighbors is noticeable among this section of 

tration has raised its voice, has let some blood, society. An indecent literature, devoid of talent 

and now everything is quiet. The people are in and of sense, is ruining the lives of their spoiled 

3 gloomy mood: they curse themselves and children. Tlie wcahhier and mightier classes 

lathers under exaggerated rumors of their own have organized for the protection of their own 

nivcntion. Others still cherish a belief in an interests. Frightened by all that has been 



108 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IElVS. 

talked and written about a dictatorship of the class. They are taking more interest in the 

proletariat, they are now ready to support any affairs of the Zemstvo and in improved method* 

strong regime; they certainly prefer a Durnovo' of agriculture. Among the city laborers or- 

or a Stolypin to a Khrustalov. Of the former ganizations are becoming more numerous, and a, 

sympathy of these classes with the radical ele- longing for enlightenment is to be observed, 

ments there is not even a trace. Lectures and evening classes are eagerly attend- 

.... , , ed by the workingmen. Watchmen, cabmen. 

In the last three years the peasants have and common laborers read their newspapers, and 

undergone a complete transformation. use more intelligent language than formerly. A 

^- . - , ,. 1 .1 • ^-11 desire for the elevation of the individual is 

Their former tanhness and their patriarchal ^^ticcable everywhere. Servants may not anv 

obedience to the will of the officials have disap- ^^ ^ ^^.^^^^j ^^ ^^^^ li^,j chattels; they 

pearcd. Disobedience combined with disrespect ^ j^^ ^^ ,^^,^ themselves as component 

to the uniform of the military is now often n^embers of society. Even in the police depart- 

noticed. he peasants socm more clearly to ^^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^,-^^^, ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^.j^^ ^^^ changed, 

understand their own iiUerests, and they de- ^vhereas formerly the members of the force 

mand respect to their own personality. 1 he ^^^^.^^ ^j^^j^ superiors blindly and devotedly. 

landlords frequemly coinphnn of the growing „^^^. ^,, ^^ ^^^^ ^^eir positions as means for 

<lifficulty in farming their estates owing to the ^^^^^^ ^ livelihood. A new type of people has 

unreasonable demands of the laboring men. |,een born. The masses are awakened : there is 

their disobedience, threats, and strikes. 1 he „^ ,,y„^j^„ ,^r ^1^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 1 ^^^^ to sleep 

habits of the cities are spreading through the :^^^ j„ ^^e third Duma we hear no more 

y>"a.g^'s• ,^]j<^r^ )t^ """ ^''^^"?"">' ''] ^'^^ P^^^^"^ enthusiastic speeches : there are no more pas- 

families. 1 he village youth no longer recog- ^j^^^^^^ outbursts. There is no doubt, how- 

nize the authority of their elders. Quarrels, ^^^^ ^j,^ Parliament will become more and 

fights, incendiarism burglaries.-a conip lete dis- ^^^^^^ ^ f^^^^r of political importance. It is just 

ruption of the old patriarchal foundations is ^^ ^^^^ needed for the government, which can 

to be witnessed. sl^i^j^ itj^^lf ^nder the Duma's authority on 

From among all these ugly unsympathetic questions of loans, in the struggle with the 

e „ ^«*.;«..«^ 4.U- D..o^;-.« ^^.r.'o^.r^^ o ««,.r borderlands and in other matters. In place of 

forms continues the Russian reviewer, a new ^^^ patriarchal conditions, a certain patriotic 

world IS undoubtedly evolvmg. feeling is awaking. 

A great transformation is taking place,— a All this, says Mr. Protopopov, may be 
metamorphosis of both the communal system ^„ii^i ^l^ «n.«..«o^k:«« ir,,^^«^««;-«*.:«l i 
and the individual In this collision of the new ff ^^^ the approaching Europeanization of 
world with the old one, how can the forms be Russia. We see the advent of a real demo- 
other than of the roughest kind? The old cratic life, with its positive and negative sides, 
moral code, which has hitherto guided the ma- With this Europeanization a long, hard and 

a^i twn^" A'«rlaTte''7o?tr?«r;: merc.less Struggle of the classes and the masses 

and cducatif>n is noticeable among the peasant against their oppressors may be expected. 



KARL MARX AS A WORLD FORCE. 

\K7 HAT is it that caused Karl Marx, the This is the more remarkable, as at first view 

^^ founder of the modern Socialist j^^^'«"^^,^f!" that the writi^ 

, J • • tain absolutclv none of those elements which in 

movement, to become a tremendous inter- religion have fired the imagination of mankind, 

national influence? Why has the Marxian They are poor in social ideas, in political 

s}-stem laid such a grip upon millions through- thought, and in warm, impassioned appeals, 

out the world, meeting a reception without They offer no paradise, no wonderful land, flow- 

,, , . 1*1. r • 1 J J"g With milk and honey, m which all men shall 

parallel in the history of ideas, and compar- ^^ princes, enjoying much pleasure and little 

ing in its universal appeal only with the great toil. They hold up no such Utopias as those of 

religions? These are the questions pro- Fourier and Weitling. Marx's words descend 

pounded in the Morten, a leading German hold and heavy as hammer-blows: "The work- 

*^ , , , ,,, n 1 / • *u ingmcn have nothing to lose but their chams; 

weekly, by Werner Sombart, professor m the ^j^^^, ^^^^,^ ^ ^.^^.j^ ^^ ^^;^^ , » 

commercial high-school of Berlin, and a so- A-i • o i_ 

ciologist of international reputation. A "»S bombart comments, is an empty 

The resemblance of Socialism to the great ^vorld, something quite abstract, with no ap- 

religions, Sombart thinks, consists not only in peal to the senses. Lven though Marx speaks 

the attraction it exerts upon large numbers of with the voice of the old Jewish prophets, he 

people, but also in the manner and the re- bas only their stern inflexibility; he lacks the 

ligious fervor with which the adherents of sublimity of their emotion, their deep pathos. 

Marx feel and believe and live in his ^le scarcely ever stirs the great human pas- 

teachings. sions, he never calls upon the people to die for 



'"^ 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



ihcir idtals. In fact he o( _ 

of mockery in regard to ideals. The workii _ 
class has no ideals, he says; ii has in il merely 
the elements for bringing forth into freedom a 
new society, which has already developed in 
the bosom of the bourgeois society now on the 
ytige of collapse- 
In view of all these repellent features in 
the Marxian system, how can its victorious 
march be explained ? 

" Oneof the reasons," says Sombart, " why 
Marxism has become the recognized confes- 
sion of faith of the Socialist proletariat is its 
very emptiness, its poverty in social ideas, its 
'ad of positive demands. 

One will understand why the Marxian doc- 

^"K lias become the rock upon which tlic 

tkutth of the social movement could be built 

" "He realizes that such is its breadth that ii 

f« comprehend the most widely divergent tend- 

"'•>i Because Marx did not set up a fixed 

f.^snin, because he drew no definite picture 

."' '"e f uiiire to be aimed for, because he al- 

Mwfd a ^.jjp latitude to individual preferences 

a^ regards even the details of carrying out the 

flaw struggle, — because of all this he could be- 

rome the theoretician par rrcelUnce of the 

aocial Tiiovement. Hence it is also that he 

urwed all ideals into one purely formal ideal 

01 class solidarity: ' Workingmen of all coun- 

ines, Unite!'" 

'O this general negative quality of Marx 

wasadcled the positive kernel in his teachings, 

_ the rninimum program," as Sombart calls it, 

m which every Socialist proletarian to-day 

mast believe. This program is: 

_ The (nd of the Socialist movement is social- 

l?ilii>n of all the means of production and 

'^'^k'^'^''""' ^"^ '*" *^'*^* struggle is the way 

10 bricg ai^aui this end. These two doctrines 

li«an\^ the Iwo mainstays of Socialism ; for 

viter\ the end and the means were thus indi- 

caittl the ideal of solidarity followed as a nat- 

mal corollary, and in turn gave rise to the idea 

•>i mtemationalism. And from intemalional- 

i^iti to universal brotherhood is but a step : so 

that in this way Socialism was able to revive 

an old powerful idea and enlist it in its own 

^larx, according to Sombart, has also 
drawn a great deal of strength from the fact 
ihat he has so frequently been misunderstood 
hy those who preach his doctrines to the 

masses. 

It has always beeti so with religions. Both 
'neinined atid the untrained minds are able to 
draw spiritual nourishment from them, althouRh 
'he unedirealcd classes frequently misinterpreted 
'« spirit of their Masters' teachings. While 
MJtx is generally understood, he has been aided 
Bteatiy by these very mis interpreters, in that 
th^ infused a moral soirit into his teachings 
"nKl" Marx himself did" not put into them. In 
hu lanwn) theory of vahie and surplus value 
Maix declares that the workingman receives 




only part of what he earns by his labor, while 
the rest, the surplus value, which keeps contin- 
ually increasing in proportion to what the work- 
ingman receives, goes to the employer in the 
form of profit. 

This theory, Sombart declares, was if»- 
vestcd by Marx with no moral significance. 
He merely pointed out what he considered an 
economic fact for the purpose of proving that 
the capitalist s>-stem must perforce come to an 
end and give way to an orderly Socialist 
regime. In Marx's system there is " no grain 
of ethics." He was particularly proud of the 
fact that he never made any appeal to " eter- 
nal justice." In all his works he bends all 
his energies to prove by cold scientific reason- 
ing that the coming of Socialism is inevitable. 

The Socialist propagandists, however, make 
use of this theory of value to arouse moral 
resentment in the working class. The work- 
ingmen are deprived by the capitalist system 
of what is their just due, and in fighting for 
the overthrow of capitalism they are fighting 
for justice, — another powerful, world-moving 
element, which imparts to Marx's doctrine 
the moral strength inherent in all great re- 
ligions. 

The final attractive quality in Marx was 
the revolutionary character of his teachings. 
" It is in fact not difficult," says Sombart, 
" to extract from the writings of Marx, espe- 



110 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REt^lElVS. 



daily the younger Marx, sufficient inflamma- 
tory material to feed the lire of revolutionary 
enthusiasm." 

At the present time, Sombart declares, not 
one of the theories of Marx is able to stand 
the test of economic and sociologic criticism. 
The S(icialists nowadays, however, continue 



ship iMarx with greater fervor ttia 
. the bearer of the only true gospel c 
m. This gospel has merely assumed 
rm. Marxism need not be scientifica 
■ in every detail, but it nevertheles 
the evangel of the social revolutior 
of the hereafter, of the millennium. 



THF. WORK OF FR.^N'aJlS COPPEE. 




'pO excite the fond interest of tin 

people and to w in the love of the lower 
classes by writing exquisite heart poetn* is 
indeed a rare thing. Franqois Cuppee, the 
French author who died last month, wrote 
so well that he satisfied the critical taste of 
Gauticr and Bauville, yet the plain people 
loved his works. The enigma, says Paul 
Bourget, writing in the Annates, is explained 
by the very high intellcaual value of his 
poetry. 

Ot all the coiitemporar;; poets, he was the only 
one who was wholly and immnlnbly French. He 
was wholly French by the visions evoked in his 
revery by the natural play of memory, — visions 
of the plain lite of the home-lover, the life of the 
people. Many poets who came before him and 
who followed him forced themselves to be up 



to ilntc, .issimilatcd thecnselves to their sui 
riiuiidings. Coppee's work shows ihe reader th; 
the writer did not take up his pen to copy froi 
the things and the life around him ; that 1 
sketched not from the nature ot others or of h 
snrroun(linj{s. but from the sympathy and tl 
deep feeling of his own nature. The city wi 
his city : therefore he sketched it. His work w: 
the gentle work of love. 

How fortunate, continues M. Bourget, 
is for the world of letters that, instead of lii 
gering over his books, " lie loitered in tl 
streets, in the old public squares, and on tl 
banks of the green Seine, where it runs b 
tween the high gray quais, carrying its slo 
barges! " The memories in his mind sto 
into his poems, and we see his pictures as » 
see the Scotch glens in the poems of Bum 
and the landscape of the East in the stori 
told by Byron. The pictures appear ar 
(he reader recognizes the scenes, and smil 
at the faithfulness of the painting. 

Paris was a country in itself, Coppet 
country, and he loved it. 

French by birth, he was more profound 
I'Vencb, more closely and intimately French, 1 
the quality of his art. His work was natiin 
just, precise, perfectly finished. Finish and ju 
lii'c are (he distin(;uishing characteristics of mai 
iif the artists of our race, — they are, perhaps, tl 
most natural and most genuine traits of man 
Our artists do not care so much for inventio 
What they aim at is lo pii'h execution to tl 
pnini of pfrfeclion, or at Iva'X to the point ■ 

No Frenchman since the days of Musse 
asserts M. Bourget, has revealed the hear 
appeal so strikingly as Coppec; nor has ai 
ptjet better represented the " mental current 
of the true Frenchman, the Frenchman ■ 
Gallo-Roman stock. Because, moreove 
Coppee was a very delicate and rcfini 
thinker and an artist of extreme assurance • 
reach, because he was a true exponent ■ 
French sensibility, he holds a unique place 
French contcmporar\- literature. He wi 
probably have no successor, because the kir 
of life he lived and pictured is slowly bi 
surely passing away from France, 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. Ill 

CAN LAND AND UNEMPLOYED LABOR BE BROUGHT 

TOGETHER? 

*' IS there land for the unemployed? " is a Speaking generally, land is out of the reach 

question discussed by Mr. W. B. Kel- of those who need it most; for 

logg, of Superior, Wis., in Charities and the ^j^^^e must be a cash payment of some portion 

Commons for June 6. In the Northwest, he of the purchase price, the family must be moved, 

sa\^, there are ** thousands of acres of fertile a house put up, necessary stock and tools bought, 

land Iving out in the sun and rain waiting to ^n^ the settler niust have some reserve where- 

, • \ J L 1 L u 11 L With to maintam himself until the first returns. 
produce abundant crops when labor snail be 

applied for clearing and cultivation." He Confining his remarks to the district with 

cannot help thinking which he is most familiar, Mr. Kellogg says 

that the most favorable locality for the man 

that some of this land ought to be used while it ^f ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ fcothold is the 

IS cheap,— tirst to employ idle labor, and, sec- ^ „ . ^ , ii>r« i_« 

ond. to be sold in small tracts to those so em- cut-over region of northern Michigan, 

ployed who might desire land and a home of Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 

their own. Our remaining land-supply should t^ i.cjuij- i.'ir • j 

not l,e wholly monopolized by "him that hath." , ^"l"^" ^"/"'^ bmldrng matenal fencmg and 

The Mlow who is down should be given a ^"«' ^' ^''"V°\ *'Z.*= *'''"k*^= abundant natural 

chanc'al'io pasture for his stock, nearby markets for all his 

produce, work for himself and his team during 

It is often a3ked why unemployed men do ^^^ ^^"^^r (^5^" ^l^^ prairie farmer is idle), and 

^^^ I I 11 ..L X . u * -. game and wild fruits to add to the food-supply, 

not seek work or land on the farms; but to *^ *^^ ^ 

most of such men an insurmountable ob- The amount of money needed to make a 

stacle presents itself, — namely, the lack of beginning naturally depends upon certain 

funds for the necessary transportation or for conditions, such as the terms of sale, the lo- 

the required deposit in the case of those who cation, the quantity of marketable timber on 

would like to buy land. Further, except in the land, etc. As a general proposition, how- 

har\est-timc, hired help can be supplied by ever, it may be said that an energetic man 

the locality, and during the remainder of the with $300 or $4<X) can move into and cs- 

jtar the demand for it is very irregular. tablish himself in this section of the country. 

. , The first essential in any scheme for bring- 

centers where there is a greater or less demand ductive land which snail be cheap m an un- 

all the year round. Unless he sees a definite job improved state and valuable after labor has 

ahead of him, he will not be apt to forsake the been applied to it. Plenty of such land, well 

known for the unknown. ^j^^^^^j ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^„ j railroads, is 

The farmers on their part make no syste- to be had, Mr. Kellogg says, in Wisconsin, 

malic attempt to make known their wants, at from $io to $12.50 per acre. 

and it is not to be expected that men in con- ^ jj. n^^ covered with some living timber and 

gcsted centers will seek work several hun- with the stumps of a former forest : the expense 

dred miles distant unless they are pretty cer- of clearing varies from $15 to $30 an acre. This 

tain that work is awaiting them when they land when brought under cultivation has been 

^.. .1 1 • \ t ' • found to produce even higher net returns from 

pet tnere. It is, therefore, not surprising ^ ^^^^^ acreage than land in the older settled 

that the wages alone do not tempt the la- parts of the country, where land is valued at 

^"ng classes to seek the farms in large $i^5 to $150 per acre. 

""?J^^^=*- Mr. Kellogg cites the case of a settler who 
>>|iat is wanted most is a scheme for increased the value of his land, which had cost 
^"ngmg land and labor together. But the him $27.50 to buy and clear, to $75 an acre. 
scheme must be one which shall have a busi- The profitable clearing of land being suc- 
cess basis independently of any philanthropic cessfully demonstrated, he suggests that it 
™>vc at the back of it. The beneficiaries would be feasible to help settlers over the 
"lust be treated crucial difficulty of making a start by employ- 

"'>t as objects of charity, but strictly on business »'ng them to do the clearing, and then giving 

P"nciples, except as they might be given an un- them an opportunity of buying the land at a 

usual opportunity to make a start. Self-help price covering the original cost, the expense 

would have to be the keynote so far as the ^^ ^ |^ and a reasonable profit to the in- 

laoorer is concerned ; and a reasonable return ^ t^,. , ,, '. , , ^ .l^ 

^of the investment would be necessary to give ^'^^tor. This plan would provide work at the 

pcnnancncc to the undertaking. . . . outset, — an absolute necessity for the man 



112 THE AMERICAN REI^IEW OF RENEWS. 

without means, — it would enable him to be- secure a team. He began his clearing at on 

come familiar with the work of a settler, and a"d supported his family for a time on the p 

, ,, I !_•• t \ u-r ceeds of cordwood hauled to the city. It \ 

he could make a beginning on far less than if j^^^d work, and he was handicapped by the Ic 

he came into the country an entire stranger, haul; but he kept at it, and by the intelligent 

Then there is the incentive to hard work of his land he has become known as one of 

which landownership always gives. "^^^^ successful farmers of the county. Strj 

T i<4 M •'.*=* e j^ berry culture is one of his specialties, and a r 

In the cut-over region, referred to ^f an acre and a quarter, all propagated fr 

above, practically all the improvement of land twelve plants originally given to him, pays 1 

has been done by comparatively poor men. annually something over $600. ... He 

Hundreds of settlers who are now comfor- »'^»w independent. 

tably circumstanced started in this way. A There being plenty of cheap good Is 

noteworthy instance, typical of the class, is now lying waste, and plenty of unemplo^ 

given by Mr. Kellogg: labor which might profitably be applied to 

A colored man had just enough money to make ^'»" "^^ some plan be devised for bring 

a payment on his land, put up a log house, and them together? 



" RED '' SUN DAY-SCHOOLS AND CHILD SOCLALISTS. 

It will be news to many persons to learn It was " our habits while we were still o 

that Sunday-schools for teaching Social- animals that made us over into men." Ev 

ism to children '* are well established and structure is made by habits forced upon 

flourishing in all of our large cities." What jhe rabbit has long ears and his eyes ar€ 

IS taught therein may be gathered from six the side of his head because the rabbit has 

essays, written by boys and girls of eleven to see what is going on around him. The wol 

thirteen years of age without prompting. ^^^''^ and his eyes are in front of his head 

17^ ^r .\ 'LTi/r cause he is always chasing the rabbit and ' 

Extracts from these essays are given by Mar- j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^im for food. It is the same 1 

tha Moore Avery in the May number of the with the people,— they arc always running a 

National Civic Federation Review, One of food. ... If they don't get it, they are cc 

the youthful authors, having evidently been Polled to rob or kill some one to get food 

taught that the cause of killing and stealing is ^^^*^ ^^^'^^ ^"^ f ^^*^^'^"- 

simply lack of wealth, says heaven shall come A boy of thirteen, who has a clear gr 

on earth on the doctrine, mission, and destiny 

•„ u 1 * r *' ^'^ss struggle," says the " game of lif 

when Socialism comes ; there will be plenty of i^ l . u , 1 , » - . , 

food for all, and people will not have to run ^^^ ^^^" ^^, "°/^ as tneir own social 

after food or kill or rob some other man in property, and to keep the stakes of the ga 

order to get it. through politics." When Socialists co 

...... , J . , into power they will "make rules for tl: 

A girl of thirteen treats the dogma of the ^^„ ^^^f^^ ^-^^ ^^,^^^. ^j^^ ^^^ j^ 

social organism, and in the course of her ^^^^^ majority, the rules they would m; 

essay writes: ^^^^^-^^ ^^^1,^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^f^^ ^^ ^j,„ 

A society of men, like the human body, is The remaining two of the juvenile ess 
made up of different parts. Each must do its ■^^^^ (^,1 .< -yvhat Socialists Want." 
work. A good example we have m the street- 
cleaners of New York. J^ast week the street- Socialists claim that a system like Americ 
cleaners, instead of taking away the garbage, ism has no right to exist. It must be chan 
every day, went on strike, and the garbage was to a new system of society, where people ' 
piled on the streets for five or six days. It not be divided with different interests, bu' 
smelled very bad. It is believed that many chil- will be one class, with one interest, and 1 
dren were taken sick from the terrible smell, will be the good and welfare of society. 

Jil'^Jw tl?. '^^'^^nf "^'"^ ^'""^ '* '' ^""'^ *^^^ "^'^ These essays ^^'trt the productions of 

pus m rs'ew i ork Socialist bunday-scho< 

A little fellow of eleven deals with the and the admiration for this literary achic 

problem of the moral order: nient "spread from ocean to ocean." 1 

"It can not be different, because people, can Socialist children of Omaha were not to 

not be kind, true, or honest so long as they work outdone by those of New York, and t 

for wages. g^^^ ^ practical demonstration of their, p: 

These scholars are taught " how the ciples, when, led by a little girl of ten, t 

human body happened to be formed as it is." " tore down President Roosevelt's pict 



L 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 113 

a -ji ~% from the walls, and hung in its place one of votional." In the latter country not only 

* Mother ' Jones." The Socialist press gave are the children taught the doctrine, but 

glowing accounts of this exhibition of youth- even infants are dedicated to the cause at 

eJ - f ful "heroism," and the Social-Democratic baptism. 

Herald q{ Milwaukee said it spoke ** volumes Children's Socialistic literature is multiply- 

^1/ I for the manner in which these children have ing. To the series beginning with "The 

been taught the truths of Socialism." Young Socialist " has been added " The 

The "red" catechisms have left the prin- Child's Socialist Reader," with illustrations 

ciples of logic behind, and Bible-teaching and by the artist, Walter Crane. 
Christian standards are out of date. The In London those Socialist Sunday-schools 

Ten Commandments have been curtailed ; that teach from the *' red catechism " have 

^or at Boston some of the "comrades" have been refused the further use of the public 

'Resolved, That henceforth when a man is schoolrooms. 

hmgry it is moral to steal." There are no statistics available for Amer- 

i^n America the spirit of Socialism is in- ica, but the Sunday-school children of the 

ffllectual and practical; in Australia (Mel- "red internationals" abroad number more 

t^urne) " it is somewhat sentimental, de- than 59,000. 



IS MANUAL TRAINING IN SCHOOLS WORTH WHILE? 

/j^CCORDING to Mr. George Frederic engaged, — be it a locomotive, a railroad 

Stratton, in Cassiers Magazine for trestle, or a factory building. The only way 

J^ne, the father, the taxpayer, and the em- in which he can acquire such understanding 

ployer of labor are asking, " What is it all is through a course of strictly mechanical 

^^r, — this * manual training,* with its ex- drawing; yet in a large majority of the 

pensive equipment, its s[>ecial teachers, and schools in which manual training is taught 

'^s demands upon the boy's time?"; and the the pupils are allowed to devote time which 

question is growing insistent. The school ought properly to be given to mechanical 

authorities do not regard manual training as drawing to freehand, ornamental work. 

^ preparation for an industrial career. As a It is undoubtedly the fact that " a great 

^^hool superintendent remarked at a recent many instructors regard manual training in 

'^^^eting of the National Society for the Pro- itself as a golden opportunity for the dis- 

^^otion of Industrial Education, " We are semination of a larger understanding and ap- 

'^ot teaching a trade; we are training the preciation of art." This probably explains 

faculties of the children, — training the ob- the rule, in force in most schools where man- 

servation, the imagination, the will, etc." ual training has been introduced into the 

This view of the teachers is a subject of eighth and ninth grades, which requires 

comment in a report of the Massachusetts every pupil to give some time to the subject. 

Commission on Industrial and Technical even though he may be intended for a clergy- 

tducation: man, a physician, or a lawyer. 

-r, ... ,.„ 1 . . • Light is thrown on the status of manual 

llie wide indifference to manual training as ^ . r • ^u 1 • 1 1 1 u », ^t 

a school subject may be due to the narrow view trammg m the high-schools by a report of 

wbich has prevailed among its chief advocates. Prof. F. W. Ballou, of the University of 

U has been urged as a stimulus to other forms Cincinnati. He found that of 207 high- 

ot intellectual effort,~a sort of mustard relish, schools, M9 permitted students to elect the 

an appetizer, to be conducted without any in- {■.< % ^ • 1 ^ j • 1 

^"^trial end! It has been severed from real course, while forty-eight made it compulsory. 

Me as completely as have the other school activ- Further, that forty-eight gave two hours a 

uies. Thus it has come about that the over- week to such work; 106 one and one-half 

mastering influences of school traditions have y^oxxxs', sixty-eight one hour; and some as 

"fought into subordination both the drawing t. , ^ a • . / i\ 

^<1 the manual work. "^"^ ^^ twenty-hve mmutcs ('•)• ^ 

^ There is at the present time an increasing 

. This criticism of drawing, it may be said demand for bright, well-trained young me- 

'" passing, is only too well founded. It is chanics, which cannot be supplied. 

^ absolute necessity for the workman of to- , ^^^^u^„^ 

j-„^. ,, ^ J ^jLj^'ij The railroad manager needs more trackage, 

«y to be able to . understand the detailed ^^^e rolling stock, and larger yard facilities, 

<lrawings of the work on which he may be and cannot secure them. . . . The men to 



114 THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REI/IEIVS. 

build the locomotives and cars and to meet the Such thorough training cannot be givei 

rapidly increasing demands of all manufactur- out the continual use of material ; and ui 

ers are still in embryo. One of the largest con- market can be found for the products, w 

iractors in New England, in a recent speech, very doubtful, the expense of such m 

said : ** It is, in my opinion, useless to look for added to the expense of furnishing toe 

any relief from the manual-training systems in equipment and competent instructors, wc 

the public schools as at present conducted. greater than municipalities would care tc 

It would undoubtedly arouse the antagon 

In so little estimation is'the public-school the taxpayers. 

manual-training course held by manufactur- ^^^ere are. however, two existing m 

ers that the manager of a large plant, vvhere ^^ industrial and technical education 

there are more than 200 apprentices, bemg ^^^^^ ^^^^ excellent records of succcs 

asked if any time was credited to high-school ^^ ^^^^ ^^ -^^-^^^^ ^ ^^l^^j^„ ^f ^^c 

pupils on his apprentice course, replied em-' ^j^^^^ u ^^^ ^^ ^^^j^p,, ^^j . ^^ 

phatically : ^^^^^ ? » These are the courses of the 

Not a day ! How much could we allow them, Men's Christian Association and the 

in justice to the others? The total time they spondence-school systems, 

put m on a two years course m the school is '^ 

not over 160 hours, — just about equal to three A study of the personnel of the your 

weeks of our time; and it is doubtful to me if who comprise the Young Men's Christij 

they have learned as much in that long drawn- sociation and the correspondence-school 

out stretch of tuition as they would learn in shows that they are, almost without exc 

three straight weeks in our shops. young workers already in their several 

, r 1 • • 1 t_i i_ L They have gone direct from the gr 

In many of the cities the problem has been schools, and sometimes from the high-s 

taken up by the boards of trade, and the into industrial occupations, and the de 

business men have been called upon to make become better men has drawn them ir 

suggestions ; but " so far, all is chaos/* It is, classes mentioned. Here, then is the tn 

^^ ' , , . . 1 ^i_ I • L tcrial, and the finest of material. Yoimg, 

moreover, proved by statistics that the high- enthusiastic men. . . . devoting two 01 

schools do not furnish material for mechanics evenings each week to real endeavor a 

to a degree that makes manual training there improvement. Such boys and men arc 

worth while. It was found that of 2500 ^hile. 

graduates who had been obliged to take man- The superintendent of a great m 

ual training, only 6 per cent, had taken up shop says: 

mechanical work. -ph^ best men I have are the few wh. 

The proposal has been made that appro- taken .those evening or correspondence < 

priations should be made for post-graduate while working in here daily. . . . The 

courses in manual training for grammar- character too! A man indifferent to his 

11 J ^ T* ^u* Tu • ^* « and to his work wont study nights, 
school graduates. To this there is a serious night-students make good men and true- 
obstacle, time ! 



ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GERMANY IN 1908. 



A 



S America watches the pulse of Wall The recent financial stringency, ho^ 

Street, so Germany reads its financial was small compared with the crash of 

and economic welfare in the condition of the which was brought about by overspeci 

Reichsbank, the Bank of the Empire, that after the Franco-Prussian War. Thi 

governs the money market of the country, the French economist, M. Raphael Gc 

More truly speaking, the Reichsbank, to- Levy, writing in the Revue des 

gether with the Kreditbanken, performs Morules, shows the general improv 

the same function as do the great New that has taken place in financial an< 

York banks and their clearing-house in com- nomic Germany since that time. Dun; 

bination with the Stock Exchange in twenty-seven years following the i 

America. crash, agricultural interests, in league 

From 1905 to 1908 the Reichbank's rates large manufacturing enterprises, force 

of interest fluctuated from 3.14 per cent, to marck into a protectorate policy, that | 

6 per cent. German paper money depre- restricted business transactions. It wa 

ciated in value, and foreign financiers lost recently that this evil has been corrcctec 

confidence in the standard of German gold, restoring the power and. liberty of die 

fearing that payment might be suspended, market. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



THE AUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY OF HERBERT SPENCER. 

• 

IN studying the life of a man like Herbert saw." His father, saddened by the loss of seven 
Spencer the human personality and the de- children, according to a letter to Herbert's 
velopment of the scheme of thought are of mother, was "reduced by ill health to a state of 
even more intense interest than the finished wretchedness bordering on insanity." These 
philosophy itself. These sides of the great influences on the early life of the philosopher 
man's career are shown to much better advan- injected into his temperament that strain of seri- 
tagc in the new authorized biography* by Dr. ousness so characteristic of his writings. He 
David Duncan (one of the Spencer Trustees) was not, however, without his ideas of healthy 
than in the voluminous "Autobiography" issued humor. He tells, for example, in a letter to 
four years ago. The present volume possesses Mrs. Lecky, how, in order to guard himself 
additional interest from the fact that it contains "against those errors of judgment that entail 
a brief account of the philosopher's life after the mischievous consequences," he desires to sub- 
date at which the autobiography concludes. mit all his manuscripts hereafter (the letter 
Dr. Duncan plainly shows in this series of let- is dated February, 1892) to **one or two ladies 
ters that, despite his shortcomings, Mr. Spencer, who shall act as Grundyometers*' The chapters 



like all the finer na- 
tures, shrank from 
"parading the more 
attractive and lovable 
aspects of his charac- 
ters—thus permitting 
an apparent justifica- 
tion tor the opinion 
that he was '*all 
brains and no heart." 
In a number of let- 
ters, however, is re- 
vealed the kindly hu- 
man side of the phil- 
osopher, amounting 
even to boyishness at 
times. To Tyndall, 
Huxley, and R L. 
Youmans he frequent- 
ly wrote expressions 
of emotional depth 
unsuspected by the 
student of his philo- 
sophic creations. His 
frank, almost exuber- 
ant, letter to Mr. An- 
^cw Carnegie, ac- 
Miowlcdging an un- 
expected gift, is fur- 
ther evidence of 









/"^ 

0^^%^^ ' 




A/ 



FAC-SIMILE OF A NOTE ACCOMPANYING A LOCK OF 
HERBERT SPENCER'S HAIR. 



latent buoyancy in his 

"^ture. In most respects, further says Dr. cle in the first issue of the Bath and West of 



on marriage and par- 
enthood in the ** Prin- 
c i p 1 e s of Ethics " 
were submitted to 
several ladies who had 
consented to act in 
this capacity for him. 

During the early 
days, when Spencer 
vacillated between en- 
gineering and litera- 
ture as a profession, 
and constantly tor- 
mented himself with 
the growing convic- 
tion that he could not 
make a success of the 
latter, there were 
many instances of 
failure and some of 
success at writing 
which are recorded by 
Dr. Duncan. His 
earliest attempt to 
write for the press 
was late in 1835. In 
a letter to his father, 
early in the next 
year, he tells with 
great pride how he 
has had an arti- 



^ncan, Spencer was a model clubman. He Ettf^land Magazine, on the subject of salt crys- 

^ways showed delicacy and good feeling, was tallization. "My article looked very pretty. . . . 

^ pink of courtesy, and " invariably evinced When I saw it I began shouting and capering 

that tactful good nature in which he thought about the room. ... I suppose I shall be get- 

hmwelf deficient." ting immensely proud very soon. Indeed, upon 

^: Duncan's editing has been skillfully done, reading this letter over I find that it savors a 

^J^ is not difficult to read through the letters good deal of it. But I must try to strive against 

of Mr. Spencer himself and the few written to it as well as I can.** 

nimby others which are inserted in these vol- Among Mr. Spencer's most interesting utter- 

"Jl^ the temperamental as well as intellectual ances on international questions Dr. Duncan 

^^^^^wpmcnt of the man. His seriousness was quotes from a letter to Dr. Youmans Spencer's 

**J of the legitimate outcomes of the character request for "a supply of typical illustrations of 

^« temperament of his immediate ancestors, the way in which your [American] political ma- 

™ Jfandfathcr, in Spencer's own words, was chinery acts so ill, — its failures in securing life, 

^f*of the most melancholy-looking men I ever property, and equitable relations. I want to use 

""mS* ••^ ¥^**^— 9 ti««K««* er»««o^ nir the case of America as one among others to 

n»«ui£. •od Lettem of Herbert Spencer. By , , , . • .. i.* *u 1. *u r 

JMvA DiBctB. AppIetoD. 2 vols., 858 pp., III. |5. show how baseless is the notion that the form 



122 



THE AMEHIC/lhl JIEI^IEW OF REVIEWS. 



of political freedonl will secure freedom in the 
full sense of the word." 

Dr. Duncan quotes also several letters from 
Spencer to Baron Kentaro Kaneko, the Japan- 
ese statesman, giving Spencer's advice with 
regard to the first drafl for a Japanese constitu- 
tion. The proposed new inslittilions, Mr. Spen- 
cer held, "should be as much as possible jjru/^(rii 
upon the existing institutions, so as to prevent 
breaking the conliniiity,— that theri <hould not 
he a replacing of old forms by new hut a modifi- 
cation of old forms to a gradually increasing 



This excellent work concludes 



vith : 



mate of Spencer's place in the history ot 
thought and an appendix consisting of an es- 
say by himself, written in 1898-99 and left for 
publication in this volume, enlitled " The Filia- 
tion of Ideas," — " an exceedingly valuable docu- 
ment," says Dr. Duncan, " when we remember 
the fact that it was Spencer's final contribution 
to the theory of- evolution." The biographer 
would leave with us the estimate of Spencer 
made b^ Prof. Lloyd Morgan ; " In this day of 
increasingly straitened speculation it is well 
that we should feel the influence of a thinker 
whose powers of generalization have seldom 
been equaled and perhaps never surpassed." 



RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS 



BIOGRAPHY, MEIMOIRS. AND HISTORY. 

Reminiscences of Senator William M. Stewart, 

of Nevada. Edited by George R. Brown. 

Neale Publisbing Company. 358 pp., por. $3. 

The picturesque career of Senator Stewart, of 

Nevada, who won and lost two fortunes before 

leaving public life and then quit politics at eighty 

years of age and won a third in the Nevada 

gold fields certainly ofTers rich material for a 

volume of reminiscences Many extremely in 

teresting episodes of frontier history and the 

Ctvij War and Reconstruction periods in Wash 

ington are related in this volume which throws 

several unexpected and penetrating sidelights on 

contemporary personalities 

Alexander H Stephens By Louis Pendleton 

Philadelphia Jacobs 406 pp por $1 25 

This biography of the Vice Pre'iidcnt of the 

Southern Confederacy appears in the series of 

American Crisis Biographies The wriler who 

IS a fellow Georgian has made a particular 





OF GEORGIA- 



EX- SENATOR 

study of the State Sovereignty controversy. He 
has obtained much interesting material from 
files of Georgia and other Southern newspapers 
of the 40 s SOS and '6o's, from old letters and 
raphooks of the war period, and from manu- 
scnpfs in the possession of the Government at 
Washington 

Concerning Lafcadio Hearn. By GeoT^ M. 
Gould Philadelphia : Jacobs. 416 pp., iU. 
$1 so- 
ft is a question whether, any other literary 
character of American history, universally not 
conceded to be of first rank, has been the sub- 
: of so much discussion and difference of 
opinion as that unfortunate citizen of the world, 
Lafijadio Hearn. There has never been any in- 
telligent reader willing to dispute Heam's 
claims to a beautiful, fascinating, and well-nigh 
perfect English style, — practically all Hearn had, 
declares Dr. Gould in this latest boob, a work 
which has been the subject of considerable dis- 



THE NEU^ BOOKS. 



128 




9 mST FAGB or THE FIKST ISSUE OF ' VE 



) In the ncwipapcr 



n on the part of the Heam cult His 

artistry and unique skill lay m the strange 
y of coloring the echo with the hues and 
of heavenly rainbows and unearthly sun 
ill gleaming with a ghostly light that never 
n sea or shore." Hearn had no individual 
cter whatever, Dr. Gould insists He 

perfect chameleon, who took for the time 
alor of his surroundings Ihe vohime 

consideration is illustrated with a num 
f portraits of Heam at different periods 
4 life and with other illustrations It also 
ns quotations from some of his less known 
igs and a bibliography by Laura Siedman 
iould was the close persona) friend who 
ed Heam to go to Japan With the 
"s literary studies, however the biographer 
ittle or no literary synlpalhy In short. 
Dr. Gould, Heam was no product of his 
snment, but of the school of Flaubert 
er, Maupassant, Loti, and Zola but with 
differences and variations that the e leach 
ay not take much credit to themsehes 
Truth about Port Arthur By E J Nojine 
iton. .igs pp., ill. $1-25- 
is is the first really satisfactory connected 

about the siege of Port Arthur and its 
fall that we have yet seen. M, Nojine was 
nly accredited Russian war correspondent 
irt Arthur during the siege, and he had ex- 
mal facilities for collecting material (or his 
. The book, which was published in Russia 



last year, is one long indictment of the regime 
existing in Russia at the lime of the siege and 
of most of the officials, particularly General 
Slocsscl, who were connected with the defense 
of Port Arthur. The original Russian has been 
translated and abridged by Capl. A. B. Lindsay, 
of the British Indian army, and edited by Major 
E. D. Swinton. of the Royal Engineers. A num- 
ber of very interesting iljustralions, portraits 
and others, add much to the value and interest 
of the volume, and several charts, maps, and 
tables illuminate the descriptive information 
with which M. Nojine fairly crowds his pages. 
The Struggle for Americ.in Independence. By 

Sydney G. Fisher. Lippincott. 3 vols., iisg 

pp. $4. 

Mr. Fisher's "True History of the American 
Revolution," published several years ago in one 
volume, attracted attention because of the fact 
that it dwelt on certain phases of the struggle, — 
as, for example, the treatment of Ihe Loyalists, 
— in a new and original way. The present two- 
volume work is a conlinualion and enlargement 
of the earlier history, in which the original plan 
is extended and carried out in more detail. The 
writer's main purpose has licen to make access- 
ible to the reading public the mass of original 
evidence as to what the Revolution really was. 
He has made a commendable attempt to deal 
frankly with this evidence. 
Pioneers. By Katharine R. Crowcll. New 

York ; The Willetl Press. 89 pp. $0^0. 

This IS a \ery useful httle popularly told 
story particularly adapted for children of the 
social and economic development of the United 
States of the steady progrc s westward of ex 
ploration settled life and all the comforts of 




>, nijB K. J. NoJIn'. wb* the rral hero o( Tort 
Arthur.) 



124 THE AMERICAN RE^lElV OF REI^IEIVS. 

invention and progress. A unique and very cially timely in view of the wider interest usually 

valuable feature is a combination sectional map, taken in the general subject of politics during 

designed by B. P. Willett and drawn by B. F. the Presidential year. 

Williamson. By means of a series of ingen- 

iously arranged folds tlie entire economic and ^ "c Government of England. By A. Lawrence 

social progress westward of American civiliza- Lowell. Macmillan. 2 vols., 1133 pp. $4. 

on IS epic e With each chapter the conviction grows upon 

GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, AND BUSINESS LIFE, the reader of this yfork that Dr. Lowell, who is 

rp, TV, • r *i ^- r> A lu 4. T r) profcssor of the science of government in Har- 

The Meanmg of the 1 imes. By Albert J. Beve- ^^^^ University, has produced a study of the 

ridge. Bobbs-Merrill. 431 pp., por. $1.50. British government comparable in thoroughness 
Senator Albert J. Bcveridge, of Indiana, is in and insight with Mr. Bryce's monumental work 
the very front rank of progressive American o" ^^e American commonwealth. While it re- 
statesmen, and he is one of our most forceful "ia»is to be seen whether the American's study 
and brilliant orators. It is gratifying, therefore, 01 ^^e British Government will as soon and 
to see in permanent form a collection of twenty- ^s certainly become a classic as the Briton's 
eight of his notable speeches delivered during analysis of the American state and its machin- 
the last dozen years on various occasions ^ry, it may be safely asserted that the argument 
throughout the country. The volume opens of ^he former is as convincing and his style well- 
with an illuminating exposition of "The Vital- "»gh as fascinating as those claims which Mr. 
ity of the American Constitution." A little fur- Bryce has always successfully made upon the 
ther on we find the famous speech on '* Our ^^^^^ o* his readers. Professor Lowell, in a 
Philippine Policy " with which Senator Beve- luminous and stimulating " Introductory Note 
ridge shattered Senatorial precedent by presum- o" the Constitution, sets forth his conception 
ing to make a speech in that august body almost 9' ^he organic law of Great Britain and sets 
within a month from the time he had taken his ^orth graphically his entire point of view. The 
seat in it. Here also is the Senator's masterly whole theory of English Government, says Pro- 
arraignment of the evil of child labor in fessor Lowell, is to be found in the comparison: 
America, with its powerful argument and abun- I" pohtics the Frenchman has tended in the 
dance of evidence, and his splendid speech in past to draw logical conclusions from correct 
support of our Forest Service, both of which premises, and his results have often been wrong; 
were delivered during the recent session of while the Englishman draws illogical conclusions 
Congress. His address on *' Business and Gov- ^rom incorrect premises, and his results are 
emment," replying to Mr. Bryan's government- commonly right, because all abstract proposi- 
ownership proposition in the campaign of 1906, t»ons in politics are at best approximations and 
is an excellent presentation of that subject. Be- an attempt to reason from them usually magni- 
sides these, there are important speeches on "^^ the inaccuracy. 

national expansion, the command of the Pacific, p , j Problems. By Fabian Franklin, 

the trusts, institutional law, American business ^ ^ 

development, the world's debt to Methodism, Holt. 344 pp. $1.50. 

and memorial addresses on Lincoln, Grant, Oli- !„ these chapters, which are made up of a 

ver P. Morton, Mark Hanna, James Whitcomb collection of addresses delivered upon university 

Riley, and Frances E. Willard. The last speech a„d college commencement occasions and edi- 

in the book, and the one that gives it its title, torials appearing in the Baltimore News during 

is "The Meaning of the Times," which has for Df, Franklin's thirteen years' editorial conduct 

Its text the timely topic of the moral regencr- ^f that journal, we find the viewpoint that of 

ation of American business. the thoughtful, cultured American student who 

Government by the People. By Robert H. ^^^ ^^^'^?^ {^^^^^ 1^"1 ^^^^""^ /" applying them 

'' . y ^ ^ "^ conservatively and the clear, lucid style which 

Fuller. Macmillan. 201 pp. ?i. characterizes all good newspaper editorial writ- 

A book that will be found interesting and use- ing- Before entering the field of journalism, 

ful to every American citizen desirous of learn- I^r. Franklin for some years occupied the chair 

ing the mechanism of our political system. The of mathematics at Johns Hopkins University, 

author aims to describe how government is . r< • v n* -n 

carried on by the people in so far as each voter ^ "^ Case Against Socialism. Macmillan. 

is entitled to share personally in it. The book 537 pp. $1.50. 

contains a great deal of practical information ^.j^j^ ^^^^ ^^^ prepared in England as a 

^^""'1* J''u^'''^^^^.•^'^' """"^ ^T ^1^ ^? ''''"" handbook for use there in the campaign against 
stituted how elections are conducted, and some ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ socialism. It comprises a compact 
of the devices used to obstruct or nulhfy the statement of the main points in the dispute, 
recording of the peoples will. Among the ^j^^ abundant footnote references to authori- 
topics reated are government by elections, ^j^^ ^^ ^ campaign textbook it is of more than 
qualifications for voting, identification of voters, „-„j.j value 
the primary election, the* nomination of candi- 
dates, voting on election day, indirect elections. The Principles of Banking. By Charles A. 
bribery and intimidation, supplemental safe- ^^^^^^ ^ gg $,75, 
guards against fraud, experiment and reform, ^ n ft- -r /^ 
and parties and their organization. An appen- This treatment of banking principles has a 
dix is devoted to " State Regulation and the special pertinency to the current discussion of 
Voting Privilege," and another contains the the currency problem in this country. It ex- 
party platforms of 1904. The volume is espe- plains the theory of a banknote currency and 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



he trend of modeni banking practice toward 
.he idea of a central bank. Mr. Conant includes 
in the scope of his treatise questions of reserves, 
State regulation and taxation, and the influence 
of securities upon banking. Another book by 
the same author. " Modem Banks of Issue," 
give^ the historical facts which illustrate the 
principles set forth in the present work. 



BOOKS OF OBSERVATION AND ' 

What the While Race May Learn from the In- 
dian. By George Wharton James. Chicago: 
I^orbes & Co, 269 pp., ill. $1-50. 
Mr- James has been intimately associated with 
the Indians of our great West for more than 
iwenty-live years, entering sytnpathetically into 
their life and customs and strongly believing 
that in many essentials to health and happiness 
the Indian is wiser than the white man. He 
emphasizes particularly the outdoor life and 
clean physical existence of the Indian. Many 
pictures add to the attraction of the volume. 
Motoring Abroad. By Frank Presbrey. New 
York: Outing Publishing Company. 294 pp., 
ill. %z. 

Two things are evident from even a cursory 
txamination of this finely printed and bound 
volume. The author knows how to enjoy him- 
xM thoroughly and he understands how to tell, 
in crisp, entertaining fashion, what he has seen. 
He and his wife took their automobile in a go 
IS you please tour through Normandy, Brittany, 
ihe chateau country of Touraine, England, 
Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, finding almost 
n'crywhere the greatest courtesy and kindli- 
ness, A final chapter is taken up with practical 




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suggestions for motoring in Europe. The vol- 
ume is plentifully besprinkled with illustrations, 
maps, and charts. 

Wanderings in Ireland. By Michael Shoe- 
maker, Putnam. 2g6 pp., ill. $2.50. 
The writer has evidently entered as fully as 
possible into the spirit of the land he visited, — 
an island, he says, where " though tears and 
smiles arc near related and sobs and laughter 
go hand in hand," the almost invariable greet- 
ing to the stranger is, " Glory be to God, but 
your honor is welcome to Ireland." The wan- 
derings were in a motor-car through the most 
unfrequented portions of the island, and the 
description is entertaining and informing. 

Home Life in Germany. By Mrs. Alfred Sidg- 
wiek. Macmillan. 327 pp., ill. $1.75. 
A really unusually interesting book this, by a 
woman who knows both English and German 
types and treats them with a kindly sympathy, 
a keen discernment, and a good-natured humor 
which make highly entertaining reading. 

LITERARY STUDIES. 
The Cambridge History of English Literature, 
Vols. I. and n. Edited by A. W. Ward and 
A. R. Waller, Putnam. 1165 pp. $5- 
Of the fourteen volumes comprising this 
work the first two have now appeared,— the 
first covering the period from the beginnings of 
English literature down to the time of Chaucer, 
and the second carrying the treatment on to 
the end of the Middle Ages, In the prepara- 
tion of this work e^ch division of the subject 
has been intrusted to an accepted authority, 
while the editors. Dr. A. W. Ward and Mr, A, 
R. Waller, retain responsibility for. the charac- 



THE AMERICAN REI^/Elf^ OF REl^lEiVS. 




PROFESSOR JOSIAtl RO\CE. 

(Author of " llie rbllosophy of Lojally. I 

ter of the work as a wliole. Three American 
wriltrs, — Prof. Francis B. Gumniere, of Haver- 
ford College; Prof. Frederick M. Padelford. of 
Washington University, and Prof. John Mat- 
thews Manly, of llie University of Chicago. — 
contribnle chapters to the second volume. The 
editors announce that the third volume, entitled 
" Renascence and Reformation," is in press, and 
it is hoped that this volinne will be published 
before the close of Ihe present year. 
The Technique of the Novel. By Charles F. 

Home. Harper. 285 pp. $(.50. 
Materials and Methods of Fiction, By Clayton 

Hatnilton. New York ; Baker & Taylor. 

2M pp. $1.50. 
Types of English Literature (Tragedy). By 

Ashley H, Thomdikc. Honghlon, Mifflin & 

Co. 390 pp. $i.5a 

Professor Home, who is assistant in the de- 
partment of English at the College of the City 
of New York, and Mr. Hamilton, whose 
though I- provoking criticism and essays are well 
known to magazine readers of lo-day, have at- 
tempted much the same task and both suc- 
ceeded, it seems to us, very well. Professor 
Home's book is not a history of the develop- 
ment of novel technique, but rather an analysis 
of fiction from the earliest forms to the present. 
From his study Professor Home has endeav- 
ored to formulate the accepted law. In Mr. 
Hamilton's volume, which has an introduction 
by Prof. Brander Matthews, we have presented 
the result of a study of very many novels and 
short stories from which the author has de- 
duced and formulated what he regards as the 
general principles of the art of fiction. Both 
books should be of value to college students, to 
young authors, and to literary clubs. Professor 



Thomdikes volume is on a slightly different 
order It is one of the series of "Types of 
English Literature uhich Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co are bringmg out under the general editor- 
ship of Prof William A. Neilson, of Harvard. 
Professor Thomdike (English, Columbia) at- 
tempts to trace the course of English tragedy 
from Its beginnings to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century and to indicate the part which 
It has played in the history, both of the theater 
and of literature 

PHlLOSOPHtCAl' E3SAYS. 
The Philosophy of Loyally. By Josiah Royct 

Macmillan 409 pp. $i.5a 
Essays Philosophical and Psycholological. *' In 

honor of William James." Longmans, Green 

& Co 610 pp $3 
The Philosophy of the Spirit. By Horatio W. 

Dresser. 545 pp. $2.sa 

Dr. Royce, who, it will be remembered, has 
been professor of the history of philosophy at 
Harvard for many years, disclaims any inten- 
tion of writing a textbook ; nor is his latest vol- 
ume, he asserts in the preface, an elaborately 
technical philosophical research. It is merely 
" an appeal (o any rea.der who may be fond of 
ideals and who may also be willing to review 
his own ideals in a somewhat new light and in a 
philosophical spirit." America, Professor Royce 
believes, ,is ripe for idealism but nevertheless 
confused by the vastness and complication of its 
social and political problems. He would gladly, 
if possible, in this little volume, " simplify; men s 
moral issues, clear their vision for the sight of 
the eternal, and win hearts for loyally." An ef- 
fectual and graceful acknowledgment to Prof. 
William James in Dr. Royce's preface brings 
us naturally to a consideration of the really re- 
markable volume of essays written in honor of 
the famous psychologist by his colleagues at 
Columbia University. The volume, called forth 
by a series of lectures delivered at Columbia 
early in 1907, is intended " to mark in some de- 
gree its authors' sense of Professor James' 
memorable services in philosophy and psychol- 
ogy and the vitality he has added to those 
studies." Thirteen essays on philosophical sub- 
jects and six on psychological complete the vol- 
ume. Dr. Dresser's book takes up the same 
general theme as Professor Royce's, considering, 
however, "the higher nature of man in relation 
to the divine presence," Dr. Dresser is author 
of several other books on kindred topics, includ- 
ing " Living by the Spirit " and " Man and the 
Divine Order,'* 
The Modem Ideal. By Paul GauUier. Paris: 

Hachette & Co. 358 pp. 3 francs 50. 

With the thorough scholarship and verve of 
style which characterize all bis books and re- 
view writings, M. Paul Gaultier has discussed 
the " principal problems which face the modem 
conscience " in a volume just issued by Hachette 
(Paris) under the title "The Modem Ideal." 
His point of view is, he declares, a spiritual one. 
He has divided the volume into three sections, 
considering in order (i) the moral question, 
(a) the social question, and (3) the religionl 
question. His chapters consider " The Ind^pcn- 



TH£ N£iV BOOKS. 12? 

dence of Morality/* "The Renaissance of the by Mr. Wilson run all the way from $800 to 

Ancient Ideal," " The I>efense of Individual- $4000. The plans that he gives are plans that 

ism," "Morality and Society," "The Crisis of have actually been built upon. 

Philanthropy," " True Justice," " Social Enmity." valuable works op REPPRPMrp 

- Morality and Religion," " Science and Faith," valuable works of reference. . 

and " Religion and the Modern Spirit." North American Trees. By Nathaniel L. Brit- 

SUOGBSTIONS TO HOMB BUILDERS AND ton. Holt. 894 pp., ill. $7. 

SMALL FARMERS. jhjs volume, in the American Nature Series, 

A Little Land and a Living. By Bolton Hall, j^ designed to describe all the kinds of trees 

New York • Arcadia Pre<i^ 287 nn ill $1 xr"*^^" l^ ^^^^^'' independently of plantmg, m 

i\ew lork. Arcadia rress. 2»7 pp., ill. ^i. ^^^^^ America north of the West Indies and 

The author of ** Three Acres and Liberty" Mexico. The text is accompanied by figures 
has followed that very popular little trea- showing the character of foliage, flowers, and 
tisc with a book which pursues the same fruit, while a number of photographs illustrat- 
theme with a somewhat different method, giving ing the general aspect of certain species have 
more detailed information on the subject of been reproduced. With very few exceptions the 
small farming, vacant-lot cultivation, building, drawings have been made from specimens in 
and ecjuipment. All readers who became interT the museums or herbarium of the New York 
csted in the suggestions offered by Mr. Hall in Botanical Garden. For the convenience of read- 
the introductory book will find the facts given ers not especiallv trained in botany a glossary 
in its sequel to be even more valuable and to of special terms has been appended to the work, 
the purpose. An important feature of " A Little but the use of technical words has been re- 
Land and a Living " is a letter addressed to the duced to the minimum. 

author by William Borsodi. Xh^. Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. IH. Edited 

The Small Country Place. By Samuel T. May- by Charles G. Herbermann. New York : Rob- 

nard. Lippincott. 317 pp., ill. $1.50. ert Appleton Company. 799 pp., ill. $6. 

This book covers not only the treatment of The third volume of this important work 
buildings and grounds, but offers definite sug- opens with the biographv of that famous Catho- 
gestions regarding the planting of gardens and Ijc convert, Orestes Brownson, who early in 
orchards, poultry-keeping, dairying, and many li^e left the Presbyterian faith for Universalism 
other interests connected with the small rural and later renounced all Protestant Christianity 
or suburban place. The author has passed more to embrace the Catholic faith. This volume, 
than thirty years of his life in teaching botany bke its predecessors, contains a great number 
and horticulture and has endeavored to make of interesting biographical and historical arti- 
his book thoroughly practical. The book is fully c^es, including many which have a general in- 
illustrated, terest entirely apart from their relation to Cath- 
olic Christianity. 

Building a Home. By H. W. Desmond and H. rp. ^t t? 1 j* / e • 1 t> r t^j 

t»r ^ 1- XT V 1 T. 1 o ^ ^ The New Encyclopedia of Social Reform. Ed- 

W. Frohne. New York: Baker & Taylor. .^^^ ^ ^.^^.^^ ^ p gjj^^ ^^^^ ^ 

^ PP' ^"- ^'^ nails. 1321 pp. $7.SO. 

In this volume the editors of the Architec- This is a completely new book, save for a few 
tural Record offer some fundamental advice for purely historical economic articles, the subjects 
the layman about to build. The purpose of the of which need no new treatment, but many even 
authors is not so niuch to present specific house of these are either revised or completelv rewrit- 
plans as to treat the subject in its broader as- ten. A comparison of this new edition'with the 
pects and by well-con^dered suggestions to old shows at once that a great improvement has 
bnng the intending builder into a sane mental been made. Every article has been written by 
attitude towards the problem before him. The some specialist on its particular subject. State- 
suggestions made are practical and based upon nients of reform have been written by a believer 
sound architectural principles. in the reform, but such statements are usually 
The Bungalow Book. By Henry L. Wilson, accompanied by summaries of Opposing views. 

Los Angeles: Published by the author. 111. Altogether this work is invaluable to the jour- 

* ^- nalist or the writer upon sociological topics, and 

?^- * all who have occasion to read widely in this 

The fact that a second edition of this pamph- field will find its bibliographical references in- 
let has been demanded shows that the subject dispensable. 

is a popular one and that the treatment of it books ON HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALING, 
has proved acceptable to many readers. The 

bungalow is an architectural type that has made Hypnotic Therapeutics in Theory and Practice, 

great progress in this country during the past few By John Duncaii Quackenbos, M.D. Harper, 

years, since it appeals with peculiar force to the -1^6 on $2 

average well-to-do American whose summers ^^ ^^' ^' 

are passed either on the sea-shore, in the moun- An exposition of h>T>notism as a great regen- 

tains, or in the vicinity of some of the .thousands erative force is what Dr. Quackenbos aims to 

of fresh-water lakes that dot the maps of many make. Dr. Quackenbos is a member ot the Lon- 

of our interior States. The designs included in don Society for Psychical Research, a fellow of 

Mr. Wilson's series of illustrations are adapted the New York Academy of Medicine, and 

to various locations as well as to various con- author of " Hypnotism in Mental and Moral Cul- 

ditions of ptirse. The estimates of cost given ture," ** Practical Physics," and other works. 



128 THE AMERICAN RE^IEiV OF REVIEWS. 

The Secrets of Beauty and the Mysteries of Paris, has just appeared from the press of Felix 

Heahh. By Cora Brown Potter. Paul Elder Alcan. It is entitled " L'Industrie Amcricaine." 

o p ^ 11 ^ The work is diviced into three parts, the first 

oc uo. 272 PP-> lii- 9i/o- treating of the industrial evolution of the coun- 

A manual of health and beauty suggestions try historically, the second describing the or- 

for women. The volume contains all sorts of ganization of American industry, and the third 

good advice, based on the author's stage experi- attempting to give a graphic outline of the in- 

ences and travel. dustrial expansion of the United States. Pro- 

T.C . , Tj *,• r> T J „ IT wTu; 1^ XT« . fcssor Viallate, it will be remembered, has al- 

Mental Healing. By LeanderE. Whipple. New ready written several volumes embodying studies 

York : Metaphysical Publishing Company, of American diplomacy and development 

pp., p . 9 5 • , J. Occasionally Studies in the History of Civiliza- 

A work issued some years ago, the sixth edi- . -ir i t r» t- ^ c u i*. tt i 

tion of which has just been brought out by the t^^"' ^ol. I. By Ernst Schultze. Hamburg: 

Metaphysical Publishing Company. Published by the Author. 224 pp. 3 marks. 

Health Through Self-Control in Thinking, Dr. Ernst Schultze, who is an old friend to 

Breathing, Eating. By William A. Spinney. German lovers of the essay, has written a sym- 

-, TiTooi- J pathetic little volume on American life and so- 

Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard. 310 pp. ^.j^i conditions, under a title which may be 

$1.20. freely rendered: "Occasional Studies in the 

Mr. Spinney, who is a teacher of mental and History of Civilization," and which treats espe- 

physical culture in Boston, believes that self- cially of the " development and expansion " of 

control in thinking, breathing, and doing will the United States. The book is published by 

work wonders in the way of physical health. the house of Gutenberg, in Hamburg. 

Nursing the Insane, By Clara Barrus, M.D. What the Army Can Mean for a Nation. By A. 

Macmillan. 409 pp. $2. Fastrez. Brussels : Misch & Thron. 294 pp. 

Dr. Barrus has been for many years woman A carefully prepared estimate of " What the 

assistant physician in the State Homeopathic Army Can Mean for a Nation" has been pre- 

Hospital at Middletown, N. Y. pared under the foregoing title by M. A. Fas- 

rx'«.»«.B »r^^».e r>» m««. «.r>^,m«, ^rcz for the lustitutc of Sociology at Brussels 

OTHER BOOKS OF THE MONTH. ^,^^ published by Misch & Thron, in the Belgian 

The So-Called Peters-Hilprecht Controversy. J^apital. M. Fastrez endeavors to set forth the 

u -Li \T xj\^ w D1 1 J t 1 • A T biological and social value of an army to any 

By H. V. Hilprecht. Philadelphia: A. J. „^«.- „ ^^\a^ t^r^^ \^^ o..rx..«.^^ e-^-,,;^/ ;« «.;™ 

/ *^ * "^ nation, aside irom its supreme service in time 

Holman & Co. 353 pp. of war. 

All who are interested in the proceedings be- Qn the Training of Parents. By Ernest H. Ab- 

fore the board of trustees of the University of * .^ t:j^..„u*^« vf;a?;« *, r<^ t^t «« «t 

Pennsylvania relative to the work of Professor ^°*^- Houghton, Mifflm & Co. 141 pp. $1. 

Hilorecht should read this volume, or at least Mr. Abbott has a keen power of observation 

a synopsis of the evidence which it oflfers, ^e- and the faculty of being serious without being 

fore attempting to form any conclusion on the dull. These chapters on how to bring up chil- 

subject. In these pages Professor Hilprecht dren (for it is really child-training come at from 

puts a full statement of his case as an appeal, the other side) are very thought-provoking and 

not to the sympathy of his readers, but to their suggestive. Perhaps, after all, our children them- 

calm and dispassionate judgment. selves can best teach us how to train them. 

The New Horoscope of Missions. By James Messages to Mothers, A Protest Against Arti- 

S. Dennis, D.D. New York: Revell. 248 pp. ficial Methods. By Herman Partsch, M.D. 

$1. Paul Elder & Co. 166 pp. $1.50. 

Dr. Dennis is a universally recognized author- The Nutrition of Man. By Russell H. Chit- 

ity on the subject of missions, and students of tenden. Frederick A. Stokes Company. 321 

the subject will find interesting and valuable j|j *« 

this summary, from a missionary point of view, ^ ... 

of the significance of Japan's development and Scientific Nutrition Simplified. By Goodwin 

China's awakening. The volume is made up of Brown. Frederick A. Stokes Company. 200 

a series of lectures delivered last year at the ^^ y- ^ents 
McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago. 

American Industry. By Achille Viallate. Paris: The Power of Concentration. By Eustace Miles. 

Felix Alcan. 492 pp. 10 francs. ^""^"- ^^6 PP- $1.25. 

A careful, scholarly study of American econo- ^^'"^ Gymnastics According to the Ling Sys- 

mic and industrial conditions, by Prof. Achille tcm. By Anders Wide, M.p. Funk & Wag- 

Viallate, of the School of Political Science of nails. 50 cents. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEW& 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR AUGUST, 1908. 



Hon. William Jennings Bryan. .Frontispiece 
The Progress of the World— 

Politics as per Schedule 131 

The "Issues** are Not Partisan. 131 

*' Labor ** in the Campaign 131 

The Injunction Questioo 131 

The Presidency as a "lob" Ml 

New Policies and the Parties 133 

What Will Restore Business? 134 

Notice of Tariff Changes 1 34 

The Denver Occasion 134 

Vice-Presidential Candidates. 135 

Platform Buncombe 136 

The Real Phitform— (1) Tariff 136 

(2) Railroads and Trusts. 137 

(3) Public Finance in the Platform 137 

(4) The Japanese Question 1 38 

Campaign Pubficity 139 

Hitcncock in Republican Command. 140 

Sheldon as Treasurer 140 

The Lesser Parties 1 43 

The Prohibitionist Ticket 143 

ShouM Freight Rates Be Increased ? 1 44 

Busineu Confidence Returning 145 

The Olympic Games 145 

The World Looking to Quebec 146 

The Revolution in Paraguay 146 

An Insurrection in Mexico 147 

The New President of Panama 147 

Affairs in Cuba and Central America 147 

Mote Trouble for Venezuela 146 

The English Suffragettes 148 

France Buys Another Railroad 149 

The Campaign Against Absinthe 149 

Portuguese and Spanish Topics of Interest ... 149 

Progress in Russia 149 

The American Fleet and Australia ISO 

Change of Ministry in Japan 1 30 

The Triumph of Count Zeppelin 1 52 

Saving Daylifiht bv Act of Parliament 1 53 

International Work of the Y. M. C. A 134 

Studying and Aiding the Immigrant 1 54 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 155 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Some Political Cartoons of the Month 159 

James S. Sherman, Republican Can- 
didate for Vice-President 

By William E. Weed. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

John Worth Kern, Democratic Can- 
didate for Vice-President 



166 



By Frederic Austin Ogg. 
With family portraits. 

Mr. Bryan's Convention 

By Samuel E. Moffett. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 



171 



179 



Mr. Cleveland at Princeton 185 

By Henry Van Dyke. 
With portrait 

Grover Cleveland as a Public Man. . . 188 

By St. Clair McKelway. 
With portrait of President Cleveland in his second term. 

A Great American Journalist 191 

With portrait of the late Murat Halstead. 

What Are the Japanese Doing in 
Formosa ?..... 193 

By William C. Gregg. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

Guatemala's Transcontinental Route. 200 

By M. A. Hays. 

With illustrations. 

The Gyroscope and How We May 
Make It Useful 205 

By Arthur Gordon Webster. 
With illustrations. 

Some Applications of the Gyroscope. 209 

By J. F. Springer. 
With illustrations. 

The Author of " Uncle Remus " 214 

With portrait of the late Joel Chandler Harris. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Mississippi River Problem 216 

The Need of a National Health Organization. 217 
Quebec, a Fountain of American Liberty. ... 219 

Louis Frechette, " Poet of Canada** 221 

Are Americans Reallv Lovers of the Dollar ? 222 

The Religion of the sensible American 223 

Sleep Movemento in Plants 224 

The Author of " L* Abbe Constantin " 225 

A Woman Candidate for Paris Municipal Council 226 

A Canal Over the Alps 227 

Sydney, the Queen Qty of Australia. 228 

Seven Thousand New Acres Won for Italy . . 230 

The Leipzig Bach Monument 232 

A Defense of the Canses 233 

Is a New China Being Born ? 235 

The Commercial Morality of the Japanese. . . 237 
Ivory Hunting. Its Romance and Realities.. . . 239 
The Lack of Teachers in German Schools. . . 240 

Educating Our Boys. 241 

A Dutch View of the North-Sea Agreement. 242 

The Austrian Anabaptists in America. 243 

Punishment That Does Not Fit ^e Crime . . . 244 
Does Domestication Make Animals Stupid ?. . 245 

Patagonia Reclaimed 246 

Life and Periodicity 247 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Leading Financial Articles — 

American Railroads and English Investors. . . . 248 

After the Profit— What? 251 

The Making of Mortgage Bonds. 252 

The New Books 253 

With portraits. 



TERMS : Issued monthly, 25 cents a number. $8.00 a year In advance in tlje United States, Porto Rico, Hawaii, 
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HON. WILLIAM JtNNINGS BRYAN, OF NHBKASKA. 
(laicd ai Denver lui July lO :is Doiiiocratic Caiulidiiic for ilu- Presidency I 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

ft:'. 

ECXVIII. J^EW YORK, AUGUST, lft<>8. N'o 2, 

!»♦■ ' • ■ ■ ■ 



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THE PROGRESS OF THK WORLD. 



^ The events of the political season that would in any case vote the L)em(;cratio 

jT have thus far been without any ticket throuj^h sectional feeling ami through 

great surprises. It had been prac- prejudice ajzainst the Repubh'can party on ac- 

xrtain for two years that the Repub- count of its name and traditions. Hut, jren- 

n^uld nominate Taft and that the crally spcakinjr, sentiment is not ^oinjj; to be a 

rats would nominate Bryan. As the ruling factor in this year's campaijxn, and 

•r the holding of the conventions ap- old-fashioned party prejudice cannot vcr\^ 

d, the well-informed were aware that successfully be played upon. 
urn the necessary majority of delegates 

ledged in advance to Taft, and that "Labor" L^^hor as well as capital is dom- 
lian the requisite two-thirds of the /» the inated by the economic motive. 
ratic delegates were instructed for "'"''" ^"' Neither labor nor capital is going 
or else had so declared themselves, to get much advantage as against tlie other 
I these men are well known to the through playing the game of party politics. 
\ As respects the popularity of the All factors of economic production must learn 
ites, it is to be said that Taft is per- to work together for the largest possible pro- 
approved by the entire Republican duction and the most equitable distribution. 
although his nomination was bitterlv The law can help to fix the conditions under 
I by most of the machine politicians, which the economic processes may go forward 
o the other hand Bryan's nomination without abuse. But otherwise there must be 
ide unanimous amid great acclaim at free play of natural forces. Prosperity is not 
•, and yet it is well known that many under the sole custody of one part>' or the 
rats of the East and South do not ap- other, and no set of politicians is devoted ex- 
>f the candidate to whom they have clusively either to the welfare of capital or 
ted themselves. labor. Since Mr. Gompers and other leaders 

of labor organizations desired to have the 

^^„ Naturally, it will be the endeavor party conventions committed to the advocacy 

9t of both sides to make it seem of certain proposed non-partisan bills at 

"' that the issues of the campaign Washington, it was quite right to use their 

dly and clearly defined. As a matter best efforts at Chicago and Denver to ini- 

, they are not ver>' well defined, and press their views. Hut because one conven- 

:lligent outside obser\'er would find it tion seemed to bid a little more strongly than 

J learn what the fuss is all about, the other for the good-will of the labor lead- 

Bvho took careful note of the platforms ers. it would be ridicuKuis to try to make a 

irocess of their making are aware that cleavage as between the two parties along this 

iltant documents do not represent any particular line. 
y opposed doctrines or tendencies of 

t. We are living in a commercial ^^^ It is never possible to make a 

and business motives are dominant in injunction successful party issue out of s()mc- 

itical life. The questions that involve v^"«'* '«''• thing that is not intrinsically 

:ntiment or prejudice arc not much in partisan in its nature or bearings. The in- 

e this \*ear. The ncfi^ro vote, alone, juintion question is not fitted to be a subject 

ipon race feeling, and is not afifected of party ccuitention. and it does not so lie in 

ness motives. There is. to be sure, a men's minds. All i^oful citi/ens want court 

lement in the South, still surviving, prcuesses to be fair and just. There is no 

Copyright. /'AW. hv I'm Ki vihw .»h Ki viiws Ci'Mr.\NY 



182 



THE Ah4ERICAN REi^lEW OF REl^IElVS. 



difference between Republicans and Demo- 
crats in this regard. Everybody believes that 
Mr, Taft, by virtue of his judicial experi- 
ence, is rather better acquainted with this 
subject in all its bearing than Mr. Bryan. 
He has expressed himself very definitely on 
the subject in recent speeches, and we shall 
have heard from him again in his letter of 
acceptance. All of his public experience has 
shown him to be not only a man of fairness 
and judicial mind, but also a man of generous 
heart snd large sympathies. He could not 
possibly wish, of course, to be unfair to work- 
ingmen whether organized in trades unions 
or otherwise. The people of the United 
States cannot bring themselves to the point 
of fretting and worrying' about a question of 
this kind. Nor can anybody draijoon them 
into making a party question out of a move- 
ment for giving greater precision and regu- 
larity to the methods by which the judges 
act in certain matters of court procedure. 
Our tribunals of justice are upon the whole 
very well-meaning, and made up of men of 
high average ability. Mr. Taft is in favor of 
some legislation on the subject of injunctions 
and so is Mr, Bryan. Those who take the 



question deeply to heart would do well to 
ascertain the views of candidates for Con- 
gress. No Congressman vtill consider him- 
self in any way bound by the injunction 
planks of either the Chicago or the Denver 
platform, 

j^. The labor vote, so called, like the 
''""'vS?^' farmer vote and the businen 
men's vote, must and naturally 
will be cast according to the predilections of 
the individual voter. It was obvious that in 
the very nature of the case the Denver plat- 
form would endorse more things of an ex- 
perimental or innovating character than could 
be forced into the Chicago platform. The 
Roosevelt Administration has been one of 
strong effort and considerable performance. 
Mr. Taft has been a loyal part of that Ad- 
ministration. His positions do not have to 
be defined for him by party platforms. The 
principal business of the President of the 
United States is simply to be President. His 
ability to set forth a lot of views on a variety 
of subjects is of comparatively slight impor- 
tance. The first great duty of a President is 
to appoint the members of his cabinet. With 



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a tbo FabUc Ledger (l'bIlad«lpblB) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U-'ORLD. 




a t^ood cabinet, a President might be a man 
of very mediocre ability provided he has com- 
mon sense. The business of the Government 
has to be transacted from day to day. The 
machinery has vast ramifications. The 
Roosevelt Administration has carried on the 
Oovcrnment upon a very high plane of cffi- 
'ciencj' and public spirit. The Democrats 
have shovi'n a surprising amount of appre- 
ciation of the virtues of the Roosevelt Ad- 
ministration. Sometimes changes in party 
control come about through. a revolt against 
inefficient or corrupt methods of administra- 
tion. No such issues are involved in the 
present campaign. 

HtmPoiieiiM ^^ ' change in party control 

aim tht should come about, it would be 

'*" '■ due either to a certain restles,<iness 

and desire for change as such, or else it 



would be due to a preference by the countrj- 
for certain policies supposed to be represented 
by the party now out of power. But to bring 
about a chan(^ of policies would involve leg- 
islation, and there is not much reason to think 
that it will be possible for some time to come 
to secure new legislation involving any radical 
change of program. If the Republicans win, 
they are pledged to revise the tariff and will 
certainly do it after a fashion. If Mr. Br>'an 
should be elected, the House of Represent- 
atives would probabl)- be very closely divided, 
while the Senate would remain Republican 
for some time. Under those conditions it is 
not likely that much, if any, revision of the 
tariff could be accomplished. Nor would 
there be any new legislation about railroads 
or corporations. If the Republicans win they 
will try to modify the Sherman Anti-Trust 
law so as to make it fit better the actual con- 



184 



THE AMERICAN REt^lElV OF REyiEtVS. 



dittons of business. They will probably try changes in the statutes that would affect con- 
to bring the large corporations under at least - ditions in a fundamental way. The result 
enough of federal control to secure publicity would be a period of well -justified prosperity. 
3s regards their financial transactions, and 

regulation at certain points where there is iKaiet Before proceeding, however, to 

just ground for criticism. The large business ^Tariff revise the tariff, Congress ought 

enterprises of the country cannot be broken ""'"*' to pass a resolution with regard 

up and ought not to be. But they must be to the time when tariff changes should go 

held strictly accountable to law; they must into effect. If the schedules are to be sweep- 
be taught that they cannot with impunity . ingty changed, business interests affected 

play the game of corrupt politics. Sound busi- ought to be given a considerable notice, and 

ness enterprises, no matter how large, should this should be done as the very first step, 

be protected and encouraged, provided they The period between the enactment of the law 

are doing business in an honest and fair way. and its taking effect should not be less than 
six months, and it might with advantage be 

^^ Labor as a distinct interest, like an entire year. American business interests 

will Batort capital, is chiefly concerned with could stand almost any change in the tariff 

"*" being profitably occupied. Work if it were understood in advance that the)' 

for everybody at good wages, and under rea- should be allowed a year in which to prepare 

sonable conditions, is what the wage-earning for the new conditions. Furthermore, if it 

classes chiefly desire, — in so far as they have were declared in advance by joint resolution 

an economic motive that dominates their ac- that a considerable period should elapse be- 

tion in public affairs. For some months past, fore changes should take effect, we should 

following the monetary panic of last autumn, avoid those disturbances that have been usual 

there has been a widespread industrial de- in the past during the weeks and months 

prcssion, with the result of the stoppage of when new tariff bills have been under debate, 

more than half of the mills and factories of — disturbances caused by uncertainty as to 

the country. Workingmen of Republican the o 
proclivities are not likely to believe that the 

full resumption of business activity would be , 

accelerated by the election of Mr. Bryan. ^ 
Business men as a class do not dislike change 



mch as they dislike uncertainty, 
would regard Taft's elec- 
tion as involving less uncer- 
tainty than Bryan's. If 
the Republicans are kept in 
full power, they will have 
to deal with three large sit- 
uations affecting business : 
First, they will be expected 
to amend the railway laws 
in order, on the one hand, 
to give the railroads a bet- 
ter chance to make agree- 
ments and to earn profits, 
and, on the other, to bring 
them at certain points under 
better regulation. Second, 
the Sherman Anti-Trust 
law must be modified so 
that it may not be a menace 
to legitimate business. 
Third, the tariff must be 
revised as quickly as pos- 
sible. These things being 
done, there should for sev- 
eral years be no agitation of 



They f, 



Our readers will find elsewhere 
in this number an excellent ac- 
count of the Denver convention 




THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



is able to make some pertinent comparisons 
from having witnessed also the Republican 
convention in June. A few votes were re- 
corded for Judge Gray, of Delaware, and 
Governor Johnson, of Minnesota, but Mr. 
Br^'an had approximately nine-tenths of the 
delegates on the initial ballot, and the John- 
son and Gray men promptly accepted the 
situation and made it unanimous. The Com- 
mittee on Credentials at Chicago had thrown 
out a great number of contestants for seats, 
but had excluded not a single claimant who 
had the slightest color of a right to be ad- 
mitted. The Denver convention did not 
have to deal with many contests, but it had 
the courage to exclude two powerful leaders 
and their immediate groups, — namely. Colo- 
nel Gufley, an oil magnate of Pittsburg, head 
of the Pennsylvania Democracy, and Mr. 
Patrick McCarren, head of the Democratic 
organization of the great Borough of Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. The rejection of Guffey, who has 
had a personal quarrel with Bryan, will cost 
the party no votes, although it may cost it 
some money, inasmuch as Gufley has been 
among the largest contributors to Brj'an's 
previous campaign funds. The rejection of 
McCarren will probably cost some votes in 
New York, but the Murphy men had ex- 
tended the Tammany sway to Brooklyn and 
had dethroned McCarren, and the Denver 
convention could better afford to humiliate ■ 
the Brooklyn boss than to anger the head of 
Tammany Hall, who now rules the party 
not merely in New York County, but also 
throughout the State. Mr. Murphy stopped 
at Lincoln to pay his respects to the candi- 
date Ml his way back from Denver. The 
Tammany alliance is one upon which Mr. 
Br>'an is not to be congratulated, hut candi- 
dates have to be tolerant. 

^^ The selection of Mr. John W. 
PniUtwUai Kern, of Indiana, for the Vice- 
O^*^"- Presidency, is discussed in an ar- 
ticle to be found elsewhere in this Review 
on the character and career of Mr. Bryan's 
running mate. A large number of candidates 
for the second place on the ticket were 
brought forward as Mr. Bryan's preference, 
but Mr. Kern seems to have had the inside 
track all the time. He i.s so little known to 
the people of the country that our readers will 
appreciate Mr. Ogg's candid and well-in- 
formed article. Neither candidate for the 
Vice- Presidency is in robust health, and 
neither of them can make a strenuous speak- 
ing campaign. Mr. Kern has recently recov- 




THE AMERICAN REylElf OF REVIEWS. 




(From a goapebot 



ered from a serious breakdown, and Mr. 
Sherman, the Republican nominee, has beai 
the victim of a painful illness since the Chi- 
cago convention. If Mr. Sherman can make 
positive contribution to the Republican cause 
in the State of New York, and Mr. Kern can 
transmute his undoubted popularity in In- 
diana into votes for the Bryan ticket, these 
worthy gentlemen will have done all that can 
be expected of them. Mr. Weed, of Utica, 
elsewhere contributes to this number an ar- 
ticle on the personality and career of Mr. 
Sherman. 

fVatform ^'^^ platform adopted at Denver 
Bun- is like that which one expects 
"* ' from a party that has long been 
out of power. Such a party denounces freely 
and promises abundantly, because It has lost 
the habit of being held accountable for its 
words. The platform begins by demanding 
that the people shall rule, and we are told 



that the Government is now in the " grip pt 
those who have made it a business asset of the 
favor-seeking corporations." The next sec- 
tion denounces the increase in the number of 
office-holders under the Roosevelt Admini»; 
tration. It says that this clearly indkite^ 
" a deliberate purpose on the part of tbc Ad* 
ministration to keep the Republican party in 
power," and further says that " this is OO 
less dangerous and corrupt than the open pur- 
chase of votes at the polls." This would be 
dreadful if true, but it is not really believed 
by any intelligent man in the country. The 
Government is now run on ilon-partissn 
civil-service lines ; and it has probably not 
even entered the head of anybody at Wash- 
ington to create olfices for the sake of keeping 
the Republican party in control. The next 
section demands economy in administration 
and makes sweeping charges of " frightful 
extravagance," while the next denounces 
" the absolute domination of the Speaker," 
and pledges the Democratic party to adopt 
different rules to regulate business in the 
House. Yet everybody knows that the pres- 
ent rules have been kept in force by Demo- 
cratic as well as Republican Congresses. The 
next section condemns, as the " establishment 
of a dynasty," Mr. Roosevelt's interest in 
the nomination of Mr. Taft. As a plain 
matter of fact every one knows that Mr. 
Roosevelt did not put one-tenth of the pres- 
sure upon the office-holders to secure Mr. 
Taft's nomination that former Presidents 
have used to get themselves renominated. If 
in the future course of our political affairs 
we shall witness methods no less high-minded 
and honorable than those pursued by Mr. 
Roosevelt in the endeavor to prevent his own 
renumination, we shall be a very fortunate 
country. These preliminary paragraphs are 
of course merely part and parcel of that cheap . 
traditional buncombe with which old-fash- 
ioned politicians always think it necessarj- to 
encumber a party platform. The Repub- 
licans do the same sort of thing, although not 
so recklessly and brazenly as the Democrats. 

TheHiai ^''^ '*"' P'^it^orm begins with 
piaifarm— elaborate statements on the sub- 
"' ject of campaign publicity. This 

is an important question, and we shall revert 
to it in a further paragraph. Next folloivs 
the tariff plank, which demands immediate 
reduction of import duties. Articles com- 
peting with trust-controlled products are to 
be placed upon the free list: material reduc- 
tions are to be made upon the necessaries of 



THE PROGRESS OF THE ]VORLD. 




HK3. BRYAN, TBaiL A RECENT PUOTOCiUFU. 



life, and in all the other schedules the tariff 
ij to be brought by means of a graduated 
scale down to a strictly revenue basis. This 
is much more specific than the Republican 
tariff plank. The Republicans are for con- 
tinued protective duties, with revision of the 
schedules, and the adoption of maximum and 
minimum rates, to be used in obtaining ad- 
vantapes from other countries. The Demo- 
crats are for sweeping additions to the free 
list and for an abandonment of the pro- 
tective principle and the adoption of a tariff 
■ for revenue only. With all respect to the 
malters of the platform, these statements do 
not seem to be in keeping with the real 
tendency of Democratic opinion. The dom- 
inant element of the Democratic party in 
Congress comes from the South, and this 
tariff plank does not accord with Southern 
Democratic sentiment in so far as we have 
been able to ascertain it. 



GRANDCHILDREK. 



:ally opposed to the railroad policy 
advocated by Mr. Bryan on his return from 
Europe. As respects corporations engaged in 
manufacture and trade, the platform proposes 
the licensing of those doing as much as 25 
per cent, of the business of the country in 
their own lines. It is further proposed to 
prohibit any company from doing more than 
50 per cent, of its kind of business, and it is 
further demanded that purchasers be treated 
alike throuRhout the country. The proposal 
to limit corporations to one-half or any other 
fixed proportion of the business in their par- 
ticular lines uf manufacture or trade is one 
which it is scarcely worth while to discuss. 
If any reader supposes that a great party 
could intend to put such a plan into prac- 
tice, let him try to think out its application 
to the various lines of business that he kno^\'s 
something about. 



*./,«.-. ^5/1,"^'*' 



I the control of rail- 
: detailed than that 
'""'' of the Republicans. When stud- 
ied carefully, however, it contains practically 
nothing that is at variance with the well- 
established position of the Roosevelt Admin- 
istration on the railroad question, and it is 



ftiW'c Flnw 



Upon every phase of the subject 
of finance, the Democratic plat- 
form IS far from bemg consistent 
or definite. The recent large expenditures of 
the national Government are condemned as 
criminal, yet the planks i)f the Democratic 
platform favor the very policies which have 
made large expenditures necessary. Captaiti 



THE AMERICAN REyiEU^ OF REt^fEU^S. 




Hobson was an enthusiastic deleEate at Den- 
ver, demanding a naval pnlicy far beyond any- 
thing that the Republicans have supported. 
He was successful in seeing that the Denver 
platform made a strong declaration for an 
adequate navy, sufficient to defend all the 
coasts of the country. Not the smallest word 
of criticism is to be found directed against the 
Republican policy of liberal pensions, and, on 
the contrary, we find a plank fully endorsing 
a generous pension policy, and by implication 
favoring everything that the veterans desire. 
As respects river and harbor improvement, 



the platform demands a vast and cxpansi'v« 
policy of expenditure. In other words, the 
very things which have in recent years in- 
creased the expenditures of the Government 
are to the fullest extent endorsed by the 
Democratic platform. If the Democrats 
were in power and were to carry out the 
pledges of this platform, they could not pos- 
sibly make any material reduction in the cost 
of carrying on the Government, Among 
other things, they actually favor the appro- 
priation of federal money to aid the State.; 
in the construction and maintenance of ordi- 
nary highways, which would open the door 
for a new form of shameless and extravagant 
log-rolling legislation, without the shadov/ 
of an excuse. If there is anything whatso- 
ever that States and localities arc competent 
to do for themselves, it is to make their own 
ordinary highways. In short, if this Demo- 
cratic platform is to be taken as an honest 
document, we should be launched by a Bryan 
regime upon an unparalleled epoch of ex- 
travagant expenditure. All the forms of 
liberal appropriation that Republicans are in- 
clined to favor arc endorsed in this platform, 
and a row of additional " pork barrels " is 
alluringly promised. The money for these 
vast proposed expenditures is to be secured, — 
according to this platform, — by getting a:i 
amendment to the Constitution which will 
authorize the levying of an income tax upon 
individuals as well as upon corporations, I'hc 
subject of money and currency is so treated 
in the platform as to be unintelligible, with 
the exception of one demand, — namely, that 
calling for a guarantee fund to secure the 
depositors in banks. The allusions to emer- 
gency currency are so written as to be sus- 
ceptible of contradictory interpretations. 
The maintenance of the gold standard is not 
referred to, and the great problem of a per- 
manent reconstruction of the banking and 
currency system of this country, which is one 
of our few seriously pressing public ques- 
tions, is dodged altogether. While some- 
thing can be said in favor of the guarantee of 
bank deposits as a means of preventing dis- 
trust in times of panic, the real problem to 
be solved lies far deeper, inasmuch as it in- 
volves the creation of a currency and banking 
system that would not be subject to the dan- 
gers that our existing system has to face. Mr. 
Bryan has discussed this subject in speeches, 
but the platform dodges it. Since these sub- 
jects have always been considered by Demo- 
crats as peculiarly their own, the avoidances 
of the Denver document are rather painful. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



There is a mischievous and cow- 
™5J^J3;[** ardly plank on the question of 
Asiatic immigration. As is well 
known, a strong effort was made to commit 
the Democratic party at Denver to the move- 
ment in favor of the exclusion of the Japan- 
ese, l"hat movement takes the form of ad- 
vocating a bill applying to Japanese and 
Korean immigrants the same provisions that 
already exist by law for excluding the Chi- 
nese. The plank as adopted is as follows: 

We favor full protection by bolh national and 
State govcnimenls wilhin their respective 
>jihcrcs of all foreigners residing in ihe United 
Stales under treaty, but we are opposed to tlie 
ailmissioi) of Asiatic immigrants who cannot be 
amalgamated with our population or wh.ise 
presence ainoi)g us would raise a race issue and 
involve us in diplomatic controversies with 
Oriciilal powers. 

I f this means anything practical, it means 
that the Democratic party is in favor of the 
enactment into law of the Japanese Exclu- 
sion bill that is pending at Washington. 
The question of our relations with Japan just 
now is a delicate one, and a party platform 
should either treat it frankly or let it alone. 
Our navy is about to visit Japan at the in- 
vitation of the Japanese Government, in the 
interest of peace and good understanding. 
The immigration problem on the Pacific 
Coast is not a question at issue between the 
two great parties in this country, and the at- 
tempt of the Democratic platform to catch 
Pacific Coast votes bj' the plank just quoted 
will not commend itself to the judgment of 
wise men. The position of this country with 
res(>ect to kinds of immigration that cannot be 
assimilated is now perfectly well understood ; 
and it Is a reckless sort of 
partisanship that would 
tr>- to catch a few votes in 
a Presidential campaign at 
the risk of making more 
difficult the pending ef- 
forts to settle the Japa- 
nese question by diplo- 
matic means, 

0.™,. Th. D.mo- 
''"ft- c r a 1 1 c plat- 
"'*' form strongly 
demands publicity in the 
matter of campaign con- 
tributions, and Mr. Bryan 
has followed it up by an- 
nouncing that no funds 
would be received from 
corporations. These 



statements have been made in apparent 
forgetfulness of the fact that a year and 
a half ago a Republican Congress passed 

a law on the subject of gifts to the 
campaign funds of federal elections, and 
prescribed heavy penalties for contribu- 
tions by corporations. The State of New 
York requires the tiling of campaign receipts 
and expenditures, and the Republicans, — 
whose national headquarters will be in New 
York, — have definitely stated that they will 
regard the New York law as applying to the 
Presidential contest in so far as they are con- 
cerned. Since they have taken this stand, 
the country will insist chat they carry out 
the agreement in good faith. Every one has 
known, since the discussion of the contribu- 
tions by insurance companies four years ago, 
that the practice of obtaining money from 
corporations for campaign funds was forever 
at an end. Gifts will have to come from in- 
dividuals, Mr. Bryan announces that the 
Democrats will not receive gifts greater than 
$10,000 from any one person, and that all 
gifts exceeding $joo will be announced a few 
days previous to the election. The Repub- 
licans promise to make a full accounting, but 
this will be under the terms of the New 
York statute, after the election. 






The Republicans will also have a 
headquarters in Chicago, and 
"'""' probably one still farther West; 
but the party will expect the chairman of the 
campaign committee to be in responsible au- 
thority everywhere. Although a large part 
of the fund will be collected and expended 
without passing through the hands of the 




140 



THE AMERIC/fl^ RE^IEU^ OF REI^IEiVS. 



New York treasurer, there should he a com- 
plete central report of receipts and expendi- 
tures. Whatever may have seemed to be 
justifiable in the past, there is no need on 
either side of very large campaign funds this 
year. It is more important to know how 
the money is spent than how it is raised. 
Neither Mr, Taft nor Mr. Bryan will allow 
himself to be placed under any embarrass- 
ing obligations to campaign contributors. 
Those who give to the one party or the other 
will do so presumably because they regard 
their party's success as desirable. Such gifts 
must not be regarded as placing the Presi- 
dential nominees under the smallest kind of 
personal obligation. The records and opin- 
ions of the candidates are already known to 
the entire country. The newspapers have 
made all reading voters familiar with the 
platforms. The letters and speeches of ac- 
ceptance will be similarly disseminated. In 
every State, Congressional district, and small- 
er division there will be a campaign of con- 
siderable activity, irrespective of anything 
done by national 



There is of course a legitimate 
work that can best be carried on 
iwmnunu. fj.^,^ national headquarters un- 
der direction of the chairman of a national 
committee. Mr. Frank Hitchcock, 



Mtdteoeft 



who has been selected by the Republicans for 
the chairmanship, is a man of exactly the 
right type. The legitimate function of the 
national campaign management is one of or- 
ganization and system, with the object oii- 
seeing that the campaign in all parts of the'; 
country shall be carried on with as much in- ' 
telligence and diligence as In those parts 
which would in any ca5e be well managed. 
Mr. Hitchcock after his appointment went 
to Colorado Springs to meet the chairmen of 
State committees and members of the Na- 
tional Committee living in the West. Later 
he returned to Chicago for a similar confer- 
ence of committeemen representing the great 
central section. It was the plan subsequent- 
ly to hold an Eastern conference in New 
York. It «as evidently Mr, Hitchcock's in- 
tention to find out the conditions existing in 
all the States, make the National Committee 
a clearing-house for information, and devise 
the best way by which to help every State 
and community to fight its own battle. 



It had been supposed that a 
Western business man would be 
made treasurer of the Republican 
but Mr, George R. Sheldon was 
finally chosen. Mr. Sheldon has acted as 
treasurer in New York State campaigns, and 
belongs as typically as possible to the cor- 



Siifiiioii 




THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



THE AMERIC/IN REVIEW ■ OF REVIEWS. 






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ewdlL,) 













trusts. Since their views upon the subject of 
corporations are well known, they sec no rea- 
son why men of large financial responsibil- 
ities, desirous of maintainirg safe and pros- 
perous conditions, should not contribute to- 
ward the expenses of an orderly and efficient 
campaign. 



Ui.Alm. : 



sonal access to the corporation magnates of 
the su<alled " financial district." It would 
have been perfectly easy to find a business 
man in Cleveland, Chicago, or some other 
Western city, who would have had just as 
ready access to the financiers and corporation 
managers, while iliveriinjr attention from that 
fact. Both parties this year evidently intend, 
in their campaign management, to rely upon 
an open appeal to public opinion and not 
upon anything that could by any sensible 
person be called a corruption fund. The 
Republicans believe that their success is at 
present vital to the prosperity of the coun- 
try, quite regardless of their opinions upon 
the subject of regulating railroads and 



Mr. Hitchcock will render a 
high and patriotic service not 
MBntuuota, ^^j^^ ^^ ^j^^ partj' but to the 
countrj' if he will show that a lively, aggres- 
sive, open campaign can be fought without 
the expenditure of a large sum of monev. 
He will do well to let us all know where 
the money comes from, but he will interest 
us much more by giving us a full account of 
the methods under which he pays his money 
out. It is taken for granted that business 
men, by a large majority, want to see Taft 
elected, and that they are willing to con- 
tribute generously toward a moderate and 
well-expended fund. Mr. Sheldon will serve 
the chairman and the committee, in his ca- 
pacity as treasurer, along whatever lines may 
be laid down as proper. 

The 3ounta '^^''- Bryan holds that it would be 
of i^r greatly to the advantage of many 
""" "" ' classes of citizens, particularly 
the farmers of the country, to promote his 
election ; and if these prosperous citizens 
agree with him, they will easily be able to 
contribute all the money that may be needed. 
There arc large numbers of wealthy Demo- 
crats connected with industrial trusts, street- 
railroad and gas monopolies, the larger trans- 
portation systems, banks and financial insti- 
tutions, and all sorts of business enterprises. 
If they desire their party's success, no one 
can think ill of them for contributing gener- 
ously. In the election campaign four years 
ago pretty large sums were collected and ex- 
pended, but it was impossible to prove that 
the expenditure of money by national com- 
mittees had materially affected the results in 
any locality. The National Republican 
Committee refused to put any money into 
Missouri, as a hopeless political situation ; yet 
Missouri gave Roosevelt a plurality of about 
)0,0.x) votes over Parker. 

Can yiiis year it is not so much a 

I'D**! Be foregone conclusion as it was 

"" four years ago. Doubtless there 

are many thousands of workingmen whose 

minds are either not yet made up, or else who 

are destined to change their minds one way 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



143 



or the other between now and the first of 
November. Mr, Gompers was so much ab- 
sorbed in his tremendous efforts to secure rec- 
ognition for labor interests in the platforms 
at Chicago and Denver that it is not strange 
to find him elated by success in July after 
relative failure in June; and it must have 
seemed natural to him that the whole labor 
vote should recognize what he had sincerely 
tried to do in its behalf. But the labor vote 
does not wish to be delivered in one solid 
block, even by its most highly accredited 
leader. Many of the prominent men in par- 
ticular unions hold that the real facts of in- 
dustry and of statesmanship do not accord 
with the mere verbiage of party platforms. 
They see that the Denver platform holds nut 
an olive branch, so to speak, not merely to 
labor, but to cverj' other element and inter- 
est which might feel itself flattered or con- 
ciliated by cordial recognition. In short, the 
labor vote cannot be delivered to any party 
or candidate. Before this number is in the 
hands of its readers Mr. Hearst will have re- 
turned from Europe and will have held his 
Independence League convention. Mr. 
Bryan had made overtures for the support of 
Mr, Hearst and his newspapers, with the re- 
sult of sharp rejections that seemed to be 
tinal. As this is written, there was some 
prospect that an independent ticlcet would 
be launched by the Hearst party, that would 
count for some diversion of votes, particular- 
ly in the State of New York. 



J.. American interest in politics has 

Ltistr never been wholly monopolized 
artit: j^^. jIj^ candidates and platforms 
of the big parties, even in Presidential years. 
In the current campaign it is not unnatural 
that more than the usual degree of attention 
should be given to each uf those organiza- 
tions which is bidding for the rank of " third 
party " in our' national politics. It was only 
in the election of four years ago that the 
Socialists took the place long held by the 
Prohibitionists, with the exception of the 
campaign of 1892, when the Populists polled 
a million votes and became for that year the 
third party " beyond any question. Both 
the Prohibition and the Socialist parties have 
grown dviring the past four years, and it 
would be rash to predict which of them will 
poll the larger aggregate vote in the election 
of 1908. But there is another organization 
of whose real strength even less is known, for 
it never before figured in a Presidential con- 
test. We refer to Mr. Hearst's Independ- 
ence League, which is said to have some 
semblance of organization in at least thirty- 
eight States of the Union and was summoned 
to meet in a delegate convention at Chicago 
on July 27 and a8. With candidates for 
President and Vice-President in the field, 
how many votes is the League likely to draw 
from Bryan and Kern ? It is assumed on all 
sides that the Taft support alienated by the 
Hearst movement will be a negligible quan- 
tity. It is Bryan who will suffer. 




j^ The Republicans, on the other 
Proiiiutionirt hand, will lose some votes to the 
Prohibitionists, who last month 
nominated Eugene W, Chafin, of Illinois, 
for President, and A. S. Watkins, of Ohio, 
for Vice-President. Mr. Bn*an's loss to the 
temperance party will be in the form of scat- 
tering votes in certain of the Southern States, 
where the Democratic majorities arc out of 
harm's way. The Prohibitionists, of course, 
h>ok upon the recent remarkable series of 
anti-saloon victories in the South and else- 
where as gains to their cause, yet those vic- 
tories were largely, if not mainly, accom- 
-^ pli'shed by the votes of men who have not al- 
-I lied themselves with the Prohibition party 
and are as ardent Democrats or Republicans 
as the)' ever were. It is impossible for any 
one to say how many votes have been won 
for the national ticket by the advance of State 
prohibition and local option, to a great part 
of which the third-party Prohibitionists have 
contributed little or nothing. The defeat in 



THb AMERICAN REVIEIV OF REyiEWS. 




all boys between fourteen and sixteen, to the 
hours between 6 a.m and ^ P.M. In the 
North Carolina Democratic Convention Rep- 
resentative William W. Kitchin was named 
for Governor after a long deadlock. Gov. 
Malcolm Patterson, of Tennessee, was re- 
nominated at the Democratic primaries, 
after a spirited contest with ex-Senator Car- 
mack. Other nominations equivalent to elec- 
tions were those of Bert M. Fernalds 
(Republican), for Governor of Maine, and 
Lieut.-Gov. George H. Prouty (Repub- 
lican), for Governor of Vermont. On the 
last day of June Mr. Hearst's charges of 
fraudulent miscount in the New York mayor- 
alty election of 1905 were thrown out of 
court and Mayor McClellan declared elected 
by a plurality of 2791, — a net gain of 853 
for Hearst, Thus a dispute of nearly three 
years' duration has at last been set- 
tled by a recount of the ballots under the 
provisions of a special law enacted for the 
purpose by the legislature. 



SHoum Fnlg» '■ 



the Tennessee primaries on June 27 of ex- 
Senator Carmack by Governor Patterson was 
in effect an endorsement of the principle of 
local option on the liquor question as op- 
posed to " State-wide " prohibition. 

xeain Except for the developments of a 
ft«*« Presidential campaign, this mid- 
' summer would be unusually de- 
void of incident in the general range of Amer- 
ican politics and governmental affairs. The 
Georgia Legislature remains in session 
through the hot weather, giving special con- 
sideration to the question of redistricting the 
State. The Louisiana lawmakers adjourned 
last month after one of the most interesting 
legislative sessions in the State's recent his- 
tory. They had passed an an ti- race-track 
gambling bill as far-reaching in its operation 
and as hotly contested b>' the gambling inter- 
ests as was the New York measure so ear- 
nestly championed by Governor Hughes. 
They had also greatly increased the retail 
liquor license throughout the State, and had 
enacted a child-labor law forbidding children 
under fourteen years of age to v.ork in any 
establishment and limiting the employment of 
all girls between fourteen and eighteen, and 



For some months there has been 
desultory discussion of a general 
. ;j,|,^gjjjp q£ freight rates. In the 
middle of July the heads of Eastern railroads 
held a conference in New York to decide 
whether such a program was feasible, and 
the question is now being actively debated in 
the public prints and between the shippers' 
associations and the freight carriers. The 
railroads are confronted with losses in gross 
earnings running for May and June at the 
rate of about $500,000,000 a year. They 
despair of borrowing money for necessary re- 
newals, extensions, and improvements on any 
security less desirable than gilt-edged first- 
mortgag;e bonds, and of these there are prac- 
tically none remaining to offer investors. 
They point to the fact that while the wages 
of their employees have increased about J,,'-^ 
per cent., in the past ten years, and the ma- 
terials of railroading have Increased from 50 
to 100 per cent, in cost, the rates for carrying 
freight have remained the same or have de- 
creased. Our two greatest railroad generals, 
Mr, Hill- and Mr, Harriman, are for once 
in accord in their conviction that freight 
rates absolutely must be raised, or wages low- 
ered, if the roads are to have the cash or the 
borrowing power necessan' to serve the pub- 
lic properly. Mr. Hill places the annual 
current requirements of the country's steam 
transportation lines at $600,000,000. Neither 
Mr. Hill nor Mr. Harriman advocates the 
alternative of reducing wages. They do not 



THE PkOGRESS OF THE WORLD. 146 

think the railroad employee is overpaid, and United States Steel Corporation operating at 

they believe that the efficient and safe railroad from 55 to 60 per cent, of its capacity, and 

service for which the country is clamoring prices of cotton goods have regained some of 

can only be had by employing good engineers, their loss. But concrete evidence* in the way 

conductors, and dispatchers, and paying them of higher prices for commodities, of returning 

well. Mr. W. C. Brown, of the New York prosperity is less in evidence than a general 

Central, has given some striking examples of hopeful feeling that the country is in the 

what a 10 per cent, horizontal increase in process of righting itself from the bad upset 

freight rates would mean in added cost of of last fall, and that steadier weather is im- 

articles of consumption, — ^less than one-twen- mediately ahead. To this feeling the very 

tieth of one cent to a suit of underwear, less satisfactorj' crop conditions have largely con- 

than one-hundredth of a cent to a $1.50 pair tributed. Cotton has had excellent weather 

of gloves, ^y2 cents to a $50 refrigerator, through July, and will be in good shape to 

less than one- tenth of a cent to a pound of withstand any untoward weather that may 

butter, a dozen eggs, or a pound of dressed come in August and September. The large 

poultr>', — these figures being calculated for acreage of corn is in very fair condition. The 

the haul from the producing locality to the Kansas wheat crop is being threshed, and 

irreat distributing centers. the spring wheat of the Dakotas was rescued 

in the middle of July by copious rains from 

^^^ The manufacturers' associations the drought that was threatening it. To the 

Shipperg' representing the shippers are North the new wheat lands of Canada prom- 

011 en ions, ^^[^^ ^ determined fight against ise to give an excellent account of themselves 
the proposed increases. They stand on the in the harvest of 1908. 
broad, economic principle that when busi- 
ness is slack, as It is now with the railroads, j^^ In all the features of a great ath- 
no good can come from raising prices. They Olympic letic meet, save the attendance of 
point to their own troubles, with trade *""'*" spectators in large numbers, the 
throughout the country at 50 per cent, to 60 Olympic games held in London last month 
per cent, of normal, and question their abil- were successful beyond all precedent in mod- 
it}' to pass on to the consumer higher prices em times. Representatives of nearly every 
due to increased cost of transportation. The important nationality were among the com- 
railroad men are themselves by no means petitors, and it has been questioned whether 
unanimous in the opinion that higher rates even the original Greek games at Elis had 
are expedient. The Eastern conference ended as many contestants as gathered this year in 
with a more or less vague postponement of the great Stadium at Shepherd's Bush which 
the advance from October i to December i. a London correspondent described in our last 
It looks as if rates would be increased, and number. Although these pages were closed 
if they are the Interstate Commerce Commis- for the press before the completion of the 
sion wmII at once be besieged with appeals games, American athletes had already won a 
from manufacturers and shippers for deci- sufficient number of events to insure a high 
sions to the effect that the new tariffs are un- place for the United States in the final score, 
reasonable. It is reported that a majority Even if the general victor>' should not be so 
of the commission are now of the opinion sweeping as at Athens two years ago, when 
that the proposed action of the railroads will the American team won the championship, 
be necessary unless there is this fall a sud- our athletes at Shepherd's Bush will have 
den and great increase in transportation busi- the satisfaction of knowing that this year 
ness, and therefore in gross earnings. they have had far stronger opposition to con- 
tend with, including the athletes of England, 

Cwfidenet ^^en while the railroads are Ireland, Scotland, Canada, and Australia. 

R€' showing such fearful losses in The victories of Melvin W. Sheppard in the 

tymfng. earnings, there is discernible a I500metre race (corresponding to our one- 
strong note of returning confidence in busi- mile run) ; John J. Flanagan in the ham- 
ness. This was one of the factors in the mer throw (establishing a new Olympic rec- 
steady advance of the stock market in the lat- ord of 170 feet 4VJ inches) ; Ralph Rose, in 
ter part of July, resulting in the highest the. shot-put, and Martin Sheridan, in both 
prices seen since the panic of last October for the free-style and Greek-style discus throws, 
many important securities. The great steel make America's athletic fame secure for an- 
industry is reported in better shape, with the other Olympiad. 



146 



THE AMERKAN REWIEiV OF REyiEWS. 



Tht Waria ^' '''* celebration of the Quebec 
LooUng tercentenary, which began on 

"^""- July 19 and will continue with 
various exercises throughout the present 
month, the United Stales was represented by 
Vice-President Fairbanks, who went to Que- 
bec on the battleship S'lU' Hampshire, under 
the direct command of Rear-Admiral Cowles, 
representing the American navy. The dedi- 
cation of the historic battlefields took place 
on July 24, in the presence of thousands of 
troops from all parts of the Dominion, War- 
ships of England, the United States, France, 
Germany, Spain, Italy, Japan, and the Ar- 
gentine Republic were in the harbor and 
participated in the ceremonies. In our issue 




for July wc printed an article giving the 
main features of the program and pointing 
out the international historic significance of 
the event. In this issue of the Review, on 
page 2 1 9, we quote what a thoughtful historic 
writer has to say as to the influence of Que- 
bec upon the development of American his- 
tory and national life. In the early future 
we are planning to give our readers another 
article, showing the economic and industrial 
progress of French Canada, an advance 
which has passed comparatively unnoticed 
amid the constant and lavish attention' be- 
stowed upon the marvelous agricultural evo- 
lution of the great west of the Dominion. 
The face of the map of Canada changes 
rapidly. Long before the Hudson Bay Rail- 
way is finished, — and as late as July 8 the 
Minister of the Interior announced in the 
Parliament in Ottawa that operations would 
be begun " without delay," — the legislation 
will doubtless be enacted by which the 
boundaries of the provinces of Quebec, On- 
tario, and Manitoba will be extended to the , 
shores of Hudson Bay. 

ji^ The peaceful, orderly progress of 
HtvoiuHan In the South American countries 
Paraanait- ^i,j(.f, ^-g chronicled last month 
has been replaced in the news of the past few 
weeks from the southern continent by reports 
of war and revolution. In Paraguay, that 
little-known country lying almost at the cen- 
ter of the continent, more than 7000 miles 
from any of our United States ports, there 
has been a real revolution, resulting in a 
complete change of government. On June 
30 the revolt broke out in Asuncion, the capi- 
tal city, and after a week of steady fighting 
in the streets the government troops were 
defeated, the ministers fled for refuge to the 
foreign legations, and the city was put under 
martial law. Dr. Emiliano G. Naveiro, 
Vice-President under the former chief magis- 
trate (Gen. Benigno Ferreya), was pro- 
claimed President, and a new cabinet, con- 
sisting of representatives of the Liberal par- 
ties, installed-. It is reported that more than 
4CX3 were killed and as many wounded in the 
fi>;ht in the streets of Asuncion. The Argen- 
tine Government at once sent gunboats up 
the river to the Paraguayan capital, osten- 
sibly to insure the safety of the foreign lega- 
tions. It is reported on pood authority, how- 
ever, that Argentina has been secretly aiding 
the government forces against the revolution- 
ists, while Brazil is reported to have sym- 
pathized with the latter. This may cause 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 



147 




some friction between Argentina and Brazil, 
two governments which have not in recent 
years been very friendly one to the other. 
By tlie middle of July, our Minister at Uru- 
guay and Paraguay, Mr. Edward C, 
O'Brien, declared the situation had cleared 
and the new government wag fast securing 
the adherence and recognition of the country, 

^, War and rumors of war made up 

imnrnetiim the news quite generally from 
other important and extensive 
areas of Latin-America last month. While 
our neighboring republic, Mexico, may be 
said to be quite peaceful and satisfied under 
the progressive if somewhat arbitrary rule 
of President Porfirio Diaz, occasional revo- 
lutionary outbreaks during the past three or 
four >*ears, particularly in the states border- 
ing on our own country, call attention to the 
activities of a Mexican revolutionary junta 
with headquarters in St. Louis and branches 
in several Texas cities. Just what these re- 
bellions against the Diaz rule are intended 
to secure It is not easy to ascertain. The lat- 
est revolutionary manifestation took place 
in the latter part of June in the provinces 
of Coahuila, Chihuahua, and Durango. Rev- 
(Jutionary forces attacked several small 
towns near the Texas line, released all the 



jail prisoners, and robbed the banks and post- 
offices. The Mexican Government de- 
nounced these marauders as bandits, and at 
once sent a large force iif Rurales to chastise 
them, A number of the revolutionists were 
killed and many more captured near the town 
of Las Vacas, and looo guns secreted by 
them were found in a cave. Some bitter 
feeling existed amonp the local Mexican au- 
thorities, who claim that encouragement was 
given to the insurgents by citizens of Texas. 
It was even rumored that the Mexican Gov- 
ernment would ask the United Slates to pun- 
ish local authorities in certain Te* is towns 
for permitting the insurgents to arm and 
equip on Texan territory and retire there 
when pursued by the Rurales. Later, how- 
ever, Senor Mariscal, of the Mexican For- 
eign Department, made a public announce- 
ment expressing entire confidence in the 
friendly and sincere attitude of the United 
States Government and thanking our State 
Department for moving troops to the bound- 
ary to assist in restoring order. 

TheHnt ^V resigning his position as Sec- 
pntintnt retary of Foreign Relations of 
"""' Panama and publicly withdraw- 
ing from the contest for the presidency, Sciior 
Ricardo Arias assured the election of hif 
rival, Senor Jose Obaldia, candidate of the 
opposition to the government. This with- 
drawal, the candidate declared, was dictated 
by " a patriotic desire to prevent the military 
occupation of the republic by the United 
States and to enable the re-establishment of 
a union of political parties." In the election, 
which was held on July 12, the Arias sup- 
porters generally abstained from voting, and 
the ballots cast were almost unanimously for 
Senor Obaldia. On the 1st of the present 
month the electors meet in the capitals of the 
seven provinces and cast their official votes 
for the new President, The national assem- 
bly meets on September i. The people of 
Panama are celebrating the Obaldia victory, 
claiming that it is the first time in the his- 
tory of Latin -American countries that the 
official candidate for the presidcnc>' has been 
defeated by the people's choice. 

Affair, Ik I^ ^^s hcea officially announced 
Cilia oitrf Cm- that on September I the provincial 
and municipal elections will be 
held in Cuba for goverii<)rs of provinces, 
pr<ivincial councilmcn, alcaldes, and council- 
men. The presidential election ivill follow 
on December 1, and the Inauguration of Prcs- 



148 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^lEWS. 

ident two months later. A noteworthy event ing him, and the arrival of two Dutch men- 
in Cuban history during July was the arrival of-war in the harbor of La Guayra, late in 
in Havana Harbor of the Spanish training June, to remove the Dutch Minister, was 
ship Nautilus, the first Spanish national ves- taken to indicate the intention of The Hague 
sel to come to Cuba since the Spanish-Ameri- government to press the claims of its citi- 
can War. The Nautilus received a hearty zens with vigor. Great damage has been 
welcome, not only from the Spanish residents done to Venezuelan commerce by the plague, 
of Havana, but from the native Cubans as almost all the ports with which the commerce 
well. A small revolt in Honduras during of that country is generally carried on having 
early July, in which it was at first believed declared a strict quarantine against ships 
Salvador and Guatemala were implicated, from Venezuela, 
thus threatening to precipitate another gen- 
eral Central American war, was put down ^^^ _ Besides the so-called Daylight- 
by the government troops after a few days of English Saving law referred to on another 
fighting. While there is undoubtedly a good *"^''«^*«**- page, the British capital and 
deal of unrest throughout Central America, England generally have been interested dur- 
there can be no doubt of the completeness ing the past few weeks in new riotous demon- 
of the understanding between Mexico and strations of the so-called Suffragettes, the 
the United States and their agreement to dispute in high naval circles between Admiral 
exert vigorous pressure (when friendly of- Charles Bercsford and Rear-Admiral Sir 
fices prove ineffective) upon these turbulent Percy Scott, the sessions of the Pan-Anglican 
republics in the interest of a real and per- Congress, the events of the Olympic games 
manent peace. On July 17 the gunboat in the stadium at the Franco-British Expo- 
Mariefta was sent to Puerto Cortez, the sition, the effect of the new British Patent 
Honduran port, to be ready in case of an law, which requires that foreigners holding 
outbreak of actual war. British patents must manufacture the patent- 
ed goods in Great Britain, and the modifica- 
Mor^ By the withdrawal from Ca- tions made by Parliament in the pld-age pen- 
Troubiefor racas of Mr. Jacob Sleeper, who sion scheme of the government. A monster 
Venezuela. ^^^ ^^^^ American Charge demonstration of Suffragettes took place in 
d*Affaires in Venezuela since Minister Rus- the London streets on July i. The women 
sell returned to this country some weeks ago, besieged the House of Commons, and 5000 
the relations between President Castro's policemen were needed to prevent their in- 
government and the United States entered on vading Parliament House. The occasion 
a new stage. When, however, on July 9, was the declaration by Premier Asquith that 
Senor N. Veloz Goiticoa, Charge d'Affaires the women of Great Britain had shown no 
of the Venezuelan Legation in Washington, great desire for the suffrage. This was the 
received instructions from President Castro reply. The Premier refused, however, to 
to return home immediately, diplomatic rela- see .a delegation of leaders headed by Mrs. 
tions between the two countries were actu- Pankhurst. Some scenes of disorder char- 
ally severed. It is understood that the actcrized the demonstration, including the 
State Department's action in recalling Mr. breaking of the windows of Mr. Asquith's 
Sleeper was due in general to President Cas- official residence, for which offense some 
tro's unwillingness concerning claims pend- twenty women were imprisoned. It is evi- 
ing against him by American corporations -dent that the Suffragettes are in earnest, 
and citizens, and to a further conviction that and however one may regard the justice or 
It would be unwise to risk the lives and propriety of their contentions it must be ad- 
health of our diplomatic representatives in mitted that in their campaigns in England 
a plague-stricken region. The disease, ac- during the past two or three years, they have 
cording to latest reports, has not decreased, displayed considerable energy, perseverance, 
although officially it was stamped out several and political sagacity, 
weeks ago. The publication of the official 

correspondence between Mr. Sleeper and Dr. other English ^^^^ friction in the navy, al- 

Paul, Venezuelan Minister of Foreign Af- ^ Tf!?'^*^ though causing a great deal of 

fairs, also indicates that Castro's Foreign ^ ^'^^ ' discussion in England, is appar- 

Office declined to guarantee the protection of ently not of a serious nature, and is gen- 

the American Legation. The Venezuelan erally regarded as merely a movement to 

President has more trouble with Europe fac- bring about the dowTifall of Admiral Beres- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE l^ORLD. 149 

ford, who has many personal enemies. The y.^ campaign Another question of much greater 
Pan-Anghcan Congress, which is the inter- Against social and economic import than 
national deliberative body of the Episcopal " *' the railway problem has reached 
Church, met in Albert Hall, London, dur- a critical stage in public consideration in 
ing the last week in June. It is a significant France. Late in June a bill was introduced 
fact that at the " sociological session " all the in the Chamber of Deputies making the sale 
speakers except one displayed a decided social- of absinthe a penal oflFense throughout the 
istic tendency. One hundred and fifty arch- republic. This bill bears the endorsement 
bishops and bishops, a multitude of minor of thousands of prominent Frenchmen of all 
clerg>', and a large assemblage of laymen and professions, — military and naval men, law- 
lavwomcn attended this congress. The Old- yers, manufacturers, as well as physicians and 
.Age Pension bill passed its third reading in moralists. It is interesting to note that a 
the House of Commons on July 9. In the few days after the introduction of tin's bill 
M^^x house a number of modifications were in the French Parliament announcement was 
made. Its fate will probably be decided made in Switzerland that the national refer- 
early in the autumn session of the Parlia- endum on the question of prohibiting the 
ment. Tlie Lords are opposed to it in princi- manufacture and sale of absinthe had re- 
^\t and form, suited in a majority of more than 80,000 in 

favor of the prohibition. 
franc. BMg, Premier Clemenceau's narrow 

/*7roa!S "majority on the vote taken on the Portuguese and While the Portuguese Cortes and 
question of the purchase by the Spanfsh Topics the chief politicians of the coun- 
state of the Western Railway probably has- *'^** ' try are still disputing, and many 
tencd the adjournment of the Parliament, of them fighting duels, over ex-Premier 
The summer session was closed on July 13, Franco's indiscretion in making large ad- 
leaving over until the autumn session the vances of money on the civil list of the royal 
final disposition of the government's measures family, and the salaries of government offi- 
for an income tax, old-age pensions, and the cials, the Portuguese people have been cele- 
rcstoration of the death penalty. The gov- brating with enthusiasm the hundredth an- 
emment has committed itself to the enact- niversary of the Oporto uprising against the 
ment of these measures into law, but is pro- French. The birth of a second son to the 
cecding with great caution in order not to Spanish royal pair has recalled the attention 
go more rapidly than public opinion. To all of the world to that interesting Iberian coun- 
of these measures there is very strong and in try. The new ro\'al baby, who was born 
some cases organized opposition. By the on June 22, was christened Jaime Leopoldo 
purchase of the Western Railway the repub- Alejandro Isabelino Enrique Alberto Alfonso 
lie becomes owner of one-fifth of the railway Victor Juan Pedro Pablo Maria. Americans 
mileage within its borders. This particular will be interested also to learn that General 
s^-stem, comprising 3100 miles of track, had Weyler, formerly Spanish Captain-General 
been operated so inefficiently, and so much of Cuba, has at last finished his voluminous 
corruption had been evident in its manage- memoirs of the Cuban war. The book, it is 
ment, that the Premier, taking advantage of expected, will be published before the end 
the authority vested in the government by of the present year, and the Spanish journals 
law to purchase railroads, carried the meas- are predicting that it will make some sensa- 
ure, though with difficulty, through both tional disclosures, 
houses of Parliament. M. Clemenceau de- 
nied that the ministry or he himself are par- Progress Immediately after the summer 
tisans of state ownership. He maintains, m adjournment of the Russian 
however, that in self-defense and for the pub- "**"*• Duma, on July 11, Dr. Komia- 
lic good a mismanaged public utility such as kov, the president, was received in audience 
the Western Railway must be taken over by by the Czar. The monarch expressed satis- 
the state. It is believed that the Premier faction with Parliament's work, even approv- 
will use the fact of this purchase to compel ing the rejection by the Duma of the gov- 
the other non-state railways to adopt meth- ernment's naval scheme, saying that the peo- 
ods of working similar to those used by the pie's representatives were right in demanding 
state-owned lines. " Security against abuses " a complete program before passing the 
is the Premier's watchword in the railroad budj^t. His \Iajesty sympathized with Par- 
problem« liament's championship of the univcrsitv stu- 



ISO 



THE Ah4ERICAN HEf^/EtV OF REVIEWS 



dents and declared himself 
as on the whole satisfled 
with the way the thin! 
Duma has conducted the 
public business. Just be- 
fore adjouming the Duma 
passed the bill authoriz- 
ing the expenditure of 
$46,000,000 for the war 
budget, sanctioning, also, 
tentativel}', the depart- 
ment's program for the- 
expenditure of a further 
$100,000,000 next year. 
The items included in the 
purpose of this bill are the 
construction of fortifica- 
tions of Vtadivostot and 
the building of the Amur 
Railway. On the whole, 
despite the assertions of the 

competent observers that (i^niiinB from Hi 
the internal administration kidk and 

of the empire is still verj* 
bad, and despite the high average of execu- 
tions, the western world is disposed to agree 
with Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign 
Miiiister, when, in reply to some criticism of 
King Edward's recent visit to the Czar, he 
declared in Parliament: 

Is the system of Rovernment in Russia get- 
ling better or is it getting worse? I say, wilh 
full knowledge of the reports which we have 
been receiving for the last two years, that the 
system of government has been getting emphat- 
ically better. And the evidence is there. There 
is ii Duma in Russia to-day. The complain* is 
that it is not elected on a democratic franchise. 
How loiig has this House been electefl on a 
democratic franchise? Within my lifetime the 
change has come to what we should now call a 
democratic franchise. .\re there no other coun- 
tries in Europe of hi^i standing whose Parlia- 
ments are not elected on a democratic franchise? 
You can easily find other instances. Three years 
ago in Russia there was no Duma, constitution, 
or Parliament of this kind. There is to-day a 
Duma which, even if it be not on a detno- 
e franchise, -criticises the govi 







refuse 



and "Ts composed of different parties, some n: 
them advanced parties, and many opposed to thf 
govenuuent. 



nn Fltrt 



When Rear-Admiral Sperr^'s 
(teet anchors in the fine harbor of 
Auckland, Nciv Zealand, on Au- 
gust 9. it will have begun its homeward voy- 
age very appropriately by making the first 
port of call among the English-speaking peo- 
ples. The entertainment of our sailormen 
by the New Zealand port and their reception 



RUSSIAN FOVAL FAMILY AT REVAL, 

> ySFht Blamlarl on Ihe orcasloD of tbP vlall of I'.if 
livrra of Knittaiid lo ItiiHHia. Lnle In June.) 

later by the Australian cities of Sydney and 
Melbourne will direct the attention of Amer- 
icans to Britain's vast possessions in the South 
Pacific and tlie progress which has been made 
during tlie past decade by the people of our 
own speech in the Southern Hemisphere. 
Next month we hope to publish a brief arti- 
cle pointing out the claims of Australia and 
New Zealand upon the interest of the world, 
and in one of our " Leading Articles " in 
this issue we describe Sydney's recent progress 
in commerce and wealth. The fleet left San 
Francisco on July 7, according to schedule, 
and arrived on time at fionolulu on July 16. 
After their welcome at Sydney the ships will 
proceed to Melbourne, the capital of the 
commonwealth. The ofllicial functions there 
will include a dinner to the senior officers 
of the fleet on August 29 by Governor Car- 
michael, of Victoria; a dinner in Parliament 
House by the Commonwealth government on 
August 30, and a reception to the admirals 
and officers of the visiting fleet by the state 
government in the exhibition building on 
September 2. From Australian waters the 
ships go to Jap.in. 

chantrof '" recording the results of the 
uimHryfn Japanese elections of May 15 this 
"""' magazine announced the narrow 
victory of Premier Salonji, but expressed a 
doubt as to his continuance at the head of 
the ministry. The election, as a matter of 
fact, gave the Saionji cabinet but a very brief 



THE PkOGRESS OF ThB M^ORLD. 



renewal of life, — only two months. On July 
■ 4 the names of the reorganized body were 
announced as follows 

Premier — ^larquis Katsura, combining also 
the duties of Minister of Finance. 

Secretary of Home Affairs — Baron Hirata. 

Foreign Secretary — Count Komura, now Am- 
bassador to England. Until Count Komura's re- 
turn Viscount Terauchi will act in his stead. 

Department of Justice — Viscount Okabc. 

Department of Education — Mr, Komatsubara. 

Communications — Baron Goto, president of 
the South Manchurian Railway. 

Agriculture and Commerce — Baron Oura. 

The heads of the war and navy depart- 
ments will not be changed. General Ter- 
auchi retains the war portfolio. The changes 
in the ministry are really a matter of indi- 
viduals, not of policies. The Seiyukai, or 
National party, has really been strengthened 
before the country, and Marquis Katsura's 
return to power must be taken as a personal 
vindication of that statesman rather than as a 
change in principle. Katsura was Premier 
during the war with Russia. 

r*. laiHi '^^ questions of finance, re- 
<j/»T'*» trenchment Jn armaments, and 
emigration will continue to fur- 
nish the most pressing problems before the 
Tokio government. Katsura's return to 
otfitt is really a triumph of the aged Marquis 
Yam^ta, whose ideas and policies dictated 
the course of the Russo-Japanese War. Al- 
though, as intimated, the problem of retrench- 
ment in military expenses will press for set- 
tlement, it does not seem likely, in view of 
Katsura's elevation to the head of the cabinet. 
that there will be any change in thi 




aHng Exactly what has happened in 

Persia the outside world does not 

know. Conflicting reports of al- 

litary ternate progressive and reactionary triumphs. 



polic)' of the government. Indeed, Katsura however, agree in these main points: Ever 
IS a much more energetic pro-militarist than since two years ago, when the present Shah, 
Saionii,although he has publicly declared him- who is a rather weak and irresolute man, 
wlf in favor of retrenchment. It will be granted the people a Parliament (called by 
interesting to note the development of Japa- 
nese politics during the next few months as 
the new Premier discloses his policy with re- 
cord to army extension. The business in- 
terttts of the empire and the great masses 
of the people will probably have to bear an 
incrrjsftl burden of taxation, although they 
are now taxed to the breaking point. A 
significant announcement was made early in 
July by the Japanese Charge d'Affaires at 
PAing. He was instructed by his govrrn- 
ment to notify the Chinese authorities that 
Japan will not oppose the development of 
Qiinese territory in Manchuria. On the 
™)tn)[y, she will assist in that work and 
olftr no objection to railroad 





' ifli J 

k aESr ( 


Ps '?li 










^WJ 


■jAw 






1^^ 



THE AMERICAN REyiEiV OF REyiEU'S. 



Attach 01 



the Persians a Mejliss), there have been dif- 
ferences of opinion as to how far the power 
of this body extended. Successive changes of 
ministiy have followed rapidly, the Parlia- 
ment charging the ministers with using arbi- 
trary power. Finally some months ago a list 
of alleged breaches of the constitution was 
drawn up and the Shah asked to correct them 
in order to restore public confidence. The 
monarch, however, declared that he was the 
friend of the constitutiori, and charged the 
leaders of Parliament with conspiring against 
the throne. It seems that the great majority 
of the people, led by the priests, are with the 
Mejliss and against the throne. The mon- 
arch, however, has organized a strong body 
of Cossacks, commanded by Russian officers 
and (it is intimated) directed and paid for 
from St. Petersburg, 



Late in June the Shah sent troops 
to the Parliament House to arrest 
runiomtn.. ^j-j^j^ ailcged cottsp 1 rato rs . Par- 
liament refused to surrender these, and a bat- 
tle ensued, resulting finally in the destruction 
of the Parliament House by cossacks and the 
loss of nearly 2000 lives. The Shah then dis- 
solved Parliament, and at latest reports quiet 
reigned in Teheran, the capital, although 
there was further rioting at Tabriz and other 
cities. The separation of Persia into Russian 
and British spheres of influence has been rec- 
ognized ever since the Anglo-Russian agree- 
ment. Considerable restiveness, however, 
has become evident in British diplomatic cir- 
cles and in the Parliament at Westminster 
itself over what British Liberals are calling 
Russian bad faith in the Persian Shah's con- 
flict with his people. Whether or not, as is 
reported, King Edward and the Czar dis- 
cussed the Persian matter at their recent 
Revat meeting, It would appear that the gov- 
ernments of St. Petersburg and London are 
in complete understanding in the matter. 
And }■« this does not prevent popular sym- 
pathy in Great Britain from being entirely 
with the Persian revolutionists. 



extent a combination of the other two models. 
The aeroplane of Henri Farman, the French 
aeronaut, who is now in this country, made 
a record in the south of France on July 6 by 
flying for more than eleven miles, at a height 
of twenty-two feet above the earth, remain- 
ing in the air for more than twenty minutes. 
There has been a number of noteworthy 
achievements with the dirigible balloon, the 
form which is now being experimented with 
by the war departments of America and a 
number of European countries. On July 4 
an interesting test race of these craft started 
from Chicago, The Fielding-San Antonio 
balloon, after twenty-four hours in the air 
in variable winds, landed at West ShefiEonl, 
Quebec, having covered in that time a dis- 
tance of 825 miles. 



ntTMamf 

Ztpptlln. 



Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, 
however, the German aeronaut, 
with his airship has secured the 
supremacy in the actual mastery of the air. 
On July I this great air vessel (a cigar- 
shaped craft over 400 feet long and 49 feet 
at its greatest width) left its " garage" at 
Fried richsha fen on the German shore of 
Lake Constance and immediately rose to a 




Pntnnin ^^^ conquest of the air goes on 
*M?3/'"' ^P^*^^- During the past two or 
three months there have been 
more successful experiments in aerial naviga- 
tion, probably, than in the world's entire his- 
tory before that time. These triumphs have 
been made by all of the three principal forms 
of air-navigating machines, — the aeroplane. ""'" 
or flying-machine proper; the dirigible bal- rcniai" 
ioon, and the airship, which is to a certain the Poi 



w, 


\4J^I 


1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



height of lOOO feet, attaining later a maxi- 
mum height of over 2500 feet. It sailed over 
the lake, then turned into Switzerland, 
crossed four of the cantons, performed cer- 
tain evolutions at the command of its steers- 
man over the city of Lucerne, circumnavi- 
gated above Lake Lucerne, and then retraced 
its course to Lake Constance, returning and 
gliding into its shed without a jar. The 
voyape, which was under the personal con- 
duct of Count von Zeppelin himself, lasted 
over twelve hours and covered a total dis- 
tance of more than 250 miles. Besides the 
master, the balloon had as passengers the 
King and Queen of Wirtcmberp, and a crew 
of fourteen men. Count Zeppelin's success 
has set the governments of the world to 
thinking what might happen with a machine 
like this in case of war. Diplomacy has al- 
ready begun to give itself a great deal of 
concern over aerial navigation. Indeed, it is 
announced from London that the British 
War Offce and Admiralty are convinced 
that Zeppelin's triumph has " actuallv threat- 
ened England's inviolability'." The fact thai 
Count Zeppelin is a German, that the Berlin 
jiovernment appropriated Jicxj.ooo to pay the 
expenses of his experiments, and that Kaiser 
Wilhelm sent the aeronaut an enthusiastic 
personal telegram complimentinpr him on his 
triumph has not added to the sense of security 
in the British mind. 

»v Ati 0/ dunng the summer in (jreat 
paeiiamtM. jj^itain Is at least an hour late 
seems to be the almost unanimous opinion 
of Englishmen, and to remedy this there is 
under consideration by Parliament a " Day- 
light Saving " bill, which has already been 
unanimously approved by the special com- 
mittee appointed to consider it. This bill, 
which was introduced last February, has pro- 
voked much discussion in both business and 
scientific circles, as it aims to alter the habits 
of the people by a change of the time-stand- 
ard during the summer months. It provides 
for setting forward the clocks throughout the 
kingdom by twenty minutes on each of the 
four Surdaj-s in April, and then hack airain 
a corresponding amount on each of the four 
Sundays in September, the effect being a gain 
of eighty minutes for the clock iivcr the sun 
durin]^ the summer months. In this way it 
is claimed that the hours of business would 
be better accommodated to the hours of sun- 
light and there nould be a great saving in 
daylight, in addition of course to the saving 




in the expense of artificial illumination. The 
idea, in short, is \o have offices now opening 
at 10 o'clock open at 8.40, but so to change 
the clocks that the usual time would be indi- 
cated. The advocates of the measure call 
attention to the great hygienic benefits to be 
gained by working in the earlier hours of the 
day, and the mote even distribution of sun- 
light »iver the woking-day, as well as the 
increased economy in gas and electricity-. Of 
course no change in the hours of labor so 
far as the length of a working-day is in- 
volved, but the innovation is so radical that 
it has aroused expressions of opinion from 
all classes of society, especially the electric- 
light and gas companies. 

Some "^^ *''P seems one to be taken 
0/ tht tather by social action than by 
legislation, and the argument is 
advanced that the bill is in the interest of the 
city workers, such as clerks, rather than for 
the more strenuous toilers, such as farm la- 
borers, factory employees, dock and railway 
hands, who from necessity if not from choice 
are compelled to use the early hours of the 
morning at present, if not in actual work 



154 THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 

at least in going to or preparing for it. The care. Anticipating the opportunities for dis- 

natural reply to the reformers, of course, is order and license when the American fleet 

that the British should follow the example reaches Yokahoma in October, the associa- 

of Continental Europe and India and adjust tions of that port and of Tokio have been 

their business and social affairs with due re- circulating a petition against allowing Geisha 

gard to the sun. Accordingly, Sir David dances and sake or other strong drink at the 

Gill, the celebrated astronomer, suggests that, entertainments for the men. The idea has 

instead of changing the time, the people already received hearty endorsement from 

of their own will change their habits, and several influential Japanese and Americans, 

that a beginning be made by having the Bank and it now seems probable that the imperial 

of England open at 9 a, m. from April i to authorities will heed the petition and issue 

the end of September, instead of at 10, as is the necessary regulations, 
customary. Such an example of necessity 

would be followed by the business establish- studying and ^^ ^^^ interest of the immigrants, 

ments of the city and would soon be taken fiaing the also, the Y. M. C. A. has exerted 

up by manufacturers and other employers '"'" *''"'' * itself nobly. The problem of the 

throughout the country. • immigrant has become especially acute in the 

State of Pennsylvania, where so many igno- 

And -^^ opposing such a progressive rant foreigners work in the mines and facto- 

Some step there is the somewhat unique ries. In a large degree they have remained 

^' *"**' spectacle of British scientists, es- isolated from the rest of the population and 

pecially the astronomers, rallying in defense have seen only the worst phases of American 

of the present standard time and calendar political and social life. The Pennsylvania 

and condemning any disturbance of standard Y. M. C. A., realizing the magnitude of the 

time either in general or in its use by Great task, has had a special commission at work 

Britain. For it must be remembered that the to study this subject. Investigations were 

standard time for the entire world is based made by Dr. Peter Roberts, who has an ex- 

upon the meridian of Greenwich, and most pert knowledge of conditions in the mining 

civilized countries employ time which differs regions of the State. Some months ago it 

from that of Greenwich by an even hour, was decided that Dr. Edward A. Steincr, 

England takes great pride in being the who has an intimate acquaintance with the 

source of universal time, and consequently immigrants of every race, should head an ex- 

any attack on the integrity or the principle of pedition of American young men to study the 

standard time, which for the facilitating of problem abroad, to get a viewpoint of the 

all forms of business is a demonstrated sue- immigrant, to know something about his his- 

cess, would come with a peculiarly bad grace tory, and above all to study as far as possible 

from England. To-day the time of a cable- his languag'e. Dr. Steiner sailed early in 

gram, no matter from how distant a point June as the director of this expedition. The 

it is transmitted, can be understood immedi- men are now traveling, chiefly afoot, through 

ately, and a man may traverse the world over the whole immigrant territory, living among 

without changing the minute hand of his the peasants and trying to keep themselves in 

watch. Sir David Gill writes that "If the touch with the people who make up such a 

new so-called * British time * proposed by the large portion of the population of Pennsyl- 

bill is introduced, this world-wide agreement vania. The young men will be gone a year, 

will be upset and the intercommunication of and upon their return they will take up social 

the world will be thrown into con fusion. '* work among the immigrants and endeavor to 

bring them in touch with the best there is in 

f * ^1 .A great deal of credit and respect American social and religious life. Consid- 

Inttrnatlontu , *\ , xr i* >r » r^^ • • i • • i_ • • 

Work of the is due the Young Men s Chris- ering the many outgivings on the immigra- 

r. M, C. A, ^j^^ Association for its effective tion " problem," it is a singular fact that 

work in the cause of public morality and this is practically the first definite effort to 

progress the world over. The young Ameri- meet the situation fairly and cope with it in 

can especially in all parts of the globe is its a reasonable and scientific spirit. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



POLITICS AND QOVBRNUBNT— AUERICAN. 

June 23. — Georgia Ueinixrats select uiiin- 
-•■trucicd (leleK^tes to Denver and nominate 
J'.istph M. Brown for Governor, ratifying the 
[>rtinaries of June 4,... The Louisiana Senate, 
liy a vote of Ji to rg, passes the Locke Anti- 
Racitig bill prohibiting all forms of race gani' 
hiing, the bill having already been passed by the 

June 25.— Iowa Democrats ratify the nomina- 
tion of Fred E. White, the primary candidate for 

Jinie 27. — In the Tennessee Democratic pri- 
maries. Gov, Malcolm R, Patterson defeats ex- 
L'riiled Stales Senator E. W. Carmack for the 
iiiiniination to the governorship by a majority of 
7500; Governor Patterson represents local op- 
tion and cx-Senator Carmack StLile-wide pro- 
hibition. 

June a9.^Nonh Carolina Democrats nominate 
CongrcMman William WaltomKitchin for Gov- 
ernor and instruct their delegates to Denver for 

William J. Bryan The Louisiana Assembly 

passes the Shattuck-Gay bill for a higher license, 

June 3a — A jury in the New York Supreme 
Court, by direction of the courl, throws out Wil- 
liam R, Hearst's charges of fraudulent miscount 
in the mayoralty election of 1905 and declares 
McClellan elected by a plurality of 2791, being a 
net gain of 863 for Hearst, , , ,Thc close of the 
tiscal year finds a deficit in the United States 
Treasury of approximately S^,<'oo/x» compared 
with a surplus one year ago of more than $84,- 
000.000. ...Wilham H. Taft completes his last 
day's scn'ice as Secretary of War,,,, The ap- 
pointment of W, Cameron Forbes to be vice- 
governor of the Philippine Islands is announced 
at Washington. ., ,Maine Republicans nominate 
Ktrt M, Fernalds for Cover- 



Jnly I, — Montana Demo- 
crats instruct their Denver 
Oi-legatlon for Bryan. ., ,Gen. 
Luke F., Wright takes the 
oath of otlice a-t Secretary of 
War. succeeding William H. 
Taft. . . .Vermont Repuhhc- 

Geiirge A. Prouty for Cover 

July 2. — President Roose- 
vtlt appoints Col. William L, 
Marshall chief of engineers 
of the army. 

July 6,— President Roose- 
velt appoints Milton D, Piirdy 
Tniteil States district judae 
ti> iucceed Judge Lochren, of 
Minnesota, 

July 7,—- The Democratic 
National Convention ^lc^■l^ 
at Denver and a d o p t '^ 
resoltitions of respect to the 



o Jul)/ to, I90S.) 

memory of Grover Cleveland President 

Roosevelt directs an inquiry Into the protest of 
New England manufacturers that they are dis- 
criminated against In the purchase of khaki uni- 
forms for the army. 

July 8, — In the Democratic National Conven- 
tion at Denver a demonstration lasting an hour 
and twenty-eight minutes follows the mention of 
W, J, Br)ans name The Executive Commit- 
tee of the Republican National Committee elects 
Frank H. Hitchcock chairman, George R. Shel- 
don treasurer, and Arthur I. Vorys manager of 
the Ohio campaign. 

July la— William J, Bryan, of Nebraska, and 
John W, Kcm, of Indiana, are nominated for 
President and Vice-President by the National 
Democratic Convention at Denver. 

July 14.— The Democratic National Committee 
adopts a campaign-fund publicity plan suggested 
by the candidates, 

]a\y 15, — Maine Democrats nominate Obadiah 
Gardmer for Governor. 

July 16, — The Prohibitionist National Conven- 
tion at Columbus, Ohio, nominates Eugene W. 
Chafin, of Illinois, for President, and A, S. Wat- 
kins, of Ohio, for Vice-President, 

July r8,— Candidate Taft declares that the Re- 
publican National Committee will not accept 
campaign contributions from corporations. 

July 20. — The national monetary commission 
meets at Narragansett Pier, R. 1. 



POLITICS A 



3 GOVERNMENT— PORBIQN. 



Jane 21, — A great demonstration for womi 

suffrage is held in Hyde Park. London Nin 

teen persons are sentenced to death by com 
martial in various parts of Russia. 



.1 ^^ 

■■■K,id 


g^" ^ 
ii^% 




r 


---r^^ili 


W^^M 


->:^ 





156 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 

June 23. — A resohition in favor of the union representative Japan withdraws opposition 

of South Africa is carried in the Transvaal to the construction of the Hsin-Min-Tun & 

Legislative Assembly. Fakomen Railway, and promises to aid China 

June 24.— A heated debate on Congo affairs »" the development of Manchuria, 

takes place in the Belgian Parliament. .. .The June 24. — The sQhoolship Nautilus, the first 

Russian Senate decides that the members of the Spanish war vessel to visit Havana since the 

Constitutional Democrats and other unrecog- Spanish-American War, arrives in that harbor 

nized parties cannot hold offices in the zemstvos and is warmly welcomed, 

or municipal councils. June 29.— The United States War Department 

June 26. — The French Senate, by a vote of 155 orders troops to the Mexican border to preserve 

to 118, passes the bill to buy and operate the order and prevent any violation of the neutrality 

Western Railway The Shah of Persia issues laws. 

a proclamation declaring martial law A con- June 30.— The British Foreign Office refuses 

gress on the civil rights and the suffrage for to surrender to the Persian authorities the refu- 

women is opened in Paris The new session gees at the legation at Teheran and protests to 

of both houses of the Prussian Diet is opened. the Shah of Persia against the stationing of 

June 27.— The Shah of Persia issues a rescript troops near its buikling. 

dissolving Parliament The Council of the July 5.— Dutch colonists petition their home 

Russian Empire, by a large majority, votes the government that steps be taken to bring about 

four battleships refused by the Duma. improved relations with Venezuela. 

June 28.— Municipal elections in Panama and July 8.— Nicaraguan troops are ordered to aid 
Colon result in a victory for the partisans of the Honduran Government to put down rebel- 
General Obaldia....A mass-meeting of Repub- lion. 

licans in Lisbon demands a vigorous investiga- j^,,. 9._The Venezuelan Charge d' Affaires in 

tion of the advances of money to the royal fam- Washington is recalled by President Castro, thus 

ily and the alleged misuse of public funds in the completely severing diplomatic relations between 

reign of King Carlos. th^ United States and Venezuela. 

June 50.-7The Russian Duma votes $46,000,- j^iy u.— Hon<turas and Nicaragua institute 

000 for military needs and tentatively approves g^j^g before the Central American Court of Jus- 

another loan of $100,000,00 for the period of ^.^^ sig^^inst Salvador and Guatemala, charging 

1909- II. ^hg defendant countries with promoting the 

July I. — Gen. Ramon Caceres takes the oath revolution in Honduras and aiding Nicaraguan 

of office as President of Santo Domingo. refugees. 

July 4. — Rirardo Arias, the Constitutionalist July 18.— President Fallieres, of France, starts 

leader in Panama, resigns as a candidate for on a trip to Denmark, Russia, Sweden, and Nor- 

the presidency The Russian ministrv' decides way. 

to present in the Duma a bill providing for work- j^jy i9._China appoints the Governor* of 

ingmens insurance. .. .The Japanese cabinet Mukden province to visit the United States and 

formally resigns. thank the Government for the restoration of 

July 5. — The Paraguayan revolutionists, hav- part of the Boxer indemnity, 

ing overthrown the government, appoint Dr. OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 
Emiliano Gonzale Naveiro President. 

July ii.-The Russian Duma adjourns. J^."^^ 21.-A bomb is thrown into a train at a 

•i / ^ . T • T^ /-.. ij- • station near Calcutta, India; three persons arc 

July 12.— Senor Jose Domingo Obaldia is severely injured. .. .Four new cases of plague 

elected President of Panama by a large vote . . . 3^^ reported at Port-of-Spain. 

The Emperor of Japan summons Count Kat- j ^ x:^ a ' r^\ • ^ j 

sura to diTcuss the formation of a new cabinet. J""? 22.--Floods m China cause great de- 

_ , _, ^ t T^ 1- J- struction of crops Leon Delagrange, the 

July 13.— The French Parliament adjourns, French aeronaut, makes an aeroplane record by 

leaving the bills for an income tax, old-age pen- flyj^g ^ distance of eighteen kilometers (a little 

sions. and the restoration of the death penalty ,„ore than eleven miles) in sixteen and one-half 

until the next session. minutes. .. .Fire destroys a great part of the 

July 14. — A hundred persons are arrested in business section of Three Rivers, Quebec; the 

Russian Poland in a plot against the life of Czar loss is estimated at oyer $1,000,000 A second 

Nicholas. son is born to King Alfonso of Spain The 

July 18.— Gen. Osman Pacha, Turkish com- torpedo laboratory at the Newport, R. I., naval 

mander at Monastir, is assassinated by an officer training station is destroyed by an explosion of 

connected with the ** Young Turkey " movement, chemicals Twenty- four members of the ma- 

july 19.— The King of Servia provides for the "»la paper combination are fined $2000 each for 

formation of a coalition ministry. violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust law. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. , ^iT. ^^- ~ ^M f '^ ^t'"'^',"'' /^"^^"' ^^JT^^ 

Laboratories at Oxford, hnnland, are opened. .. . 

June 21. — The European powers agree to send Mr. Clark-Kennedy, an Englishman, is cap- 

a warship to 'Tangier to protect the lives and tured by Moors and a ransom is demanded 

property of foreigners. 'The Spanish steamship Larachc is sunk off 

June 23.— Because of the failure of the United Xiniiela : thirty-five persons are lost. 

States to obtain satisfaction from President June 24, — \ thanksgiving service is held in 

Castro of various claims, the Secretary of the St. Paul's Cathedral. London, in connection with 

American Legation in Venezuela leaves Cara- the Pan-Anglican Congress : the thank-offering 

cas, where there is now no American diplomatic fund amounts to $1,666.040. .. .'The new French 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



157 



stecrable war balloon RepubtiqHc makes a suc- 
cessful ascent near Nanlcs. 

June 26. — Tile funeral of cx-President Grover 

Ocveland is held at Princeton. N. J Fifteen 

persons are killed and 270 injured in a collision 
of trains on the Bombay & Baroda Railway, 
India. .. ,ln the race for schooners at Kiel, Ger* 
many, the Hamburg wins, the Meteor, with Em- 
peror William at the helm, being second A 

monument in meraorj- of Ihc late Senator Hoar 
is unveiled at Worcester, Mass. 

Jviiif 27.^Thc business quarter of Frederiks- 
«tad. Norway, is destroyed by fire. 

June M. — In a wreck of the Winnipeg express 
of the Canadian Facilic line in Ontario, Canada, 

seventeen persons are hurt, two fatally A 

bonih explosion in Barcelona kills a policeman. 
....The ninth biennial convention of the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs meets in Bos- 
June 2g. — Count Zeppelin's airship, in a flight 
over Lake Constance, remains in the air six 
hours and forty-five minutes at an average speed 
of thirty-four and one-half miles an hour.... 
The balloon Cognac, owned by the Swiss Aero 
Qub, succeeds in crossing the Alps The Na- 
tional Educational Association begins its annual 
convention at Cleveland. .. .Plans for a sixty- 
two slory building in New York City are filed 
by the Equitable Life Assurance Society. 

June .».— Mr.'i. Phillip N, Moore, of St. Louis, 
is elected president of the General Federation 

of Women's Clubs The International Council 

(if Congregational Churches meets in Edinburgh. 
July I,— Count Zeppelin breaks the world's 
record for airship flight, remaining in the air 
Iwelve hours, at an average speed of thirty-four 
miles. ....\ receiver is appointed for the Nor- 
folk k Southern Railroad on petition of the 
Tnist Company of America joined by the rail- 
road... .The death sentence of Harry Orchard 
for complicity in the murder of ex-Governor 
Sieimenberg. of Idaho, is commuted to life im- 
prisonment 

July J,— .^bout 300 miners are killed as the re- 
sult ol a gas explosion in the Rikovski mine, 
Ru'"ii,...The Ruis, at one time the leading 
Uhtfnl newspaper of Russia, suspends publica- 
tion because of financial difficulties. 

Julv i.—K mine explosion at Las Esperan- 
zas, Jlexico, imprisons twenty men .... Fire fol- 
lowing an explosion of fireworks in a Qcveland 
?tore causes the death of seven persons. 

Wy S,— One-third of the city of Port-au- 
Princf, Haiti, is destroyed by fire. 

July 6,— Nearly sofloo mill employees in the 
Pittsburg district return to work Henri Far- 
man's aeroplane wins the prize of $jooo offerei'. 
W M. .^rmengaud for a trip lasting fifteen min- 
utes — K papal document is issued making im- 
potant changes in the government of the Roman 
clwcfi....The United Mine "Vorkers of Amer- 
i«call a strike of all union miners in Alabama. 
■;...N'ine deaths are recorded from the heat in 

Xtw York City Commander Peary'.s Arctic 

ship, the Roosevelt, starts on a North Pole ex- 

l^iitioa 

. July 7. — German cars win the first three places 

in the automobile race for the Grand Prix at 

Dieppe., ..Fifteen battleships of the Atlantic 



fleet sail from San Francisco for Honolulu on 
the trip around the world ; the Nebraska is de- 
tained at Quarantine by an outbreak of scarlet 
fever on board. 

July 8. — Fire on the water front of East Bos- 
ton causes ,1 loss estimated at more than %3fxxi,- 

July 9. — Fourteen lives arc lost by the col- 
lapse of^ a new bridge building over the Rhine 
at Cologne. ,. .The directors of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad declare a dividend at the full 
dividend rate A successful test of wireless 




telephony is made between New York City and 
Newark, N. J. 

July 10. — The Cunarder Lusitania becomes the 
first iS-knot steamer on the Atlantic, having 
made an average speed for the western trip of 
25.01 knots, and having also made a single day's 
run of 64,1 knots. .. .Paris conirai'tors vote to 
order a general lockout, owing to strikes and 

boycotts by workingnien Seven persons are 

killed and nine injured in a railroad collision in 
Alberta. Western Canada. . , .The Brooklyn sing- 
ers visiting Germany arc received by the Cmwn 
Prince and Princess at Potsdam. 

July II.— The "all big gun" bittle-ihip, the 
South Carolina, is l.tiinched at Philadelphia. 



THE AMERICAN REyiEiV OF REyiEWS. 




(The Rt. Rfv. Henrj C, Pottef, who dl«i on JuIt 
21. wu [wrbBpB the most oldol; known blHbop of 
the American Eplacopal Church.) 

July la.^In a test of the riew high- pressure 
fire system in New Vork City a stream is thrown 
to the roof of a seven I eeii-s lory building. 

July ij.— Thirty men are drowned in a gale 
off the Spanish coast, three vessels being lost. 
. . . .Forest fires in New York. Maine, and New 

Hampshire do great damage The 0]3Tnpic 

Games are opened by King Edward at the Sta- 
dium, Shepherd's Bush, London, 

July 14.— The name of the San Jacinto Na- 
tional Forest is changed lo the Cleveland Na- 
tional Forest in honor of the late e.-c- President 

July 15.— The United States battleship Ne- 
braska rejoins the Atlantic fleet, which is near 
Honolulu The Prince of Wales leaves Ports- 
mouth for Quebec on board the Indomilable. 

July 16. — The .\tlantic battleship fleet reaches 
the harbor of Honolulu. .. .Twenty-five persons 
are drowned by the founding of a pleasure 
launch in a typhoon on Manila Bay. . . .An earth- 
quake in Chile, Peru, and Bolivia causes much 
destruction of property. 

July 19. — The celebration of the Quebec ter- 
centenary is formally begun. .. .Showers break 

the drought in Maine The balloon Chicago 

wins the endurance and distance prizes in the 
race from St. Paul. 

OBITUARY. 

June 21. — Capt. Lorenzo Dow Baker, founder 
of the United Fruit Company, 6S. 

June 28, — M. Rimski-Korsakov, the Russian 
composer of opera. 

June 21.— Charles Payne Sears, the artist. 44. 

Charles Burke Jefferson, eldest son of the 

comedian Joseph Jefferson. 57 William Bate- 
man Leeds, formcrlv president of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway Company, 47. 



June 24.— Grove r Cleveland, ex -President of 

the United Stales, 71 (see page i«8) Sir 

William Vallance Whileway, ex-Premier of 
Newfoundland, 81, 

June 26.— Representative William H. Parker, 
of South Dakota, 61. .. -Vice-Admiral Charles 
Regnault de Premcsnil. of the French navy, 71. 
. .. .Lieut.-Col. Ammon A. Augur, U. S. A., 
promoted for bravery at San Juan Hill, 55. 

June 28.— Robert T. Nevin, the Pittsburg pub- 
lisher and oil operator, 88. 

June 29— Sir Edward Baldwin Malet, former- 
ly British Ambassador to Germany, 71. 

July i.^George H. Daniels, formerly general 
pas-senger agent of the New York Central Rail- 
road, 66. .. .Rear-Admiral Charles H. Rockwell, 
U. S. N,. retired, 68... .Prof. Alexander V. G. 
Allen, of the Episcopal Theological School of 
Cambridge, Mass., 67. 

July 2 — ilurat Halatead, a leader in Ameri- 
can journalism, 79 (see page 191) Gen. 

George Sherman Batcheller, judge of the inter- 
national tribunal of £^pt, 72. 

July 3. — Joel Chandler Harris, journalist and 
author, 60 (see page 214) . . . ,Rear-Admiral 
Charles M. Thomas, U. S. N., retired, who com- 
manded the second squadron of the battleship 
fleet on the cruise around the Horn, 62. 

July 4. — Count Nicholas Pavolitch Ignatiev, 
the Russian general and diplomatist, 76. 

July 5,— Jonas Laurit/ Edemil Lie, the Nor- 
wegian poet and novelist, 75. 

July g.—Judge Charles Alvord Bishop, of the 
Iowa Supreme Court, 54. 

July If.— Rt. Rev. Alfred A. Curtis, vicar- 
general of the archdiocese of Baltimore and for- 
merly Roman Catholic bishop of Wilmington, 
Del,, 77- 

July 12. — Rev. Eraslus Blakeslee, founder of 
a system of Sunday-school instruction, jo. 

July r.i, — Count de Merode, president of the 
Belgian Senate. . , .Col, George Bliss Sanford, 
United States Cavalry, retired, 66. 

July 14.— Dr. William Mason, the musicJati, 

79 Prof, Frederic Louis Otto Roehrig, the 

German Orientalist and composer, 89. 

July 15.— Gen. Rafael Portuondo, the Cuban 
revolutionist. 



July 17, — Ex- Justice Howard Ehiuglass, of the 

Ohjo Supreme Court, 61 Ralph 0, Williams, 

writer and lexicographer, 70. 

July 18. — Senor James Nuno, composer of the 

Mexican national anthem Mrs, Hannah 

Louisa Whitman Heyde, last surviving sister 
of the poet. Walt Whitman, 84, 

July ig, — William Winslow Sherman, the re- 
tired New York banker, 75 Rev. Joachim 

Elmcndorf, D.D., of the Reformed Church, 81. 
. .. ,Dr. Frank Kraft, of Cleveland, secretary of 

the American Institute of Homeopathy Ig- 

nacio Veinlemilla. ex-President of Ecuador, ^ 
. . . .Capt, Henry McCrea. U. S. N., 57. 

July 20.— Prof, Otto Pfleiderer. of the Um- 
versity of Berlin, 69. ...Prof Louis Dyer, lec- 
turer and author. 57 ... . Aneeito Garcia Menocal, 
a well-known civil engineer attached to the 
United States Navy, 72. 



BRYAN AND OTHERS IN CURRENT CARTOONS. 




THE AMERICAN REylEW OF REI'lEWS. 




From the Amrrtfan INpk Yorlii. 



Ftom Ihe Brooklyn flviilt (N«w York). 




BRYAN AND OTHERS IN CURRENT CARTOONS. 161 




K^aa^ep jggysri^. ijn 'f •/«**■ 






f r Ih Mil Ilousr 




THE AMERICAN REl^/EIV OF REl^/ElVS. 




From thi- lleniM (X»w Yc 



BRYAN AND OTHERS IN CURRENT CARTOONS. 




uiBDiKi'iDpDt of thr 

liiTKuiiil cmcivtlon of till! Kitiiutlun now ron- 
iIdk Ihe Aiucrlciin TotPr. To-d«r Is elvpn whHI 
KsuDK-d in Iv thp picture In the mind of tli<' 
r B'ho frpla It bin duty tn vole tbc l>einocrallc 
■(. Mt Indhiduni oulnloD la Ihal. bad Mr. Bry- 

'lln-lnaied blmiwir iwo jpa™ Bjtr * 

- - ■ or Folk coulJ 

Die and r>Duugb Koospvell-madp 

- ti Mr. Ta(t or any other IttMJUb- 

Rmwt'vrlt txcrpled. Mr. Rr.vnn'ii frfe-Bllvvr 
jnd hla govern men I -ownt-ratilp proDuoda- 
Dinke the donkey who drcadi" (hi> sword of 
■n.ble ul the third wallop. In I.>-niorri.w'K Hun 
llliKtrale my Ides nt Ihe dilemma of tbi' man 
lUtemnlalpB Jumpl g f m lb fl Int tb fr 
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look ccindllliiiiit FXiKllne In Ihe llepubllran party. 
Tbia allegory abons the deception prae Iced on laaac 
(■■(■nde »Bm"M by Kelierea f the Kepiibll^n 
|iftrty"i. «'ho In pntting forward ber nun Ja^ob 
(■■the .\ldrleb System"! to receive the hlewiInK hi- 




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THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REI^IEWS. 





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BRYAN AND OTHERS IN CURRENT CARTOONS. 166 




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JAMES S. SHERMAN, REPUBLICAN CANDIDATE 

FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. 



BY WILLIAM E. WEED. 

(Managing Editor of the Utica Herald-Dispatch.) 



I 



N nominating James Schoolcraft Sherman, district comprising the counties of Oneida 
Representative in Congress from the and Lewis, and afterward Oneida and Hcr- 
IVenty-seventh New \'ork District, as the kimer, now the IVenty-seventh New York 
Republican candidate for Vice-President, the District, and with the exception of the two 
Chicago convention was influenced largely years from i89i-*93, he has represented that 
by the opinions of Mr. Sherman's Republican district continuously ever since. He has been 
colleagues in Congress. They were con- mentioned many times for other oificeSi most 
vinced that no other man talked of for the recently for the governorship of his State. 
second place on the ticket possessed in greater He was offered the secretaryship of the 
measure the qualifications of ability, training, United States Senate, and President McKin- 
and experience, both for the work of the ley, in his first term, named him for the post 
campaign and for the duties of the Vice- of general appraiser at New York. This 
Presidential office. They first suggested Mr. appraisership position was along the line of 
Sherman's candidacy, and they consistently his inclinations at the time, but he declined it 
and cordially advocated his nomination upon the special request of the people of his 
throughout the ante-convention discussion of district. Had he not been called this year to 
candidates. It was their sustained and vig- fill a larger place, Mr. Sherman would, un- 
orous support in the convention, backed by doubtedly, have been returned to Congress 
consideration of the strength Mr. Sherman for his eleventh term, for among his own 
would give to the ticket, especially in New people, as well as with his Congressional col- 
York, that finally brought about his nomina- leagues, his worth is widely recognized, and 
tion on the first ballot, by an almost ninani- his popularity almost unbounded. So much 
mous vote. is this the case that, if there be any who have 

This influence in Mr. Sherman's behalf a feeling that his nomination for the Vice- 
was personified when Speaker Cannon un- Presidency is not an unmixed favor, they are 
expectedly appeared in the convention hall, most likely to be found in the ranks of his 
took the platform, and told the delegates, own constituents, those whom he has repre- 
with his characteristic force and directness, sented, and who appreciate the truth that 
why Mr. Sherman, with whom he had they cannot easily replace him as their Mem- 
worked nearly twent>' years in Congress, ber of Congress. The place he has in their 
would make a good candidate and a good affections was shown upon his arrival home 
Vice-President, — an incident unique in the after his illness in Cleveland, immediately 
history of national conventions. following the convention at Chicago, when 

The reason for all this confidence and the people of his home city of Utica, and 
good-will on the part of those who have thousands from the other cities and villages 
been close to Mr. Sherman in public affairs of his district, gathered to welcome him. 
is found in the man himself and in his The expression of regard was singular, both 
career as a legislator. In him are joined a in enthusiasm and scope, inasmuch as mem- 
personality that rarely fails to win friendly bers of all parties joined in it, one of the two 
regard and a record of public service, whose speakers on this occasion being* a former 
value, while recognized generally, is best un- Democratic State officer prominentlv men- 
derstood by the men who earnestly and tioned for the gubernatorial nomination this 
effectively advocated his nomination at year. Such is the feeling for Mr. Sherman 
Chicago. in the city and district where he was born 

As in the case of Mr. Taft, his companion on October 24, 185s* — two years before Mr. 

on the Republican ticket, Mr. Sherman's Taft first saw the light in Cincinnati, 
public career has fitted him peculiarly for the Mr. Sherman was drafted into the public 

office for which he has been named. He was service not lone after his admission to the 

first elected to Congress in 1886, from the bar in 1880. He was graduated from Ham- 




MR. AND MRS. JAMES 5. SHERMAN AT THEIR UTICA HOME. 



JAMES S. SHERMAN, REPUBLICAN CANDIDATE 

FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. 



BY WILLIAM E. WEED. 

(Managing Editor of the Utica Herald-Dispatch.) 



1 



N nominating James Schoolcraft Sherman, district comprising the counties of Oneida 
Representative in Congress from the and Lewis, and afterward Oneida and Her- 
Twenty-seventh New York District, as the kimer, now the Twenty-seventh New York 
Republican candidate for \'ice-President, the District, and with the exception of the two 
Chicago convention was influenced largely years from i89i-*93, he has represented that 
by the opinions of Mr. Sherman's Republican district continuously ever since. He has been 
colleagues in Congress. They were con- mentioned many times for other offices, most 
vinced that no other man talked of for the recently for the governorship of his State. 
second place on the ticket possessed in greater He was offered the secretaryship of the 
measure the qualifications of ability, training, United States Senate, and President McKin- 
and experience, both for the work of the ley, in his first term, named him for the post 
campaign and for the duties of the Vice- of general appraiser at New York. This 
Presidential office. They first suggested Mr. appraisership position was along the line of 
Sherman's candidacy, and they consistently his inclinations at the time, but he declined it 
and cordially advocated his nomination upon the special request of the people of his 
throughout the ante-convention discussion of district. Had he not been called this year to 
candidates. It was their sustained and vig- fill a larger place, Mr. Sherman would, un- 
orous support in the convention, backed by doubtedly, have been returned to Congress 
consideration of the strength Mr. Sherman for his eleventh term, for among his own 
would give to the ticket, especially in New people, as well as with his Congressional col- 
York, that finally brought about his nomina- leagues, his worth is widely recognized, and 
tion on the first ballot, by an almost ninani- his popularity almost unbounded. So much 
mous vote. is this the case that, if there be any who have 

This influence in Mr. Sherman's behalf a feeling that his nomination for the Vice- 
was personified when Speaker Cannon un- Presidency is not an unmixed favor, they are 
expectedly appeared in the convention hall, most likely to be found in the ranks of his 
took the platform, and told the delegates, own constituents, those whom he has rcprc- 
with his characteristic force and directness, sented, and who appreciate the truth that 
why Mr. Sherman, with whom he had they cannot easily replace him as their Mem- 
worked nearly twent>' years in Congress, ber of Congress. The place he has in their 
would make a good candidate and a good aflFections was shown upon his arrival home 
Vice-President, — an incident unique in the after his illness in Cleveland, immediately 
history of national conventions. following the convention at Chicago, when 

The reason for all this confidence and the people of his home cit>' of Utica, and 
good-will on the part of those who have thousands from the other cities and villages 
been close to Mr. Sherman in public aflFairs of his district, gathered to welcome him. 
is found in the man himself and in his The expression of regard was singular, both 
career as a legislatf)r. In him are joined a in enthusiasm and scope, inasmuch as mem- 
personality that rarely fails to win friendly bers of all parties joined in it, one of the two 
regard and a record of public service, whose speakers on this occasion beingf a former 
value, while recognized generally, is best un- Democratic State officer prominently men- 
derstood by the men who earnestly and tioned for the gubernatorial nomination this 
eflFectively advocated his nomination at year. Such is the feeling for Mr. Sherman 
Chicago. in the city and district where he was born 

As in the case of Mr. Taft, his companion on October 24, 1855, — two years before Mr. 

on the Republican ticket, Mr. Sherman's Taft first saw the light In Cincinnati, 
public career has fitted him peculiarly for the Mr. Sherman was drafted into the public 

office for which he has been named. He was service not lone after his admission to the 

first elected to Congress in 1886, from the bar in 1880. He was graduated from Ham- 




MR. AND MRS. JAMES S. SHERMAN AT THEIR UTICA HOME. 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEW^ OF REf^/ElVS. 



ilton College at CUnton, N. Y., in 1878, the 
same year in which Mr. Taft was graduated 
from Yale. He then took up the study of 
law in his native city and, upon hi» admis- 
sion, entered into partnership with his 
brother-in-law, ex-AMcmblyman Henry J, 
Cookingham. In 1884 the Republicans uf 
Utica elected him mayor of the city, and at 
the close of his two-year term he was chosen 
to contest the Congressional election with 
Representative J. Thomas Spriggs, a Demo- 




crat, who had held the office two terms, and 
defeated him. Then began the long period 
of his service at Washington, interrupted for 
but one term, which finally has brought him 
the honor of 3 nomination for the second 
ofSce in the land. 

MR. SHERMAN IN CONGRESS. 

The story of Mr. Sherman's Congression- 
al career is the storj' of a diligent worker in 
the public service, of positive party convic- 
tions, and of one who developed remarkable 
executive talent in the special work on which 
he was engaged. He early formed a strong 
friendship with the late Speaker Reed, and, 
indeed, his close acquaintance with Mr. Reed 
probably more than anything else exerted 
a powerful influence upon his career. It 
was under Mr. Reed as Speaker of the House 
that Mr, Sherman's service assumed a char- 
acter that brought him into national prom- 
inence. Mr. Reed appointed him to the chair- 
manship of the Committee on Indian Affairs 
in the Fifty-fifth Congress, a place he has 
filled with distinguished success throughout 
his Congressional career, and to membership 
in the Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce. Mr. Sherman's most important 



legislative work has perhaps been done on the 
Indian AlTairs Committee. He is credited 
with a better understanding of the various 
questions connected with the Government's 
obligations to the Indians and its efforts to 
fulfill them than that of any other Congress- 
man who has been called upon to deal with 
this subject. The Indian legislation advo- 
cated by him and the policies he has success- 
fully pursued in this field are recognized as 
valuable and wise. 

ON THE INDIAN COMMITTEE. 

The laws affecting the Indians which have 
been passed under Mr. Sherman's direction, 
as demonstrating his capacity for statesman- 
ship, had an important bearing upon his 
candidacy for the nomination for Vice-Pres- 
ident. In all States having Indian popula- 
tion the value of his work in Congress is 
highly appreciated, and the delegates from 
those States were among his enthusiastic sup- 
porters in the convention. It was plain that 
he would bring strength to the ticket, not 
only in New York, but also in the States of 
the West, — Kansas, the Dakotas, Oklahoma, 
and others, — where the Indian legislation 
had benefited both the wards of the Govern- 
ment and the people of the States at large. 
Some of the warmest expressions of congrat- 
ulation and assurance of support that Mr. 
Sherman has received since his nomination 
come from the Indian States. These expres- 
sions have come from Democrats as well as 
Republicans, and they indicate that, when 
Mr. Sherman swings around the circle in the 
campaign, he will receive nowhere a more 
cordial welcome thtn from the people of the 
States whose welfare has been promoted by 
his intelligent and conscientious work in the 
Indian Affairs Committee. 

Mr, Sherman's work in other commit- 
tees has been equally creditable. One of his 
measures as a member of the Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce was the 
False-branding Bill, which has proved effec- 
tive in protecting American cheese manufac- 
turers. He made the first favorable report 
to the House on a Nicaragua canal, before 
the Panama project had developed, and 
strongly supported the Isthmian Canal en- 
terprise; he was the father of the Philippine 
Cable bill and of the bill for the reorganiza- 
tion of the revenue-cutter service. He holds 
the third place in the important Committee 
on Rules, and has been looked to as one of 
the best counselors in guiding the business of 
the House. 



JAMES S. SHERMAN, 



AS PARLIAMENTARIAN. 

Mr. Slierman is reputed to be the most 
expert parliamentarian in Congress. Mr. 
Reed as Speaicer recognized Mr. Sherman's 
talent in this direction and eniploj'ed it fre- 
quently. No other Representative has been 
called upon as often to preside over the de- 
liberations of the House in Committee of the 
Whole, and some of the greatest debates in 
this body in the last fifteen j^ears have been 
roiiduLted with Mr. Sherman in the chair. 
The most famous of these debates, perhaps, 
was that on the Dingley Tariff bill, and 
on the Cuban War Revenue bill, each of 
which occupied many weeks. His services 
have been in demand, also, when the great 
appropriation bills have been under discus- 
sion, his keenness, readiness in trying situa- 
tions, and his faimesi; finding favor with the 
iren^bers of the opposition as well as with the 
majority. 

An instance of Mr. Sherman's quickness 
in meeting a situation while presiding in the 
House occurred during a Democratic filibus- 
ter, in the session in which Speaker Reed 
was given the title of " Czar " because of his 
rulings on the counting of a 'rum anil the 
exclusion of dilatory motions. .>lr. Sherman 
was in the chair and the minority was using 
all the obstructive tactics it could muster. 
Representative Bailey, of Texas (now Sena- 
tor), moved to lay the pending motion on the 
table, Mr. Sherman promptly ruled his 
motion out of order as dilatory. To the 
Texan's protest, Mr. Sher- 
man said : 

" If the gentleman from 
Texas makes his motion in 
good faith and will assure 
the chair that it is not a 
dilatory motion, the chair 
will put it." 

Mr. Sherman had not 
trusted to the Southern 
idea of honor in vain, for 
Mr. Baile>' did not renew 
his motion. Subsequently, 
in one of the committee 
rooms. Mr. Bailey came up 
to Mr. Sherman and, put- 
ting his arm over the New 
York member's shoulder, 
said :" Well. _Jim, you had 
mc that time." 

This readiness of resource 
in conducting Congressional 
business, together with Mr. 




Sherman's f;n'rness under all circumstances, 
has made liim one of the most acceptable 
presiding officers the House has had for 
many )cars. When Mr. Reed resigned Mr. 
Sherman was a candidate for the speaker- 
ship, but he gave way to Representative 
Henderson, of Iowa, His name came up 
again at the dose of Speaker Henderson's 
service, but he supported his friend Cannon. 




THE AMERICAN REf^/FW OF REVIEWS. 




"sunny jim's" party services. 

It is commonly said that " Jim " Sherman, 
as he is affectionately called, is one of the 
best-ioved members of the House, At Chi- 
cago his smiling countenance and cheery 
greeting won for him the title " Sunny Jim," 
and it well expresses the kindly nature of the 
man to whose support his colleagues gladly 
rallied. Recruits in the House for many 
years have reason to remember his pleasant 
courtesy in assisting them to " find them- 
selves " in their new surroundings. He has 
made easy the way of many a newcomer in 
Washington, not looking for any return, but 
because it was his nature. Unknowingly, 
however, he was casting bread upon the 
waters, some of which came back to him at 
the Chicago convention, 

Mr. Sherman's party services, outside of 
the halls of Congress, have been both dis- 
tinguished and extensive. He has been the 
vice-chairman of the Congressional Cam- 
paign Committee in several campaigns and 
the chairman in one; and his work in those 
positions has earned for him much credit for 
executive ability. He is a convincing cam- 
paign orator, and in Congressional and 
Presidential campaigns has spoken to the peo- 
ple of many States, He presided over the 
New York Republican State conventions in 
1895. 1900, and in the present year. 

Mr. Sherman is not a man of large 



wealth. He is prominent in the affairs of his 
home city. He is an able lawyer, but, like 
other talented members of the profession who 
have been called to the public service, his 
time has been too closely occupied with the 
performance of QfHcial duty to permit the ac- 
cumulation of a considerable fortune by de- 
votion to his law practice. He is the presi- 
dent of a trust company in Utica, which has 
been successful under his administration, and 
vice-president of a national bank. He has in- 
terests in several local industrial enterprises. 
The business men of his city have a high 
opinion of his executive ability as it has been 
revealed to them in connection with these 
financial and industrial i: 



BUSINESS AND SOCIAL INTERESTS. 

Among his home people \fr. Sherman is* 
approachable, genial, and democratic. Like 
his colleagues in Congress, they refer to him 
as " Jim " Sherman, expressing by the ap- 
pellation both their appreciation of his per- 
sonal qualities and their sense of his near- 
ness to them as their long-time Representa- 
tive. Old soldiers among his constituents 
are especially loyal in their friendship for 
him, for he has a genuine regard for those 
veterans of the army and has always been 
solicitous for their interests at Washington. 
No old soldier ever found Mr. Sherman too 
busy to give attention to him. 

Mr. Sherman lives in a modest but beauti- 



fOHN WORTH KERN. 171 

fut home on the principal residence street in structor in mathematics at Hamilton Col- 

Utica. Mrs. Sherman, before marriage, was lege, and Thomas Moore, aged twenty-two, 

Miss Carrie Babcock, a daughter of a leadine is in business in Utica. The family attend 

la\\">er of Utica and granddaughter of Col. the Dutch Reformed Church, Mr. Sherman 

Kliakim Sherrill, who was killed in the even- being president of the board of trustees and 

ing of the third day's fighting at Gettysburg, church treasurer. 

\Ir. Sherman's father. Gen. Richard Up- In summing up Mr. Sherman's qualifica- 
dyke Sherman, was a Democrat, and was tions for the Vice-Presidency, it can be con- 
prominent in affairs, having held several im- fidently said that he is eminently worthy and 
portant State offices. He was a native of capable. He is a man of blameless personal 
Oneida County, N. Y. The candidate's character, and of large powers and experi- 
mothcr, Mary F. Sherman, was a native of encc, who has shown special aptitude for the 
Vermont. Mr. Sherman has three sons, all duties of the presiding officer of the United 
of whom, like himself, are graduates of Ham- States Senate, and who, if he were called 
ilton College. Sherrill, twenty-six years old, upon to take the place of the chief executive, 
is in the banking business with his father; would give the country a safe and efficient 
Richard Updyke, aged twenty-four, is an in- administration. 



JOHN WORTH KERN, DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATE 

. FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. 



BY FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG. 



I 



at 
before 



AM not, and have not been, a candidate for tie for mere personal aggrandizement ; he has 

the Vice-Presidential nomination, and if never been known to suffer a friendship to 

J^^I^r'L^^nt^ZX'^r^n'^ll^'ll '''P- ^y reason of his polincal fortunes jjnd 
ore the convention. Whether or not the mistortunes; and his dignified and concilia- 
nomination comes to me, 1 will have just as tory attitude at Denver in 2r somewhat trying 
much regard for you and will feel just as kindly situation was precisely what any one who 
toward you. Now let us go home and carry In- i,„^,..^ u:^ ,„ i j ul *. j £ u*.-. 
diana for the Democratic ticket. God bles7you. knows him would have expected of him. 

John Worth Kern, be it said once for all, is 
CUCH was the altogether characteristic man and citizen first, politician and office- 
deliverance of John W. Kern to the seeker afterward. 
Indiana delegation at Denver at a moment Of good Virginian ancestr\', Mr. Kern is 
when the impending nomination of a candi- none the less a typical product of the Middle 
date for the Vice-Presidency seemed likely to West. His father was one of the thousands 
he turned to him or from him by the weight of energetic sons of the Old Dominion who, 
of a feather. And nobody who knows Kern toward the middle of the last century, poured 
would ever for an instant question the honest westward across the Alleghanies into Indiana, 
dignity and hearty good-will that lay behind Illinois, and the great Northwest, hewing 
the utterance. The straightforward speech out for their families in what was still largely 
of a man who has been in political life for a backwoods countr>' substantial homes, larg- 
upward of forty years, and a candidate for er opportunities, and the foundations for 
public office not fewer than half a dozen future usefulness and prosperity. 

times, without ever being so much as ac- boyhood and youth. 

cused ot demagogy, is not subject to discount. 

Mr. Kern is a politician from the ground up. The elder Kern, who was a physician, 
He hails from a State whose ever\' second after a sojourn fn Warren County, Ohio, 
citizen, according to the facetiously inclined, settled, in i8^^6, in Shelby County. Indiana, 
is at least latently either a politician or a some thirty miles southeast of Indianapolis, 
novelist. And he has confessedly aspired for Ten years later he removed to the Alto set- 
many years to the Vice-Presidencv, a Senator- tlement in Howard Count}- , a hundred miles 
ship, or some such position of distinction, to the north, and there, in 1849, John Worth 
But be has never been willing to force a bat- Kern was bom. From 1854 to 1864 the 



172 THE AMERICAN RE^lElV OF REl^/ElVS. 

family occupied a tract of wilderness known candidate for Reporter of the Supreme Court. 

as " Hoosiers' Row," in Warren Count>', This time he was elected, though in 1888 the 

Iowa, but the close of the Civil War found Republicans, led by Gen. Benjamin Harri- 

them back in Indiana, where, among other son, swept the State, and Mr. Kern failed 

advantages, the prevalence of '* shaking- of re-election. He then settled himself to 

ague " afforded a more lucrative field for the the practice of law in Indianapolis, where he 

medical practitioner. has since resided. 

From 1893 to i8q7 he was the leader of 

HARD YEARS OF SCHOOLING. ,. ^ i a ' e 7^**^ "']^. *^*"^* 

his party on the floor of the Indiana State 
The education of the boy was something Senate, and from 1897 to 1901 he occupied 
of a problem, but a private school at Koko- the position of city attorney of Indianapolis, 
mo, — the so-called Indiana Normal College, by appointment of Mayor Thomas Taggart. 
— was happily available, and it sufficed to It was at this point that there began the close 
prepare for the university. Attendance relations of Kern and Taggart which, justly 
meant a ten-mile horseback ride every day, in or unjustly, have at times brought the former 
all kinds of weather, but, like many another some sharp criticism, but which reached their 
Hoosier lad of that day and since in similar logical culmination in the active and success- 
circumstances, the thorns in the road to ful campaigning of Taggart in Kern's behalf 
learning merely prodded to more determined at the Denver convention, 
effort. Mr. Kern delights to tell to-day how ^, ...,,^ «^« ^,,^ ^ 

, V 1 u- 1 ^ \.^ \. \ ' ^U NAMED FOR THE GOVERNORSHIP. 

he recited his lessons to his horse during the 

noon recess, and how on the way to and from In 1900 the Indiana Democrats, believing 
school he was accustomed to indulge in they had an excellent chance to carry the 
flights of oratory that awoke the echoes and State, nominated Kern for Governor as the 
made the old mare prick up her ears. man whose candidacy was thought most like- 
Before he w^as sixteen years of age young ly to bring about the desired result. He was 
Kern, still a slender lad, weighing little more defeated by some 25,000 votes, but at the 
than 100 pounds, had himself become a Republican jollification in Indianapolis fol- 
Hoosier schoolmaster, in a district where, as lowing the election he made a good-natured 
was usually the case in those primitive days, speech that commended him more than ever 
a goodly proportion of the " pupils " were to men of all parties as a cheerful loser and 
strapping fellows of eighteen, twent>s or even an all-round good fellow. A similar exhibi- 
twenty-five years. The good nature and tact tion of unfailing courtesy and good humor 
with which the youthful dispenser of learn- was given in 1904, when, upon the return of 
ing was abundantly blessed carried him over Charles W. Fairbanks from the Chicago 
all difficulties, and with the money thus convention as the Republican Vice-Presiden- 
earned he was able, at the atre of seventeen, tial nominee, Mr. Kern, as president of the 
to enter the University of Michigan. After Indianapolis Commercial Club, made the 
one year in the academic department he de- principal speech of felicitation on behalf of 
cided to take up the study of law. In 1869, his fellow-townsmen. Very appropriately, 
when but little more than nineteen years old. when Mr. Kern himself returned to Indian- 
he received his law degree, and hung out his apolis with similar honors after the Denver 
shingle at Kokomo. convention, it was Mr. Fairbanks who pre- 
sided at the enthusiastic non-partisan reception 
that was tendered him by the people of the cit>'. 
When barely beyond his twenty-first year In 1904 Mr. Kern a second time bore the 
he was ** drafted " by his party to run for standards of the Indiana Democracy as its 
the State Legislature, and his political career candidate for Governor, and after a hard 
was fairly begun. The odds were heavily fieht was defeated bv the present incumbent, 
against him, and he failed of election, but he J. Frank Hanly. The majority against him 
made so brilliant a campaign that he was al- this time was 8s.O(X), though he ran well 
most immediately chosen city attorney of ahead of the Presidential candidate, Alton B. 
Kokomo, to which office he was re-elected Parker. 

five successive times. Politics continued to Such are the salient events in the career of 

attract irresistibly, and a race was made for the man who is now to have the support of 

the State Senate, but this was likewise un- the Democracy's millions for the Vice-Presi- 

successful. In 1884 the Democrats put the dency of the United States. But what of 

young politician upon their State ticket as a the man himself? It is sufficiently apparent, 



EARLY POLITICAL EXPERIENCE. 



JOHN WORTH KERN. 




. JOHN WORTH 



of course, that Mr. Kern, like the majority 
of men of prominence in the Middle West 
to-day, is of the self-made t>-pe. That such 
a career as his, from district school through 
the university to the law office and the trust 
rf a great political party, is so easily possihle 
constitutes one of the chief glories of this 
Republic. 

HIS POPULARITY IV HIS HOME TOWN. 

True to his antecedents and the circum- 
stances of his bringing up, Mr. Kern is a 



democrat of democrats, 
principles, he is pre-eminently a man of the 
people, tliooch he is quite ahove any attempt 
to appeal to the voting bm polloi hy t!ic mere 
affectation of hucolic tastes and interests. In 
ranking up an estimate of the man one cannot 
do belter than to aci-ept the judgment of his 
Indiana neighbors, and especially of his even- 
day acquaintances in Indianapolis. Indian- 
apolis is a nourishing and progressive citv, 
but It has not yet thrown off certain of the 
characteristics of a big, overgrown t 



174 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

town. One of the pleasantest of these char- qp delicate health. 
acteristics is the neighborly pride which its 

citizens take in the honors that fall to any In appearance Mr. Kern is far from rug- 
one of their number. Ever>'body knows ged, and, though he seems to possess enor- 
Fairbanks, Beveridge, Kern, and the lesser mous vitality, his family and most intimate 
lights, and everybody, irrespective of political friends make no attempt to conceal their ap- 
affiliations, is ready to hang out Old Glory, prehensions that the stress of the campaign 
burn red fire, and ** whoop things up " gen- may tax his strength unduly. Two or three 
erally when unusual distinction has fallen to years ago his health failed and he and his 
a fellow-townsman. The non-partisan dem- friends were forced to believe that he was 
onstration spontaneously arranged for the oc- rapidly going into decline. Warned by his 
casion of Mr. Kern's return from Denver physician against the- imminence of consump- 
was, however, a really remarkable and ex- tion, he started in to battle for his life. He 
ceptional testimonial to the nominee's popu- sought a moderate climate in the South, and 
larity among his own people. In a city like after a six months* stay came home a new 
Indianapolis there would have been an ova- man. Since then his health has been most 
tion for any similarly honored favorite son, encouraging, though of course he is under 
but it is doubtful whether the nomination of the perpetual necessity of guarding it as few 
any other man would have been made the men have the patience to do. Scrupulously 
occasion for so widely participated in and so abstemious and regular in his habits of life, 
heartfelt a reception as that given the present he may be expected to put the maximum of 
candidate. energy into the forthcoming fight with the 
For, within the somewhat restricted field mfnimum of drainage upon his constitution ; 
in which he is known, John Kern is unques- and everybody will join in wishing for both 
tionably a very popular man. He possesses him and Mr. Sherman the very fullest meas- 
the faculty of forming friendships readily and ure of physical well-being, 
naturally, with the result that, after forty ««/xT,«oo,rx^T . , .^rr. ^,,„^ ^^, .^^^.^ 

/* rill ^-1 1 professional AND CIVIC RELATIONS. 

years of successful legal practice and not less 

than twenty-five of active public life, he is The range of Mr. Kern's activities in his 
probably as well known to the citizenship of home city is broad and varied. By profession 
Indiana as any man in the State. And he is he is a lawyer, and there are few who rank 
one of those happy individuals of whom it above him in the city or State. He has been 
can be said that invariably those who know connected with scores of important criminal 
them best like them best. There is about trials, but in later years his services have been 
him a peculiar quality of simplicity, earnest- confined almost wholly to the civil practice, 
ness, and manliness, an unfailing good humor In his capacity of president of the Indian- 
and cheerfulness under political disappoint- apolis College of Law Mr. Kern is a legal 
ment and personal ill-health, a frankness of educator as well as practitioner. He is, in- 
speech and a generous impulsiveness of act, deed, pre-eminently a lawyerly sort of man, 
that endear him to ever>'body who is brought and yet he is a great deal more than that, 
in contact with him, whether in public or He is, for example, a churchman, born and 
private capacity. His most prominent per- reared a Methodist, though in later life an 
sonal trait is, perhaps, his unfailing affability, active Presbyterian and a member of the 
Like Mr. Bryan in his geniality and his Tabernacle congregation in Indianapolis. He 
democracy of manner, as indeed in many is also a clubman, of the sort that a sub- 
other regards, Mr. Kern is himself often re- stantial citizen of a smaller Western city is 
ferred to by his Indiana friends as " the com- expected to be, — -that is, he has a lively in- 
moner." In public speech, and even in pri- terest in busfness and literature, and he par- 
vate conversation, he can be, and not infre- ticipates with equal zest in the deliberations 
quently is, keenly satirical : but his satire is of of the Commercial Club and the philosophiz- 
the sort that never rankles nor makes him ings of the Centur\'. He is also a Scottish 
enemies. '* There is no better man in the Rite Mason and an Odd Fellow, 
city of Indianapolis, nor in the State of In- 
diana, than John W. Kern," declared Vice- 

President Fairbanks when he was informed FinallJ^, he is the head of a most interest- 

of his friend's nomination; and the mass of ing and ideal household. There are three 

the citizens of city and State manifestly agree children, — a grown daughter, who is a lead- 

with the dictum. er in the social life of the younger set in 



JOHN WORTH KERN. 



Indianapolis, and two boys, nine and five 
years of age, respectively. Mrs. Kern has 
all the elements of popularity so conspicuous 
in her husband, and has been particularly 
prominent in the promotion of kindergarten 
Morit and the various charities of the city. 
By the testimony of all her neighbors she 
would make a most admirable Mrs. Vice- 
PresiJent. As one of them declared the other 
day, Mr. Kern deserved the nomination be- 
cause he had (he (rood judEinent fo marry so 
clever and capable a woman. I suppose this 
is on the same principle that it used to be 
said of another clever Indianapolis lady that 
her husband ought to be elected Governor 
because his wife would make such an ex- 
cellent governess. 

CHANCING POLITICAL IDEALS. 

The charge which has most frequently 
been brought against Mr, Kern by his polit- 
ical rivals, — the only one, indeed, for which 
there is even the appearance of a substantial 
basi*,^is that his political record is unhe- 
cominglv variegated, and his political ideals 
are unduly fluctuating. There are thousands 
of Democrats, not to mention adherents of 
other political faiths, who feel that he missed 
a splendid chance to serve his party in 1896 
when he failed to stand by his own previously 
expressed gold-standard principles. He be- 
lieved, however, at that time that the only 
way, — or, at least, the hest way, — to serve 
the party was to remain " regular " and give 
support to the nominee, whoever he might be 
;and on whatsoever platform. Certainly, he 





CoprriibL 190S. ht 



was very far from alone in this judgment. 
It might be possible, likertise, to show that 
Mr. Kern has been both for and against haul- 
ing down tile flag in the Philippines, and, 
more recently, both for and against an anti- 
injunction plank in the Denver platform. In 
respect to these and other similar matters, 
howcMT, he would simply fpll back upon the 
homely adage that circumstances alter cases, 
in which line of defense he would be but 
emulating tlie example of his chief. And 
though both men arc perhaps as vulnerable 
at this point as at any other, neither is the 
mere " fluttering and flight}' politician " that 
some of the hostile journals have recently 
been designating Mr. Kern. 

TESTS OP AVAT LABILITY. 

Kverybody understands that in these days 
Vice-Presidentinl candidates are chosen by all 
parties from a giKid many considerations be- 
sides those iif siatcsniiiniike capacity. No 
leading party in the past twenty-tive years 
has nominated, — would have ilnred to nomi- 
nate, — n man notoriously unfit, in point of 
personal character or temperament, for the 



176 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiElVS. 

duties of the office. But, assuming the pre- other Democrat of prominence in the State, 
requisites of personahty, the considerations and a firmer grip upon the favor of the pco- 
which practically determine Vice-Presidential pie as a whole. Yet the fact remains that, in 
nominations are reducible to four : ( i ) The a State which is always in the doubtful col- 
desire to enhance party prospects in a doubt- umn, and in a 5'^ear when such a stronghold 
ful State or section; (2) the desire to placate of RepuMicanism as Massachusetts could 
warring factions within the party, or at least elect a Democratic Governor, Mr. Kem was 
to give representation on the ticket to rival overwhelmingly beaten in his race for the 
wings; (3) the assumption that, however governorship. Somehow, one cannot repress 
active the Presidential nominee may be, the the suspicion that he is one of those men 
candidate for the Vice-Presidency will bear whom everybody likes, but who, more or less 
the brunt of the field campaign; and (4) the unaccountably, can never quite convert this 
thirst for the campaign funds, the sinews of pleasing popularity into a preponderance of 
war, which the candidate may be able to votes. The candidacy of Kern will, of 
produce from his own or other people's course, add zest to the campaign in Indiana; 
chests. Sometimes one of these considerations the Republicans will be goaded by it to make 
dominates and sometimes another; occasion- a harder fight there, and throughout the 
ally, though not often, they all play their Middle West generally; but that of itself it 
part together. will throw even so much as -the one State into 

Judged by these tests, how well may Mr. the Democratic column may be very strongly 
Kern be expected to measure up to the re- doubted, though until the final results are in 
quirements of his present position? In the this will remain probably the profoundest 
first place, will his candidacy enhance the uncertainty in the whole political situation, 
chances of the Democracy iK the section ob- With a characteristic touch of political fatal- 
viously intended to be appealed to by it, — ism the point was urged at Denver that the 
ue,, the Middle West and, more particularly, Democracy all but won in 1876 with a Vice- 
Indiana? There is no denying that Mr. Presidential candidate from Indiana, while 
Kern falls very far short of enjoying a repu- in 1884 the party's most notable victory in a 
tation that is national. He is not well generation was attained under similar cir- 
known, indeed, outside of his own State, cumstances. But lyir. Kern is hardly a Hen- 
Still, in these days, the Vice-Presidential can- dricks, or even a William H. English, 
didate who does not require a pretty exten- ^ ^^^ campaigner. 
sive introduction to the people of the country 

at large is quite the exception, and Mr. So far as the strengthening of the ticket 
Kern*s comparative obscurity may not, in the through the representation of rival wings of 
long run, count seriously against him or the the party is concerned, Mr. Kern's candidacy, 
ticket. As an ardent disciple of Br>'an he of course, does nothing of the sort, for, as is 
will naturally commend himself to Br>^an familiar enough to everybody, Kern is a dyed- 
followers everywhere, and especially to those in-the-wool Bryan man. He owes his nomi- 
of the Western States, with whom both men nation, in the final analysis, absolutely to his 
are so closely identified. But it is difficult to chief, and he represents no independent prin- 
see that his candidacy can evoke for the ticket ciples or body of men. The powers that be 
much support anywhere which would not in the party's councils manifestly preferred 
have been forthcoming in any case. Even in this year to use the Vice-Presidency as an 
Indiana the effect is problematical. appeal to a geographical section rather than 

On the one hand, it is perfectly obvious to a long disaffected branch of the party, 

that Mr. Kern is justly the most popular The third requirement, however, Mr. Kem 

Democrat in the State. He has been clearly ought to be able to meet very satisfactorily, 

the leader of his party for a decade, the sue- He is an excellent campaigner and, unless 

cessor of Voorhees, McDonald, Hendricks, his somewhat frail physique should give way 

and Gray. He has been the party's choice under the strain, may be depended upon to 

twice for Governor, or^ce for United States do valiant service in the field until Novem- 

Senator, and now for Vice-President. If ber. He has stumped the State of Indiana 

the Democrats should lose in the national repeatedly since he was twenty-one years of 

campaign, but carry Indiana, he would age, and, though he rarely got the desired 

doubtless be elected to succeed Mr. Hemen- results, nobody ever questioned his ability as 

way in the Senate. Furthermore, he has the an orator and exponent of political craft, 

friendship of more Republicans than has any Always aggressive, resourceful, and concilia- 



JOHN WORTH KERN. 



^ 


■ i 


iS^ Ml 



WIMIum K.TD, age flvc 



tory, he may be expected to cany upon the 
national stump much of the fascination and 
power that men have come to recognize in 
him in his own State. 

NOT A MAN OF WEALTH. 

The fourth qualification enumerated, — 
i.e., the command of an abundance of cash 
and a willingness to put it freely at the dis- 
posal of the managers, — Mr. Kern simply 
does not possess at all. He is probably the 
poorest man in this world's goods that any 
leading political party has nominated for the 
Vice- Presidency in a generation. His " for- 
tune " is estimated at about $25,000, and he 
has absolutely no affiliations from which the 
part>- managers can expect to realize a dollar 
that would not otherwise have been forth- 
coming. At a dinner given to Mr, Brj'an 
last winter by the Indiana Democratic Club 
at the Claypool, in Indianapolis, the presi- 
dent of the club,. in introducing Mr. Kern 
as toastmaster, predicted that the Indiana 
delegation would take him to the Denver 
convention and return with him as the Dem- 
ocratic nominee for the Vice- Presidency. Mr. 
Kcm, in the course of his subsequent re- 



marks, thanked the speaker for the compli- 
ment, but said that he did not expect the 
honor to come ti> him, and that, in any case, 
he was too poor to think of occupying the 
office, even if the people should demand his 
nomination. " Why," he declared, "if I 
should be sent to Washington I should have 
to live in one little room. I understand that 
it is costing Vice-President Fairbanks about 
$50,000 a year. At that rate, considering 
the state of my fortune, I could live in Wash- 
ington about one day." When Mr. Bryan 
got up to speak he referred to Mr. Kern's 
remarks and said that if the people of this 
country demanded that Mr. Kern be their 
nominee he would have to serve. " And," 
continued Mr. Brj'an, " if John is eleaed he 
need not live m one room. I will give him 
part of the White House." Should the 
Democrats win in November Indianians in 
Washington will expect to find the Vice- 
President quartered neither in the White 
House nor in a single little room ; but they 
will be not a whit less proud of John Kern 
amid simpler surroundings than they have 
been of Mr. Fairbanks in the home of luxury 
to which his fortune entitles him. 



MR. BRYAN'S CONVENTION. 

BY SAMUEL E. MOFFETT. 

T^E United States consists of the Missis- most deferential to New York, whose block 
sippi Valley with a fringe on each side, of seventy-eight votes is impressive from 
The political bearings of this fact were made mere size, even if it is a block of wood voted 
manifest at Denver on July 7. The conven- as a unit by Murphy and Conners. Mr. 
tion that began its sessions on that day was Bryan is a person of sanguine temperament, 
essentially a convention of the Mississippi and he is not without hope of picking up 
Valley. In it the Mississippi Valley got electoral votes in New York, New Jersey, and 
what it wanted and the rest of the country Connecticut, notwithstanding the assurances 
acquiesced. There are two classes of Demo- of the metropolitan papers that he is wast- 
crats who support Mr. Bryan, — those who ing his time in looking in that direction, 
want him and those who accept him because Nevertheless, he so far defers to their judg- 
they have to. Those of the former class mcnt as to base most of his calculations on 
mostly inhabit the region drained by the the West. Both of the Democratic candidates 
Father of Waters. In New York, New live farther west than either of the Repub- 
England, and other outlying provinces the lican candidates. Now it so happens that if 
farsighted press is unable to conceal its as- you leave out the Solid South, which belongs 
tonishment that the Democratic party should to Mr. Bryan in its entirety, the States west 
be so stupid as to nominate a man whom of Ohio have 165 electoral votes, and those 
no intelligent Democrats desire. But when eastward, including Ohio, West Virginia, 
one crosses the Alleghanies one discovers that and Delaware, have 159. It appears, there- 
Bryan has not been forced upon the party by fore, that in undertaking to build up his 
some malign power outside of itself, but is majority in the West and South Mr. Bryan 
its own unfettered choice. He suits the Mis- is not trying to make bricks without straw, 
sissippi Valley, and the Mississippi Valley The Pacific Coast at Denver acted in 
has the votes to nominate and even, if it cordial alliance with the Middle West and 
choose to disregard party lines, to elect him. South, and the Southern and Western char- 
Twelve years ago the shock of this discovery acter of the gathering was conspicuous 
outraged the feelings of the Eastern dele- throughout the proceedings. Mr. Bell, of 
gates. They not only fought Bryan bitterly California, was temporary chairman of the 
in the convention, but many of them bolted convention, and Mr. Clayton, of Alabama, 
the ticket afterward. This year they have the permanent chairman. Governor Has- 
mastered the logic of facts. They did not kell, of Oklahoma, was chairman of the 
kick against the pricks at Denver; most of Committee on Resolutions, which framed 
them voted gracefully for Bryan on the the platform, and Oklahoma, Nebraska, and 
first and only ballot, and all of them con- Kentucky did two-thirds of the talking in 
curred loyally in his nomination, — even the convention. 
Colonel Guffey, still smarting from the salt ,^„«,^^« . ^„>„ ,^ 
rubbed into his wounds by Ihe Committee ""^"^^^^^ ^ "^NG BANISHMENT FROM 

on Credentials and the convention. For the 

first time in the history of American politics The Chicago convention met with the 

a great party has taken both of its candi- prestige of fifteen years of continuous vic^ 

dates from the Mississippi Valley, put them tory, — the longest period of uninterrupted 

on a Mississippi Valley platform, and laid party success in our history since the 

out its plans of campaign with the avowed breakup of Jeffersonian Democracy under 

purpose of winning its battle in the Middle Monroe. Even in the period of Democratic 

West. eclipse in the Civil V/ar and Reconstnic- 

PREDOMINANCE OF WEST AND SOUTH. f^"" ^^^^^^ ^'^^l^ ^"^ .^^^^^^/" y^^^ ^^^ 

the election of Lincoln in i860 to the Re- 

Of cQurse the rest of the country was publican debacle of 1874, and in the midst 

not ign. "d at Denver. Mr. Bryan was of that era of darkness there were years, 



W^. BRYAN'S CON yBNTION. 



such « 1862 and 1870, when a return of 
sunshine for the Democraq' seemed immi- 
ntnt. But from 189J to the present time the 
blai'knrM of the Democratic nijjht has been 
unbroken. Nevertheless, such is the uncon- 
qutrable tenacity of the party of Jefferson, 
the Dtnvpr convention was suffused with an 
air of cheerfulness and hope. To the men 
nho met at Chicago victory had become a 
habit. They counted on it as a matter of 
I they felt some mise'vings. 
work like business men ex- 
but not quite certain 
1 out. At Denver the 
dans gathered with enthusiasm unquenched 
by iJvcrsity. 







IllfV di 

nuiing 

hw it would 



DENVER S GREAT OPPORTUNITY. 

Perhaps their physical surroundings had 
something to do with their buoyancy of 
spirit. They were meeting a mile above 
tht sea, in a town that was glad and proud 
to welcome them. Their coming was the 
great event of the year for Denver. Every 
delegation was met at the station and es- 
corted to its hotel by a band. Walking in- 
formation bureaus in uniform met every 
train for the benefit of ordinary visitors. 
Twenty thousand people, more or less, wore 
buttons inscribed: "I live in Denver. Ask 
mr," There were circulating band concerts 
on the street cars every night. There were 
snowdrifts brought down from the moun- 
tains and heaped up in the July sun for the 
delectation of the city's guests, who were 
invited to join tn snowball battles, and often 
found themselves in the line of fire when 
they might have been willing to forego the 



lighting 
ill herself 



electrii 



pleasure. The brilliant elect 
system which leads Denver to 
"the City of Lights" was util 
ducing miles of illumination 
streets, glittering with varicoli 
bulbs by night, were draped with a) 
cally massed bunting by day, Coivboys, 
cowgirls, and Indians, especially provided 
and costumed for the occasion, paraded the 
streets on broncos. All that part of Denver 
which was not either in the Auditorium or 
camped around it in a besieging army eager- 
ly hoping to get in was flowing slowly up 
and down the sidewalks in a viscid carnival 
mass. All this was such a contrast to Chi- 
cago, where the Coliseum and two or three 
hotels were the only places that gave any 
indication that a convention was in town, 
that it might well have sent the spirits of 
the delegates up a few points. 

It was a more spontaneous gathering too, 
— one nearer to the soil and more easily 




THE AMERICAN REl/fElV OF REVIEWS. 




Denver came oftencr by nature from the 
shelves of rural " general stores." There 
was more sophistication at Chicago; more 
earnestness at Denver. Henry Cabot Lodge 
and Theodore E. Burton were the favorite 
orators at the Republican convention; Sen- 
ator Gore and Ollie James, of Kentucky, set 
the oratorical pace at the Democratic, 



Perhaps it was the vigor that comes of 
nearness to the soii that made the Demo- 
crats at Denver push riotous demonstrations 
of enthusiasm to lengths that must surely 
brins about a change in future methods of 
expressing approval of candidates. On one 
occasion the Denver convention howled for 
Bryan for an hour and twenty-six minutes 
and a half without stopping for breath, and 
on another for an hour and ten minutes. 
Each of these demonstrations completely 
eclipsed anything in . that line ever known 
at any previous gathering. The convention 
uas not in session more than eighteen hours 
in all, and of that time three hours was oc- 
playcd upon in its emotions. The creases in cupied by three seasons of perfunctory 
the trousers at Chicago were more likely to lunacy. If every convention hereafter should 
have been artificially produced; those at think it necessary to break the records of 




DEUOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION. 



MK. BRYAN'S CONi^BNT/ON. 



b predecessors in this respect, the time 
M-ouId obviously soon be at hand when noth- 
ing but howlinc could be done. The mere 
instinct uf self-preservation, therefore, will 
setm to make it necessary before long to 
pic the howling dervishes leave to print. 

COMPi-ETEN ESS OF BRYAN'S TRIUMPH. 

The situation at Denver with regard to 
candidates closely paralleled that at Chicago. 
In each case there was a favorite against a 
field. In each case the opponents of the 
favorite delndpil themselves with false hopes. 
The " allies " at Chicago were a feeble folk, 
but thty were a mighty host compared with 
the "allies" at Denver. As in 1896, the con- 
senatives had suddenly waked up after 
about half the delegates had been elected, 
discovered that this was a Presidential year, 
and spasmodically resolved to do something. 
In 1S96 they found that belated activity of 
this sort could not heat free silver, and in 
1908 thej- found that it could not beat Bryan. 





Mr. Bryan had begun his preparations for 
this convention immediately after the nom- 
i of Parker in 1904. He had card- 



correspondents everywhere, and for four 
years he had kept in continuous touch with 
the politics of every corner of the Union. 
He had lectured before Chautauqua assem- 
blies on every circuit; he had sent his Com- 
montr over all the rural delivery- routes for 
200 successive weeks, and all this he had 
done on top of a foundation of popularity 
such as no other Democrat had to begin 
with. And the conservatives expected to 
beat him by sending up a sudden cry of 
alarm in the spring of 1908, printing a few 
double-leaded panic editorials in New York 
papers, and inducing a few favorite sons to 
enlist the State pride of their neighbors in 
rival candidacies. As a matter of fact there 
were only two favorite sons whose booms 
ever got as far as Denver. Governor John- 
son, of Minnesota, a politician of remarka- 
ble qualities who will be heard from again, 
polled the solid vote of his own State and 
got twenty-seven and a half scattering votes 
elsewhere. Judge Gray, of Delaware, got 
the solid votes of his own State and of New 
Jersey, and twenty-six scattering votes from 
three other States. The entire grand army 
of the "allies" polled I05j^ votes. Brj'an gi;t 
892-j, or almost exactly nine-tenths uf the 



indexed the whole United States. He had entire convention. The Johnson and Gray 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEU^ OF RE^IEIVS. 




(One of Ihc oi 



booms collapsed so completely that none of 
the orators who had been expected to second 
those nominations turned up, while State 
after State struggled for an opportunity to 
second the nomination of Bryan. 

THOSE " OUTSIDE THE BREASTWORKS." 

Although the general spirit of the body 
was undouhtedly sincere, indications were 
not lacking that it was composed of politi- 
cians, and that expediency sometimes count- 
ed for more than principle. The convention, 
directed by Mr. Bryan, was inflexibly stem 
toward Colonel Gufley, of Pennsylvania, 
where the Democrats got their last electoral 
votes in 1856, but gracious toward Sullivan, 
of Illinois, and ^I^rphy and Cnnners. of 
New York, who leave at least as much to be 
desired in the matter of political morals. 
The noted McCarren was thrown out, not 
because he was unfit for decent men to as- 
sociate with, but because Murphy wanted 
him out, and the equally noted Cirady, Mc- 
Carren's ally in eve.ry scheme at Albany, 
was honored with the chairmanship of an 
Important committee and invited to address 
the convention. Grady mounted the plat- 
form and made a speech about harmony !n 
the very face of a huge portrait of Grover 



Cleveland, who was once " loved for the 
enemies he had made," and who as Governor 
had asked John Keliy as his only favor that 
for his personal comfort Grady should be 
taken out of the State Senate. 

THE " LABOR " PLANK A MASTERPIECE. 

Some visitors went to Denver to play, but 
the men who built the platform had nothine 
but work. They worked for nearly sixty 
hours, although it had been said that Mr. 
Bryan had already prepared the document 
and sent it up from Lincoln to Denver ready 
for use. Some of Mr. Bryan's friends had 
been deeply impressed with the idea of hav- 
ing a platform that could be printed on « 
postal card. This plan was so nearly carried 
out that the Denver platform is only about 
twice as long as that adopted at Chicago and 
fills merely some five columns of close type. 
The chief difficulty in framing it was to- 
satisfy labor without confirming moderate 
citizens in the belief that Bryan was a dan- 
gerous firebrand. The committee stru^led 
over this problem, with the help of telephone 
suggestions from Lincoln, for over two days, 
but in the end its work was skillfully done. 
It began by salaaming to the courts, de- 
scribing them as the bulwark of our liber- 
ties, and protesting that the Democracy 




MR. BRYAN'S CONVENTION. 




yielJed to none m its purpose to maintain and that labor or'^aiiLKations should not be 
their dignit>'. This and much more of the rtfrardtd as illei;al cumhiiutions in restraint 
same sort tended to soothe the apprehensions uf trade. It favored the ci);ht-hiuir Jay nn 
of those who feared that any attempt to all Ciovcrnmcnt work, pU-dsn'd the Demo- 
alter judicial procedure masked an attack 
on the courts. With deep respect the plat- 
lurm then ventured to siipRest that experl- 
i-nce had sho»'n the necessity of modifying 
the present law relatin); to injunctions, and 
it repeated the approval already given in 
1896 and 1904. of a bill which had previous- 
ly passed the Senate relating to contempts posi 
in federal courts and providing for trial by • 



It 



..... in caws of indirect contempt, 
ye'ted. too. that injunctions should 
i^^uec) in any case in which they would not 
i.viue if no industrial dispute were involved, 



■ party to a f«-ncrnl federal employers' 
liability act, and pruoiist-d the enactment of 
a law creating a Department of Labor, in- 
cluding the subject uf mines ami mining. 
These promises Here embroidered with so 
much benevolent hmguage that the labor 
plank aU.ne wr.uld have lille.i two or threi- 

rds, hut since it had the effect of 

ig the 



Gompcrs 
be bulk of the labor 






I ),-ii 



eiige tile 



184 THE AMERICAN RB^lElV CF REVIEWS. 

A BRYAN PLATFORM THROUGHOUT. ^'^g. ^^ ^^c aditiission of Asiatic immigrants. 

This was closely connected with the plank 

The tariff plank of the Democratic plat- advocating an ** adequate navy," ** sufficient 

form is much more definite and outspoken to defend the coasts of this country and pro- 

than that adopted at Chicago. The Repub- tect American citizens wherever their rights 

lican platform promises revision ; the Demo- may be in jeopardy." 

cratic demands reduction. On the currency The La Follette planks on the physical 
question neither party has any very definite valuation of railroads, publidty for cam- 
opinions. The Republicans are willing to paign contributions, and the election of 
leave it to the Monetary Comnuasion to de- United States Senators by the people, which 
vise a satisfactory financial system. The the Wisconsin delegation vainly sought to 
Democrats are not sure whether an emer- force into the platform at Chicago, were cn- 
gency currency is required, but think that thusiastically adopted at Denver. Of course 
if it is it should be issued and controlled by it is not expected that Mr. La Follette will 
the Government, and lent on adequate se- be won over to the support of the Bryan 
curities to national and State banks. They ticket by the adoption of his platform, but 
promise, too, to compel the national banks his followers, whd are not under his obliga- 
to e$.tablish a guaranty fund for the protec- tions in the matter of party loyalty, are ex- 
tion bf their depositors, with provision for pected to show considerable rcstivcncss 
^e accession of any State banks that desire wh^ their leaders ask them to vote against 
to join the system. This deposit-guaranty their own . principles. 

^hcmc of Mr. Bryan's has many friends The national conventions of the two par- 
in the West and South. It is in practical ties have taken on a curious tinge of non- 
operation in Oklahoma, and some bankers partisanship. Not only did the daughter of 
tvh9 know the temper pf their customers say.\hc Presi4etit with her Republican husband 
that it is developing enormous popularity attend both conventions and join in the ap- 
throughout the' Central States. plause at each, but Mr. John Barrett, the 

Mr. Bryan's ancient Jeffersonian ideas Director of the Bureau of American Re- 
about individual enterprise, have been al- publics, took a delegation of foreign diplo- 
lowed free scope in the platform. In this mats first to Chicago and then to Denver, 
respect he is not only a conservative, but a and succeeded in each place in procuring the 
reactionary. He believes that it is possible insertion in the platform of a declaration 
and desirable to overthrow the modern or- in favor of closer relations with the coun- 
ganization of industry and restore the old tries of Latin-America. 

system under which each town had its own ^,,„ ,^^^ «««ow^^^.^*, ^,^,,w^..««^^r 
little factory and the business dictionary stiU ™= vice-prbsidential nominatiok. 

cotitained the word ** competition." The The Denver convention missed a great 
platform, declares a private monopoly to be opportunity in the nomination for Vice- 
" indefensible and intolerable " ; it agrees President. Dozens of candidates were dis- 
with President Roosevelt in advocating a cussed during the week, almost always from 
federal license system for corporations en- the point of view of geography or of small 
gaged in interstate commerce, provided they political tactics. Just at the end it began to 
control as much as 25 per cent, of the prod- be realized that these were matters of little 
ucts in which they deal, and it would forbid importance, and it was suggested that Gov- 
any such corporation to control more than crnor Folk, of Missouri, although he lives 
50 per cent, of the total amount of any next door to Mr. Bryan, would add more 
product consumed in the United States, strength to the ticket than a smaller man 
This would compel the United States Steel who fulfilled the requirement of gcographi- 
Corpo ration, the American Sugar Refining cal remoteness. Governor Folk's name 
Company, the American Tobacco Company, would have inspired the country, but the 
the Standard Oil Company, and dozens of serious discussion of it came too late. The 
other corporations either to dissolve or to convention, with the assent of Mr. Bryan, 
sell out a large part of their plants. nominated Mr. Kern, a good man, but as 

Although Captain Hobson was hooted yet unknown outside of Indiana. There 
down when he publicly predicted war with have been many worse Vice-Presidential 
Japan, he exercised a deleterious influence candfdates than Mr. Kern ; there were many 
upon the platform. It was largely through worse ones proposed at Denver, but the con- 
his efforts that a clause was inserted object- vention might have done considerably better. 



AS A WRITKR. 



MR. CLEVELAND AT PRINCElON. 

BY HENRY VAN DYKE. 

P RESIDENT Cleveland was a to do more work for my fellow men. I want 

man who ripened nobly, and the sim- to be more useful and to do as much as I 

pHcity of his greatness was shown in his can." 
later years. To those of us who were close 
to him here, in his honorable retirement, 

after he had twice filled the most powerful There was once a rumor, started by some 

and the most arduous office in the world, the foolish person, that Mr. Cleveland did not 

vital thing about him was the genuineness prepare his own speeches and papers. Noth- 

of his manhood. His public life had not ab- ing could be farther from the truth. He prc- 

sorbed his private character. He was still pared them immensely and intensely. No 

himself: an individual, responsible to his man knew better than he the danger of rash 

God and to his fellow men for the best use and exaggerated language. No man appre- 

of his faculties and his opportunities ; ready ciated more fully the value and the power of 

to speak his honest mind to his neighbor and the measured, direct, telling phrase. The 

to give his true sympathy to his friend. knowledge that he had to make a public ad- 
dress at a certain time, at least in his later 

HIS HOUSEHOLD IXTERESTS. ,.^^^ „o « k* ^ C I .U . 

years, gave him at first a rather acute anx- 

Hc accepted the conditions of human life iety and discomfort. He was absurdly 

with an admirable courage and good humor, afraid of not doing the thing right.. Then, 

There was no pretense and no illusion about as he toiled over it, the sense of what he 

him. He recognized the small details as really wanted to say, some large and simple 

well as the larger duties of existence. The thing that he thoroughly believed in, took 

change from the White House to the quiet possession of him and carried him along; 

estate of Westland must have been immense, and he uttered himself with a kind of serene 

but it did not disturb the fundamental large- earnestness and confidence that was convinc- 

ness and steadiness of his nature. He neither ing and uplifting to thoughtful hearers. But 

fretted nor sulked in his tent. He gave a the point is that he did all his writing with 

cheerful care to the affairs of his household, his own pen, and his thinking with his own 

a ready response to the interests of the village mind. I have seen many pages of that fine, 

and the university, and a great deal of ear- firm, careful handwriting. It is as delicate 

nest thought and conscientious labor to such as a woman's hand, but the vigor of a strong 

public duties as came to him. man, who knows what he intends, runs 

Some one asked him how he spent his through ever>' word and line, 
time in Princeton. He answered with char- ^ ^„,rr, o,.^«^«.,.^, 

. . , u ^xT 11 T V ^u • A TRUE SPORTSMAN. 

actenstic humor. Well, 1 sit on the piazza 

a good deal, and herd the children." This Mr. Cleveland's unaffected delight in 

was only one side of his life, of course, but it out-of-door sports was very attractive to 

was a very beautiful one, and it revealed the those of us who shared his tastes in this 

man direction. He was sincerely fond of fishing 

„ „,. ^ , . , and shooting as pastimes, and he liked to 

vvhose master-bias leans ..^t ^ ^u ^ • i • u r u- i t 

To home-felt pleasures and to gentle scenes." ^^^^ ^^^^ ^" ^ P»^»"' old-fashioned way. It 

never occurred to him to question the right- 
Yet there was nothing of laziness or self- ness of this method of getting wholesome 
indulgence in it. At the time of the death recreation and good food at the same time; 
of his oldest daughter Ruth, a lovable and and his pleasure was never spoiled by the 
gifted girl, it was my privilege to be close to feverish ambition to break the record. He 
him. The loss affected him profoundly, and was not a paper sportsman, but a real one. 
I remember his saying ver>' simply, after an He liked to be out in the open, in the woods, 
expression of trust in the Divine wisdom, or on the water; the game, however small, 
" I must find consolation for this in tr>'ing was only the excuse ; but he liked that too. 



186 THE AMERICAN tiEyiEU/ OF KEyiEWS, 

I never heard him tell a very big fish-stor>s it in a hurry." And again : " The best part 

but I have heard him tell a great many of every man ought to rule, and when you 

amusing ones. can get that all together you have the real 

He had a wholesome sense of humor, and voice of the people. That is what edu- 

in times of pressure and perplexity it served cation is for, — to bring the best part to the 

him as a means of grace. He was full of front." 

entertaining anecdotes,— not those which go reverence for law. 

the rounds of the newspapers, — and he told 

them with touches of excellent imitation and The second thing that was characteristic 

dialect, which showed how keenly he ob- of him was his attitude toward the law. He 

served and understood men. did not want overmuch of it, but he wanted 

it to be profoundly respected and fearlessly 

AS A COLLEGE TRUSTEE. ^nioxctL He had a sincere mistrust of ex- 

In the affairs of Princeton University he cessive legislation. The hope of bringing the 

rendered an invaluable service. Not a college millennium by statute was one that he did not 

man himself, he was broad-minded enough share. But for the law as established, and 

to recognize the worth of the right kind of for the safeguards which it offers to common 

college education in the all-round develop- rights of person and property, he had a very 

ment of American manhood. He stood for holy reverence. Conscience and courage both 

thoroughness and simplicity in teaching, for entered into this feeling. It came out again 

democracy and self-government in student and again in his public acts and utterances, 

life. He seemed to have " the Princeton It shone also in his private conversation and 

spirit " l>y instinct. As a trustee he brought in the whole bearing of the man. 
to the 'tbuncils of the university a straight- He had that kind of genius which consists 

forward common-sense; a knowledge of hu- in the application of large ideas to every- 

man nature dnd practical affairs; and a firm day problems. He illuminated important 

conviction that d^e two things which count questions with homely illustrations. I re- 

for most in the academic world are fine and member his beginning ^ discourse on the 

steady teaching \m t^c.' classrooms and a Venezuela boundary dispute with a refer- 

well-develf)ped sense of honor among the ence to a quarrel between two farmers about 

students. He was modest in regard to his a line-fence. Before he had finished that 

judgment in questions of the curriculum, but homespun figure of speech he had made 

about the other things, the fundamental every one see the real reason and justification 

things, he never doubted or wavered. This of an act of American statesmanship which 

made him a tower of strength; and the loss Wall Street cursed for a fortnight, but 

of his unassuming counsel, always sane and which the world at large has approved ever 

candid and loyaj, going directly to the main since, 

point at issue, refreshing and invigorating as ^ 

u *u r 11 k J 1 X-lfk, THE BEST OF HUMAN QUALITIES. 

a breath of pure air, will be deeply felt by ^ 

every Princeton man. It seems to me that Grover Cleveland will 

TRUST IN HUMAN NATURE. |f ^ his pUce among the great Presidents of 

the United states. But his greatness did 

Looking back over a friendship of many not consist in the possession of extraordinary 

years, I see more clearly than ever before qualities. He was great because he had 

two things that were characteristic of Mr. the best qualities of common manhood to an 

Cleveland. In his attitude toward human extraordinary degree. He represented the 

nature there was a keen perception of its best type of a plain American man raised to 

weakness and limitation, combined with a the .^th power. . 

firm faith in the gradual and ultimate tri- His friendship, to which he admitted 

umph of its nobler qualities. This made younger men with such a hearty and natural 

him, in the broad sense of the word, a demo- sympathy, was frank, generous, and steadfast, 

crat, but not an obstreperous and flamboyant The whole man went into it. Those who 

one, — a steady and hopeful democrat. "You knew him thus will always remember vhim, 

can trust the best judgment of the rank and not as a personage, but as a splendidly real 

file," he said, " but you can't always reach and' satisfying personality of native growth. 



GROVER CLEVELAND AS A PUBLIC MAN. 

BY ST. CLAIR McKELVVAY. 

ll'^w men in the country arc as well (iiialilicd to write of Mr. Cleveland's public career as 
Mr. McKelway, the brilliant editor of the Hrookl>ii Eagle. The following characterization, 
prepared by him for his newspaper, is here printed with his approval as the statement which 
he would make to the more widely distributed body of readers of this Review. — The Editor.] 

C[Rf^VER CLEVELAND, who died in law, he was nominated for Mayor, and 
Princeton on June 24, at twenty elected on the promise of trying to do for the 
minutes before nine, was twice President of city of Buffalo what he had said he would 
the United States. He was three times a do and had done for the people as Sheriff of 
nominee for the office. He received each one Erie County. In the mayoralty he kept his 
of the three times more votes than his op- promise and exceeded expectation to such a 
ponent. Once, however, in 1888, the Elec- degree that he was made Governor of New 
toral College chose his opponent, voting as York to undertake for the State what he had 
it does by States, and not by popular undertaken for the city of Buffalo, — though 
suffrage, under the mandate of the Constitu- on a manifestly larger scale, 
tion. The citizen who became President, in- In the governorship, for two years of the 
stead of Mr. Cleveland, in 1889, was the three which were then the term, Mr. Cleve- 
late Benjamin Harrison. Mr. Cleveland's land commanded national attention and ad- 
third canvass and second election in 1892 in- miration. He was elected to the Presidency 
volved the defeat of Mr. Harrison, who had of the United States in 1884. A year of his 
been renominated by his party. Mr. Cleve- governorship remained, and in that year the 
land took part, in the funerals of Grant, Lieutenant-Governor, David B. Hill, suc- 
Hayes, Garfiel<I^ Arthur, and Harrison, who ceeded him. It is worth while to recall that 
had been Presidclits in his lifetime. With as Mr. Cleveland was chosen to the shrievai- 
him the list of ex-Presidents ends. ty to end gang rule, and to the mayoralty 

Before he became President Mr. Cleve- for the same purpose, so his election to the 

land was Governor of New York, and while governorship came to him at a time when 

Governor he was chosen to the Presidency, the opposing party had abused the confidence 

Before he was Governor he was Mayor of of the people, and by its own factionalism 

Buffalo, and while Mayor he was chosen to and worse had forfeited its right to public 

the governorship. Thus he directly stepped respect. 

from the mayoralty into the governorship Mr. Garfield was elected in 1880 by a 
and from the governorship into his first pact of interest and of promise between 
Presidency. Before he was Mayor he was theretofore contending factions. The fac- 
Sheriff of Erie County, but several years tions did not keep the peace. Garfield was 
elapsed between the shrievalty and the assassinated and Arthur acceded to the Presi- 
mayoralt)', and between his two Presidencies dency. In 1882 the nomination of Folger 
four years, the term of Benjamin Harrison, for Governor of New York by federal ma- 
intervened, chine influence in the State convention was 

Mr. Cleveland was elected Sheriff to re- stained by forgery and perjur\' for which 

store to public respect an office that had neither Arthur nor Folger was responsible, 

fallen into corruption by a conspiracy of in- but of which the latter became the bene- 

terest and purpose between the leaders of ficiar>\ — and the victim. Grover Cleveland 

both parties in Erie County. He was named was nominated for Governor because he had 

by his own party to be defeated. But he been a great Mjiyor, and he was nominated 

beat its leaders and he beat his opponent by for President because he was making a great 

his declaration to all the people of the county Governor. The folly of one party was the 

that he desired and intended to be elected opportunity of the other, and to the support 

for the purpose of cleaning out the confeder- of that other which was lifted to its oppor- 

ated gangs which controlled both party or- tunity by great leaders who discerned and 

ganizations. The stamp he left upon the obeyed public opinion, independent men of 

administration of the office was not easily or all parties gratefully contributed their votes, 
soon effaced. Years after, while practicing It would not be true to say that Mr. 




Clc^■cland's own part>' rose Ut his level when 
it nominated him for Governor and for Pres- 
ident, It did not rise to his level, but, as 
said, it was lifted to his level by managers 
of intelligence, of power, of courage, of 
integrity, and of vision. In 1888 the gravita- 
tion of power itself accomplislied and the 
demand of the masses prescribed Mr, Cleve- 
land's second nomination, but in i8g2 his 
third nomination was not reached without a 
contest within his party. The progressive 
forces in 1892 overcame the retrogressive. 
The latter had united corruption with con- 



it was miscalled, but did so in 
\ain. The IJcmocratic people threw down 
the Democratic machines, and the most en- 
lightened leaders of DemocraiT in private 
life again ttxilt charge of thf Democratic 
populace and beat the DeniiKTatic machines 
in the Dennwratic National Convention. 

The nomination in i8'j2 nnidied ihe high- 
water mark of hcmesty, courage, intelligence, 
and virtue in American Deniocrai.7. Mr. 
Cleveland's owti letters and own action upon 
public duties in President Harrisim's period 
of service recalled him to Democratic leader- 



190 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE'^IEIVS. 

ship by an irresistible mandate of the Demo- officially admitted has always unofficially 

cratic masses. He was overwhelminp;ly been admitted. From that has flowed the 

elected. His party, however, did not mea>- Pan-American alliance, with all its compli- 

ure u.) to his standards. The leaders fell inentary, diplomatic, sentimental, and spec- 

away from his ideals. He himself was mor- tacular consequences. 

ally incapable of the arts or the artifices to The battle for honest money was fought 
allure them to his side. There were, those and won by Grover Cleveland when his ad- 
who thought it had been well could he have ministration forced the repeal of the silver- 
done so without a sacrifice of any of his purchase clause of the Resumption act. 
sturdy qualities, but he was not built that Thereafter, in all the elections of the Ameri- 
way and did not do so. The Democracy can people, honest mone>', gold currency, 
soon went on the line of its bad to its worse, won. The time-servers of each party were 
Mr. Cleveland stood on his line of stern beaten by the union of the honest and fore- 
integrity, and left the Presidency in 1897 seeing men in both. Neither total nor par- 
with unassailable honor, assured of the vin- tial repudiation has had a chance since, 
dication of time and confident of the appro- Some of its former friends have ever since 
bation of all his countrymen, before the time been declaring they never knew it. Solvency 
would be long. and honesty were menaced before Mr. Cleve- 

The gravest offense Mr. Cleveland gave land aroused the conscience and interest of 

to the spoilsmen of his party was inflicted on the people, but his appeal for them to the 

them in the beginning of his first Presidency, people saved solvency and honesty and for- 

He refused to displace Republican officials ever insured them against attack again, 

with Democratic appointees till the terms of We have been at pains to show that the 

the former had expired. The practice he course of Grover Cleveland was impartially 

then resumed has been in the main since re- due to Republican errors and Republican 

spected; but it rebegan, in modern times, divisions, and to a pressure of exigency and 

with him, jmd when he restored the course duty upon Democratic opportunity. We 

of George Washington and of John Adams may expect that both parties will yet admit 

he reversed that of Thomas Jefferson and this without dissent. Both in their hearts 

of Andrew Jackson, the gods of Democratic recognize that the qualities dominant in 

idolatry. By doing so he wrote his name Grover Cleveland were the ones that should 

above both in the world's annals of moral be dominant in every President. It matters 

justice and of moral courage among rulers, little with what lesser but worthy qualities 

It has been easier to follow his course than Presidents be associated. Washington was 

It was for him to reinitiate it. The spoils- not more brave or more single-minded than 

men of Democracy never forgave him, but Cleveland, though he was more reserved 

the freemen of Democracy twice sustained and more patient. Lincoln was not more 

him at the polls, and none of his enemies in inflexibly devoted to long purpose and to 

Democracy has been elected President since! stern principle than Cleveland, though he 

Mr. Cleveland, first among any American was more tactful, more patient, but not more 

Presidents, made the Monroe Doctrine, as philosophical. With both, in the root quali- 

it is called, a fact alive, to be recognized as ties of integrity and intrepidity, Cleveland 

a fact, though not officially, by the govern- will be rated m history, howTver diflerenti- 

ment of Great Britain. Officially mattered ated from them and from others in minor 

little. Actually, factually, mattered much, respects he should be. 

The long coquetry^ between American ad- This statement may not for a while be ac- 

ministrations and British administrations had cepted by those mentally or morally too 

only comprised the playful throwing of grass small to assimilate it ; but it is now certain 

and disclaimers. President Cleveland forced soon to be the conclusion of those who see as 

a recourse to arbitration by Great Britain well as feel the future in the instant and 

and Venezuela, by which the powxr, the right, the thinking of whom anticipates, prescribes, 

and the recognition of the United States as embodies, and dominates the thinking of the 

a third party, in high and equal interest, future. It is already the conclusion of the 

were regarded. The territorial integrity and sentient and the wise among Americans. It 

immunity of this continent were assured- is already the agreement of living thoughtful 

The fact of this Republic, as the predominant foreigners whose contemporary conclusions 

partner among and over other American gov- are proverbially and invariably the verdict 

ernments, was impressed, and while not of posterity. 




A GREAT AMERICAN JOURNALIST. 

TpHE absence of Mr. Halstcad from the leaders that the Republican hosts 

platform at Chicago in June was ob- to reaipni^e. For a yrar or nm 

served and mentioned by many who have been in failing beahh at his Cincin 

been aa'ustomed to attend national Rcpub- and on July a he passed a\*ay. 
lican conventions. He had been prominent Murat H.ilstead was bnrn near ' 

in these gatherings since 1856; and his per- Ohio, abnost seventy-nine years 

sonality was so distinguished that, without grandfather having settled there al 

any thought of making himself prominent, his ing of the bst century. While a 

face and figure were undoubtedly the best- local college in the outskirts of Cii 

known juid most familiar of any among the shoiveil marked talent as a write 



L-innati he 
; and his 



192 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

contributions to the Cincinnati newspapers ficiaries of rascality that they have exposed. 

had so paved the way for immediate jour- Since there was never the slightest confusion 

nalistic employment that he found himself at in the public mind as to the reason for the 

once embarked upon a career which was des- Senate's refusal to confirm Mr. Halstead, 

tined to make him a national figure, and to and since no one for a moment in the Senate 

keep his pen incessantly busy for more than or out of it questioned his personal fitness for 

fifty years. the post to which President Harrison had 

He was always a man of courage and of appointed him, the chief importance of the 

strong opinions, and the outbreak of the Civil episode lies in the way in which it illustrates 

War found him for the Union with all his creditable phases in the history of American 

energies. He had become the principal journalism and discreditable phases in the 

writer and also a part owner of the Cincin- history of the United States Senate, 
nati Commercial, and was making it one of Mr. Halstead, like Horace Greeley, was 

the most notable political and literary influ- an exceedingly energetic and enterprising 

ences of the country. He was not only a newspaper man, with a talent for news and 

powerful and original editorial writer, but for timeliness, and a catholicity of taste and 

also a descriptive writer of talent and charm, culture, which gave his paper a broad relation 

During the Civil War he was at the front to human activities of various kinds and to 

on various occasions, attracting the attention the intellectual progress of the American 

of the whole country by his skill as a war people. But for the journalism of scandal 

correspondent. After the war he came into and sensation, with no motives except those 

full editorship and financial control of the of the counting-room, Mr. Halstead had no 

Commercial, and w-as everywhere recognized talents; and when the new type of sensa- 

as one of the most successful editors the tional journalism, backed by unlimited capi- 

United States had produced. He added to tal, came into vogue, Cincinnati w^as not a 

his fame as a writer and a student of military large enough field to permit the success of 

affairs by joining the headquarters of the both kinds of newspaper side by side. If 

German army in the Franco-Prussian War. Cincinnati had grown as Chicago grew, Mr. 

In 1872 he was one of the little group of Halstead's Commercial would have held its 

strong Republican editors who opposed the own like Mr. Medill's Chicago Tribune. 
renomination of President Grant and sup- In his later years Mr. Halstead gave evi- 

ported Horace Greeley. He was a constant dencc of his great physical and mental vital- 

and prolific writer for the editorial page of ity by writing a number of books, which were 

his own paper, and was in the habit of stay- sold successfully by subscription throughout 

ing at his office at night until the paper had the country, on subjects and personalities of 

actually gone to press. He was a hard contemporary interest. While journalistic in 

fighter for what he believed to be right, and method, these books were written with all of 

through a long period of laxity and corrup- Mr. Halstead's wonderful power of concen- 

tion in political life he was never complacent tration and intense interest in whatever he 

toward improper methods. had in hand. There was the spirit of hope 

One of Mr. Halstead*s later experiences and courage in all his work, and an optimism 

illustrated the obvious truth that the journal- based upon his lifelong adherence to sound 

ist who deals courageously with political con- principles and standards in public as well as 

ditions must not expect to become an office- in private life. 

holder. Mr. Halstead was appointed Minis- Mr. and Mrs. Halstead had only recently 

ter to Germany by President Harrison in celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their 

1 889, and was eminently qualified to represent marriage. His last year was saddened by tfce 

us with grace and distinction at the German death of his eldest son, Marshall Halstead, 

court. But the Senate refused to confirm who had also achieved success and reputation 

the appointment. This refusal was due to as a journalist and a man of affairs. Four of 

the fact that Mr. Halstead had unsparingly Mr. Halstead*s sons were at one time stu- 

attacked the corrupt methods by which the dents at Princeton, and six sons and three 

election of certain members of the United daughters still survive. To few men is it 

States Senate had been procured. The re- given to work so long and so usefully in a 

fusal to confirm him was intended by the congenial field of activity, to be so fortunate 

Senate for punishment, and for a notice to in personal relationships, and to hold in so 

other honest and powerful editors that they full a sense the esteem of neighbors and fcl- 

must not expect to be forgiven by the bene- low-citizens. 



WHAT ARE THE JAPANESE DOING IN FORMOSA? 

BY WILLIAM C. GREGG. 



TpHE island of Formosa is just off the 
coast of China, about fifty miles wide 
and 2.VO miles long. It lies a little north of 
the Philippines. Here, as a result of the war 
with China, the Japanese, in 1895, became 
the rulers over 3,000,000 Chinese, who had 
been there between two and three centuries, 
and perhaps 100,000 savages, called " Head 
Hunters," who had been there much longer. 
The Chinese occupy the western half of tht 
island, which is generally very level; the 
savages the eastern half, a very rough, moun- 
tainous region, with several peaks reaching 
a height of 12,000 feet. Between these two 
peoples there has been constant warfare. The 
savages originally occupied the plains also, 
but were driven to the shelter of the moun- 
tsins, where their smaller numbers could 
fcold the Mongolian hordes in check. They 
arc as savage and warlike as ever, and are 
much feared by all. 

The Japanese found the Formosans (Chi- 
nese) in a pitiable condition. They came 
•riginally from the vicinity of Amoy, where 
tome of the poorest people are to be found in 
»II China. They were ignorant, suspicious, 
bigoted, emaciated, impoverished, dirty, and 
diseased. About 90 per cent, were illiterate ; 
all were underfed. The tax-gatherers had 
taken e\'e()-thing but skin, bone,, and filth. 
The amount of disease, especially sore eyes, 
is siil! appalling. With the suspicion that 
grew out of such conditions, added to the 
natural stubbornness and bigotry of the 
Chinese, we can understand that instead 
of welcoming the Japanese, as the Spanish 
did the American army in Porto Rico, they 
gave ihem some weeks of hard fighting, ac- 
companied by rioting and looting among 
themselves, all after Formosa had been regu- 
Ua\y " ceded " to Japan. 

FORMER CHINESE MISGOVERN MENT. 

fn bringing order out of chaos the Japa- 
nese wisely dropped the former Chinese offi- 
cials. Their ingenuity in extorting money 
out of the people had been truly devilish. 
I have rooni for only one illustration of their 
methods: Suppose three men had been con- 
denmed to death after trials that would have 




acquitted them had enough money been forth- 
coming; the relatives of the first man t;o go 
to the block raised enough funds to satisf>' 
the executioner, and he was dispatched with 
one stroke of the sword. The friends of the 
second did something, but not enough to 
meet the demands of this captain of finance, 
so several cuts were necessary to finish No. 
2. The third -.as .\ bankrupt, with no 
friends in sigl t —the other officials probably 
had ti-.ken all h? had, — so the executioner, to 
get even for the loss of his tip, and as a 
warning to chcrs, cut off his ejelids and 
i?Kposed Sin .0 il'.c glaring sun for hours 
before fin: lly finishing him with other brutal- 
ities! Hard to believe? Yes, but it is only 
a striking case out of a general condition of 
official depravity. Small wonder that when 
turned out of office, judges and jailers, along 
with magistrates, " joined the opposition," 
and became insurrection leaders. Strange 
but true that many people followed their 
leadership, a more or less active rebellion 
being maintained against the Japanese for 
five years. This delayed and often defeated 
entirely the governmental plans of the new 
rulers. About seven years ago armed oppo- 



THE /IMERICAN REflEW OF REI/IEWS. 




good FiBiDple of JapanoBe work. 



sition ceased, and rhe real v>-ot\ of reform 
began. 

THE NEW JAPANESE REGIME. 

My fiist question was: How many Japa- 
nese are here in Formosa? I was an- 
swered: "About 100,000." To verify this, 
and to find out what they were doing, was 
my constant endeavor, and my conclusion is 
that the number is fairly stated. As the 
island will easily support double the present 
population, there need be no overcrowding 
for years to come. 

The price of Chinese labor in Formosa 
has increased fully 50 per cent., but is not 
yet up to the labor standard in Japan ; so the 
Japanese do not try to compete, but confine 
themselves to keeping stores, hotels, bath- 
houses, etc., acting as foremen or superin- 



tendents of new enterprises, 
doing the work of skilled 
mechanics, engineers, and 
teachers. No Chinaman 
can come to Formosa from 
the mainland without a 
passport, which you may be 
sure is carefully scrutinized. 
The number entitled to en- 
ter probably does not ex- 
ceed the number who leave. 
While the Japanese Gov- 
ernment employs its own 
I people in most responsible 

positions, it also employs a 
a surprising number of Chinese. The ticket- 
sellers, gate-keepers, and guards on the gov- 
ernment railway seem to be all Chinese ; the 
engineers and head mechanics are undoubted- 
ly Japanese. I think I am safe in saying that 
four-fifths of all the railway employees are 
Chinese, who also do all the common labor 
in other government enterprises. I found in 
every city or town of any consequence one 
Japanese street, a model of taste and cleanli- 
ness, for all to loc^ at, if not to imitate at 

The first change in the condition of the 
Formosan people was their fuller employ- 
iinent, which was in itself a " raise." Then 
the actual advance in wages began. I now 
find their average pay fully one-half more 
than the ssmie class of people are getting 
over on the mainland of China, bringing the 




If^HAT ARE THE JAPANESE DOING IN FORMOSA ? 



u-agcs of a nun from 13 cents to zo cents 
(gold) a day, women and children lower in 
proportion. An English missionary, long a 
resident of the island, rather reluctantly ad- 
mitted to me, although not a bit enthusiastic 
about Japanese rule, that the people gen- 
erally now cat three meals a day. We can 
readily understand that at the former rate 
of wages and with fewer employed it was 
not three meals a day. 

Justice, the first essential to normal com- 
munit)- life, has been established at last; but 
\\-e need not be surprised if the Chinese some- 
times kick at justice itself and sigh for the 
•ood old rotten da>-s. 

There are now eight ordinary courts and 
one court of appeals, presided over by Japa- 
nese judges, appointed by the imperial gov- 
ernment. The important fact about the 
present courts of Formosa is not the nation- 
ality' of the judges, but that justice itself for 
the fir^t time in its history is obtainable by 
the poorest coolie, 

SCHOOL SYSTEMS, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Schools have been built and equipped by 
the Japanese with the same combination of 
sense and enthusiasm that has actuated the 
Americans in Porto Rico and the Philippines. 
There are to-day 165 common-schools for 
Chinese boys and girls, half the teachers be- 
ing Chinese and half Japanese, and 6fteen 
similar schools for half-civilized mountain 
tribes. Twenty-four also are opened for 
Japanese boys and girls, whose education 
alone as yet Js compulsory. Chinese chil- 
dren are admitted to these schools if clean 
and free from disease. There arc also one 
high school for girls only, one high school 
for boys only, one normal school for teachers, 
one medical school, two agricultural schools, 
and one police school. 

This looks like work, not exploitation! 

Wc need only remember our own efforts 
at education in our dependencies to appre- 
ciate the spirit of real helpfulness that has 
characterized this Japanese labor in Formosa. 

The Chinese still maintain over 1000 
small private schools, where old ideas, now 
being abandoned on the mainland, are still 
taught, no doubt partly out of stubborn op- 
position to Japan. 

It is the plan to supplant gradually these 
schools of ancient fogyism with modem ones, 
but, as usual, the Japanese will not move in 
a compulsoiy way. I said to a Japanese 
Christian preacher: " How about religious 
freedom la Formosa? " He replied : " En- 




tirely free; perhaps too free, for 1 believe 
just a little persecution, or at least opposi- 
tion, would stir us up," 



PUBLIC IMl'R 



VEM EXTS. 



The Chinese had constructed forty miles 
of very inferior railroad, which was entirely 
rebuilt, and 230 miles has been added. All 
is now in first-class condition, with good 
rolling-stock, good stations, frequent train 
service, and moderate fares. I rode over 
the entire system, and was struck with the 
substantial character of everything, .especial- 
ly the tunnels and bridges. 

There is now under construction sixty 
miles more on the East Coast. The standard 
railway gauge tor both Formosa and Japan 
is forty-two inches, just fourteen and one- 
half inches narrower than the American and 
European general standard. 

Barracks and police stations have been 
erected wherever needed. Post-offices, tele- 
graph and telephone systems are to be found 
everywhere, and some cities have electric 
lights. Fine parks and numerous small gar- 




THE AMERICAN REl^/EU^ OF RE^iE^VS. 

of the money was paid out of the impend 
treasury, and the bulk of the expenditures 
went direct to the Chinese for labor. 

POLICE AND MILITARY. 

There arc on the island 5000 police, two- 
thirds of whom are Japanese ; 6000 Japanese 
soldiers on the plains, and 6000 Chinese sol- 
diers in the mountains. 

The police arc paid by local tax ; the sol- 
diers by the imperial government. Evidently 
they still fear to have Chinese soldiers on 
the plains, but are willing to let them fight 
their old enemies, the " Head Hunters," in 
the rough country. The Chinese soldiers 
iiute «t bottom of thu are officered and led by the Japanese. I 
' ""7 w"ts(ui .na pro- j^^^^j ^^^^ j^ ;^ „^^^^^^ ^^ have a goodly 
proportion of Japanese police in the cities 
dens have been provided in the cities. When- and towns, for whenever the Japanese are 
ever a fire consumes many buildings in any involved in any affair requiring police con- 
place, the question of widening the street trol they will not pay any attention to a 
seems to be the first thing considered. It is Chinese officer. 
generally accomplished. Open concrete sew- 
ers, frequently flushed, have been installed in 
all towns of any size. Regular modem The driest part of this subject is in the 
water-works arc now found in three of the title. Our Japanese friends found a regular 
largest cities. A first-class wagon road, 300 Irish land question dished up to them red 
miles in extent, has been built from north to hot and garnished with uncertain boundaries 
south through the entire length of the island, and double ownership. It is easy for me to 
and over 4000 miles of other roads, with record that they solved it by the government 
over 3000 bridges, make a very substantial buying the landlords' titles and establishing 
total. Harbors, breakwaters, docks, and the renter as owner. But this is more than 
lighthouses have all been completed, or are England has ever been able to do with her 



(Sm the Japaa 
page. Thvwi Hmal 
dues poor sagar.) 



LAND / 



> TAX REFORMS. 



In process of being built, where there was Ireland, although she has muddled c 
nothing before but danger, delay, and ship- matter, lo, these many years, 
wreck. The government 
has built a model tea-farm 
and an experimental cane- 
growing station, along with 
the department of encour- 
agement and subsidy to 
Chinese farmers to improve 
their methods of fertiliza- 
tion and cultivation. 

It is hard to realize that 
twelve years ago all of 
these improvements were 
undreamed of, and that 
such a spirit of progress 
was so persistently opposed, 
even with rebellion, for five 
years. We could more 
readily understand the men- 
tal attitude of the Chinese 
if th^ had been taxed for 
anything and the benefits 
turned over to the Japa- 
nese; but a substantial part 



r the 




-MUX BEING ERECTED BY A JAPANESE 

<Ten lucb plants are In proceu of conitructlon at pre! 
American market atlmnlateH tbebuilncra. Tbey cipect 
tbe world for Aalatlc trade.) 



compete wttb 




IB lirtrd off the track. I 



IVHA T ARE THE JAPANESE DOING IN FORMOSA ? 



It cost Japan over $2,- 
000,000 to make an ac- 
curate survey of all the 
land (on the plains) and 
to make complete maps 
showing every irregular 
plot, no matter how small. 
Nothing but a personal 
view of the little garden 
patches cultivated by these 
people, with not a square 
corner in the entire crazy 
patchwork map, could give 
j-ou an adequate conception 
of the magnitude of the un- 
dertaking. The surveyors 
and map-makers were all 
Japanese, of course. The 
government on bringing 
them over required that 
they should save part of 
their wages, as I under- 
stand, partly to prevent 
even mild dissipation and 
possible trouble with the 
Chinese. When through with their work 
the>- were at once returned to Japan. 

This land reform was not philanthropic; 
the government now gets the tax, — formerly 
paid by the renter to the landlord, — which 
more than pays the interest on the bonds 
issued to carry through the reorganization. 
The whole thing was a combination of re- 
form and good business management. 

But how about taxes? Well, this is no 
fairy tale! With exports and imports dou- 
bled, land values doubled, actual volume of 
earned wages doubled, and with such a great 
accumulation of improvements, we might 
expect to find taxes doubled also. But taxa- 
ti(Mi, although increased, is not that bad. 

Governor-General Iwai tells me that for- 
merly the Chinese paid their tax-jratherers 
irregular amounts, aggregating $6,000,000 
to $8,000,000 a year, only $3,000,000 of 
which really reached the government trcas- 
ur>'. The present general tax aggregates 
about $8,0OO/XX), with added special local 
taxes of $2,500,000 more. 

Formosa is now practically self-support- 
ing; but for several years the imperial gov- 
emmeiit node up deficiencies totaling $15,- 
000,000, exclusive of all military expendi- 
tures. It has made investments also in con- 
nection with its monopolies, the amount of 
which I am unable to state, but large enough, 
perhaps, to affect even Japanese imperial 
finances appreciably. 



GOVERNMENT MONOPOLIES. 

Both in Japan and Formosa the imperial 
government is doing what has been done by 
the American trusts, — i. e., monopolizing 
some of the leading lines of trade. Tobacco, 
salt, camphor, and opium, in addition to the 
railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, are 
thus operated. The total Formosan income 
from these enterprises in 1907 was about 
$8,000,000. But it cannot be called a tax, 
as the business seems to have been conducted 
on the average more in the interest of the in- 
habitants than it would have been in the 
hands of Japanese or Chinese capitalists. 

THE CAMPHOR PRODUCT. 

Formosa is the world's chief producer of 
camphor. It is distilled from the wood or 
chips of the camphor trees, which grow to a 
magnificent size, some measuring forty feet 
in circumference. Formosa has about 1500 
square miles of trees, which should supplr 
the natural wants of the world for from 
sixty to seventy-five years. They are refor- 
esting the places which have been denuded. 
The price of camphor in Formosa in 1875 
was 6 cents a pound ; now it is 50 cents a 
pound. The Japanese Government derives 
an annual profit of about $1,000,000 from 
this monopoly. 

The love of gain took the Chinese man;- 
years ago to the mountain districts after 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




camphor, although they lost many heads to powers and the rough country, arc not sufc- 

the " Head Hunter " savages who lived jcct, but independent, 

there. Time has changed many political Onlyenough camphor is produced cachyear 

conditions, but the " Head Hunters " are to meet the market demands without endao- 

still hostile, and strong Japanese guards are gcring the stability of the government price, 

needed to protect camphor extractors. Only „ .^ „ 

.u . 1 ■ , i .L . ■ J .u T PROFITS FROM THE OPIUM TRADE. 

on the outskirts of the mountains da the Jap- 
anese pretend to exert governmental author- I think it is a mistake for the government 
ity. The savages, because of their fighting to add its profits from opium to the general 




<MBU;>n uvmseB wbo 



U^Hj4T are the JAPANESE DOING IN FORMOSA? 




revenues. It makes about $500,000 a year 
out of it. No doubt the first motive was to 
restrict and finally to abolish the devilish 
habit; but as long as these profits can be 
used by a financially hard-pressed imperial 
administration it will continue to take an un- 
holy interest in the business. 

Let the entire profits be devoted to hospi- 
tals and medical schools, all sorely needed, 
and I shall believe that the orip'nal plan to 
obliterate the opium evil will the sooner be 
carried out. Every smoker is licensed. It is 
against the law to lend or give away opium. 
The number of licenses is, I understand, 
decreasing^ The penalties for violating the 
law's restrictions are fines of $1500 to $25(X) 
and imprisonment from three to five years. 
I believe the law is fairly well enforced, al- 
ways keeping in mind the patience of Japan- 
ese olficials, sometimes phenomenal. 



JAPANESE AIMS IN FORMOSA. 

Who could have done as well for For- 
mosa in this short time? The Japanese de- 
serve full credit, for they have spent heart, 
brain, muscle, and money to make a pleasing, 
prosperous community out of a sad bit of 
desolate anarchy. Their object is not only 
to make a rich colony for their own profit. — 
a perfectly legitimate scheme as long as the 
colony profits too, — hut to make a name for 
themselves to be honored by all nations for 
fair dealing and achievement in civilization. 
The>' have the patience to deal with stubborn 
problems. If they have also patience under 
unfair criticism, and if they can hold true 
to the ideals the)- have so successfully pur- 
sued in Formosa, who shall say that they will 
not be also a blessing to Korea and achieve 
there at least as great results? 



GUATEMALA'S TRANSCONTINENTAL ROUTE. 



BY M. A. HAYS. 



/It Guatemala City, recently, there was a 
fiesta which thrilled the people of the 
principal republic of Central America, both 
from its character and the event it celebrated. 
There were magnificent street decorations, 
triumphal arches and booths representing 
nearly every municipal department of the 
country, floral displays, military and civil 
parades, a vast gathering of people from every 
section of the nation, including about 5000 
Indians in their native costumes, illumina- 
tions, banquets, speeches, a beauty contest; 
all manner of music, bull fights and other 
amusements, school festivals, the entertain- 
ment of distinguished visitors, including a 
specially accredited representative from the 
United States, and all that could be sug- 
gested to emphasize the importance of the 
event. That event was the completion to 
the capital city of the long projected railway 
line from the splendid harbor of Puerto Bar- 
rios, on the Gulf of Amatique, and the open- 
ing of the last link of a through line from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific across Guatemalan 
territory, which gave the American con- 
tinent its newest interoceanic system. 

Like the completion of the earliest railway 
lines in the United States, which gave 
through transportation facilities from the 
East to the Pacific Coast, and the building 
of the newer Canadian transcontinental roads. 




it marks an epoch in commerce and develop- 
ment, and its influence must be very great. 
The 6esta was planned and carried out by 
the Guatemalan Government, and properly, 
for the government was instrumental in the 
building of the line, which will remain a 
monument to both Presidents Barrios and 
Cabrera, begun by the administration of one 
and completed through the concessions of the 
other ; and the future will doubtless show that 
the event was worthy the great cost of $250,- 
000 to a comparatively poor people for feast- 
ing and celebrating. 

There arc two railroad lines in this latest 
transcontinental system, the Central of Gua- 
temala, built by the late C. P. Huntington 
and his associates, and Still considered a 
Southern Pacific enterprise, and the Guate- 
mala Railroad, the newer and larger line, 
formerly called the Northern, completed 
many years ago from Puerto Barrios to Za- 
capa, 106 miles from the coast. In 1904, the 
Northern Railway was acquired by an Amer- 
ican syndicate, headed by Gen. Wm. C. Van 
Home, Minor C. Keith, vice-president of 
the United Fruit Company, and Gen. Thom- 
as H. Hubbard, of New York. The new 
company received some important concessions 
from the Guatemalan Government, and the 
Central Railroad became interested in the 
new enterprise. Work was begun nearly 
three years ago on the extension of the line 
to the capital city and the rebuilding of the 
older portion of the road. It was completed 
in January, and on the 19th of that month 
the first train from the Atlantic side of the 
continent pulled into Guatemala City, and 
the long-planned ocean-to-occan line was a 
reality. 

Of the nearly a dozen completed and 
building lines between the Atlantic and the 
Pacific only two are shorter than the Guate- 
mala route, with its total mileage of 2693^ 
miles from Puerto Barrios to San Jose de 
Guatemala, — iqs from Barrios to Guate- 
mala City and seventy-four and one-half 
from Guatemala Cit>' to San Jose. These 
lines are the Panama road, thirty miles long, 
and the Tehuantepec Line in Mexico, 186 
miles. As a railroad proposition it has some 
advantages over both of them, and until the 




GUATEMALA'S TRANSCONTINENTAL ROUTE. 

completion of the Isth* 
mian Canal should be a 
veiy considerable factor 
in the trade between the 
Atlantic- and Pacific 
coasts of our own coun- 
try and of Central and 
South America, and, as 
well, for certain classes of 
goods between Europe 
and the Pacific Ocean. 
Its greatest influence will 
be in the development of 
Guatemala and some of 
the territory on the Pa- 
cific side of neighboring 
countries. 

Guatemala is largely 
mountainous. The Cordilleras cut the the easiest routes, of about 5000 feet in 195 
country in two, the main range reach- miles. From the Pacific the problem was to 
ing a height of 5000 to 7000 feet above carry the road up that climb in seventy-five 
the sea, while there are many peaks of miles. In either of these ascents there must, 
10,000 to 13,000 feet. On the Atlantic side of course, be some very heavy grades, but 
there is a narrow strip of low, swampy land, they are no more noticeable than on some of 
but within a few miles of the sea the foot hills the American lines crossing the Alleghenies. 
of the mountains stretch from northeast to Practically all the materia! for the building 
southwest. On the Pacific Coast lowlands and operation of this new route was pur- 
and plains extend a distance of thirty to forty chased in the United States, the contractors 
miles into the interior. Elsewhere the coun- were mostly Americans, and with hardly an 
try is all mountains, hills, plateaus, and deep exception on either the Central or the Gua- 
valleys. Guatemala City, the capital, a beau- temala the officials and operating men, in- 
tiful, attractive place of about 100,000 peo- eluding conductors and engineers, are Ameri- 
plc, is 4950 feet above the sea. It lies on a cans. 

wide plateau, surrounded by deep ravines. From Puerto Barrios to San Jose these 
It is the chief city of the country and also of two roads, which make up the through line, 
all Central America. Naturally it is the traverse a most interesting country, and for 
main point for a railroad crossing the country the greater part of the route a productive 
and opening the interior to foreign trade. one. Puerto Barrios has a deep, roomy har- 

The building of such a line was costly and bor, and the heaviest draught vessels can get 
attended by many serious engineering feats, to its dock. The place is low and at present 
From the Atlantic port there was a climb, by unhealthy. Improvements are to be made 




THE DOCK AKD HARBOR AT S 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF KEI^IEIVS. 




(ShoniQE the kind of 



which will change its appearance and make it 
healthy and attractive. The government of 
Guatemala has given a contract to the rail- 
road company to expend $2,ooo,cxx> in build- 
ing a sea wall, raising the level of the town 
and putting in sewerage and thorough drain- 
age. 

For fifty to seventy miles from Barrios 
there are frequent long stretches of banana 
plantations, and the principal traffic of this 
portion of the road will always be the hand- 
ling of this fruit. One of the United Fruit 
Company's largest plantations is on the line. 
The fruit company now grows about ipa^iO,- 
OOO bunches annually in Guatemala and has 
plans to greatly increase the production. 

Beginning a few miles from the sea the 
road follows the Motogua River and one of 
its branches nearly to Guatemala City. Most 
of the distance is a steady climb through the 
mountain country, with frequent deep ra- 
vines and valleys, past a few prosperous 
towns and plantation districts. Zacapa is the 
chief city en route and the most important 
place on the eastern side of the mountains. 

The line of the Central Railway from 
Guatemala City to San Jose traverses a 
country with many of the same character- 
istic features as that on the Caribbean side. 
The mountain region is less rough and 
rugged. From Guatemala City to Esquintla, 



an important place, the country is given up to 
sugar, coflee and stocic, and there are many 
splendid plantations. San Jose is an old 
port, but there is no protected harbor. 

There are regular lines of steamers plying 
between Puerto Karrios and New Orleans 
and Mobile, Liverpool and Hamburg, while 
the Pacific mail steamers and others regu- 
larly make San Jose, giving a Pacific service 
as far as San Francisco, on the north, and the 
coast of South America, on the south, while 
European vessels also make the voyage there 
around the Horn. The Ham burg- Ameri- 
can Line has long had regular service from 
Barrios to European ports, and, via Jamaica, 
connection with New York. TheUnitedFniit 
Company, with which the Guatemala Rail- 
road is closely allied, has improved its serv- 
ice from New Orleans by new and Ut^Ct 
steamers, and has building steamers for ■ 
New York-Puerto Barrios line. The im- 
provement of the steamship service, in coi- 
nection with the new through rail line, must 
have a very considerable effect upon the 
transcontinental business, and until the Pan- 
ama Canal is in operation the new road wilt 
furnish a splendid competitive route. Puerto 
Barrios is 800 miles nearer the United States 




rCT ON THB 



GUATEMALAS TRANSCONTINENTAL ROUTE. 208 

exports of the country. 
Only a small portion of 
the available area has 
been developed agricul- 
turally. Little has been 
done with the forests and 
the mineral resources. 
From the mountain 
streams can be developed 
a large amount of power, 
and a wide range of in- 
dustries should be success- 
fully established, where 
at present there are 
scarcely any outside of 
the sugar factories, a sin- 
gle cotton-mill, a few 
small tanneries, and the 
salt works at San Jose. 

Heretofore Guatemala 
City and the best-devel- 
oped portions of the Inte- 
rior, outside the Coban 
coffee district, reached by 
the Rio Dulce and Lake 
Izabel, have had connec- 
tion with the coast only 
on the P a c t fi c side. 
Through San Jose, Cham- 
pcrico, and Ocos have 
than Colon, and Panama is lOOO miles south come all the imports and gone all the 
of San Jose, exports of coffee from the big western dis- 

The most important results from the open- trict, and all the sugar. All the trade of 
ing of the transcontinental line will be the Guatemala City has gone by way of the Cen- 
increased American trade with Guatemala tral Road and San Jose. This has meant 
and the developments sure to be brought the trans-shipment by the Isthmus of Pana- 
about in that republic. Guatemala is the ma, after a coast voyage of icx»o miles, or the 
most populous, and in many respects the rich- long journey around the Horn for European 
est and most highly developed, of the Central and Atlantic Coast commerce. The Horn 
American countries. It has an area of about route has been used for heavy machinery 
48,300 square miles, just about that of New from Europe and other European imports 
York. No State or country of anything like where time was not a great object. There 
similar area is by nature richer or more prom- was the route via San Francisco for Ameri- 
ising. It has vast areas of fertile agricultu- can goods, but the steamers take ten days 
ral land, a splendid climate, great forest and from that port to San Jose. The result was 
mineral wealth, and is rich in scenic and his- that Enfjlish and German manufacturers had 
toric attractions. Nearly all the products of an advantage over American exporters on 
both the temperate and tropic zones grow to the Atlantic Coast and in the (julf States 
adrantafre. Wheat, com, barley and hemp for macliinen' and were on an equal footing 
flourish. Coffee of a superior quality and with us for other trade. A visit to the shops 
sugar cane are great staple crops. Fine cot- in Guatemala Cit>- sho(\ed few American 
ton is raised, and the country seems ideal for goods, except some specialties and cotton 
stock. Over one hundred fruits and vege- goods and the preserved fruits of California 
tabid are grown, including all the common and flour from Pacific Coast mills. The 
ones of our country and many tropical cdi- large amount of machinery in use on the su- 
bles we do not know. The banana is the gar and coffee plantations is practically all 
principal fmit cultivated and with coffee, English or German, and to those countries 
mahogany, and rubber makes up the principal have gone the products sold foi cxvoTt. 




GUATEMALA. 

'erses • couDtt; like tblB, 
nXDA planUitloDs.} 



204 



THE AMERICAN P.EI^/EU^ OF REyiEWS. 



With the opening of the new route via 
Barrios there will be more direct communi- 
cation witii the Gulf ports, Atlantic Coast, 
and, of course, with Europe, Nearly two 
thousand miles will be taken off the distance 
to American ports, as measured by the Pana- 
ma route, and days in time. Guatemala City 
may now he reached in four or five days 
from New Orleans and Mobile and seven 
days from New ^ ork, and the journey is 
an easy one. The new line is already getting 
some of the coffee movement from the west 
coast, and while the Pacific Isthmian route 
will not give up the traffic without a strug- 
gle it will be at a disadvantage. Already 
the competition has reduced the time to New 
York and P^urope via Panama two days. 
Puerto Barrios is the only port of the coun- 
try where a steamer is at present able to lie 
at a dock while taking or discharging cargo. 
At San Jose, in heavy weather, there is al- 
ways danger of spraying the coffee and 
other goods with salt water, while in the 
lighters, and that greatly increases the insur- 

The representative of a German house sell- 
ing sugar factory machinery said to an Amer- 
ican competitor, after the new road was com- 
pleted : " You now have a great advantage 
over us, and we recognize that we must yield 
the trade to you." As it will be in this line 
so it will be in others, if the American ex- 
porters go after the business. 

The Central American states are most 



interesting and attractive spots for the tour- 
ist and pleasure seeker, and the new railroad 
will undoubtedly make the Guatemala trip 
a popular one with this class of travelers. 
It would be hard to find a more pleasant sea 
voyage than the winter trip to the Caribbean, 
while the country has unusual charms. The 
scenic wonders and beauties furnished by the 
rivers and lakes and mountains and the pic- 
turesque villages are many. The Dulce 
River is destined to be one of the most fa- 
mous on the continent. The Caribs and the 
Indians, the latter in their native costumes, 
are extremely picturesque and interesting. 
Their ways, their villages, their wares will 
all be new and entertaining to the American 
or European traveler. The country is rich 
in prehistoric monuments. There are the 
really wonderful ruins of Antigua, with its 
cathedral, churches and palaces, destroyed in 
1773 by the volcano Agua. 

The city of Guatemala has a fine location, 
its streets are paved, it has nearly all the mod- 
ern conveniences, many fine buildings, nu- 
merous parks, and is beautiful and attractive. 
Sir William C. Van Home plans, it is said, 
to erect here at an early date a large, modern 
hotel. 

The population of the country is about 
1,500,000, — 60 per cent, Indians and most 
of the remainder natives of mixed Spanish- 
Indian blood. There are 10,000 Germans 
and other Europeans and nearly one thou- 
sand Americans. 




-'AIEMALA RAILROAD. 



THE GYROSCOPE AND HOW WE MAY MAKE 

IT USEFUL. 

BY ARTHUR GORDON WEBSTER. 

[The following description of the gyroscope and its wonderful capacities explains the mys- 
teries which have caused so much discussion. Applications of this gyroscope principle to more 
than one industrial enterprise in the near future make the articles of more than passing inter- 
est. Mr. Webster is Professor of Physics at Clark University, Worcester, Mass. — The 
Editor.] 



¥ N view of the great popular interest in 
the recent practical applications of the 
gyroscope, and the mystery which seems to 
surround the mode of action of that fascin- 
ating instrument, it will be useful to explain, 
in the simplest possible language, the me- 
chanical principles involved. Although the 
adequate explanation of the motions of the 
gyroscope, or as we may as well call it, of 
any symmetrical top, — for that is what it is, 
— demands a knowledge of the most diffi- 
cult sort of the higher mathematics, and 
has been for 120 years, and is still, a fa- 
vorite subject of attack by the most learned 
mathematicians, I will undertake this task 
as best I may. 

The properties of the gyroscope are ex- 
hibited by any rapidly revolving disk, fly- 
wheel, or well-balanced system turning 
about an axis, the essential being that this 
axis may be turned so as to point in any 
direction in space. As long as the system is 
moved with the axis pointing in the same 
direction none of the properties about to be 
described come into play. It is only when 
the direction of the axis of rotation is 
changed that an3rthing striking is observed. 
For instance, the commonest form of the 
gyroscope, which may be bought at the toy- 
shopSy and which is shown in the figure, has 
the axis mounted on pivots carried by a ring 
whidi may be held in the hand, from which 
projects a small head D, which may be sup- 
pofted on a stand. If the disk is spinning 
mpSUff instead of falling down, as it would 
do j^ not spinning, the whole apparatus be- 
gifis to turn about the support, its axis ap- 
fmnUdy nkmng.in a horizontal plane, as 
shown bjE the dotted line in the figure. This 
b xtally not a perfectly accurate description 
of vAmt haniens, but it is what nearly every- 
one sonpoie? he "stes^ when performing the ex- 
perimtat, tnd it is generally supposed to be 
" msrsterioiis ** or " paradoxical," or ^ to 
" drfy lliB law of gravity," all of which is of 
coarse hig^y absurd. That which is un- 



familiar seems mysterious, but as familiarit}' 
increases the mystery departs. There is 
really no greater mystery about the gyro- 
scope than about any other moving system. 
Let us approach it through other more famil- 
iar phenomena. No one apparently sees any- 
thing mysterious in the ordinary spinning 
top, which seldom spins with its axis erect, 
but has it tipped to a certain angle with the 




A GYROSCOPE TOP. 



vertical, about which the axis turns in a con- 
ical path. Why does it not fall, instead of 
moving horizontally, exactly as the g>TO- 
scope does? In fact, the gyroscope, as de- 
scribed, is simply a top so arranged that the 
inclination of its axis to the vertical may 
reach a right angle, which is impossible in a 
top spinning on the ground, though not if its 
point be put on a raised stand. 

THE PHYSICAL LAW INVOLVED. 

Let us begin with the simplest possible me- 
chanical phenomenon. Ever>'body knows 
that a body left to itself can do nothing but 
move in a straight line with unchanging 
speed. If we wish to hurry it, we must pull 
it ahead, and it pulls back ; if we wish to re- 
tard it, we must pull it backwards, when it 
will pull ahead, and if we wish to divert it 
from its straight course, we must pull it side- 



'206 



THE AMERICAN REl^IEU^ OF REl^/EU^S. 



wise, when it will also pull back or resist. 
This is what we mean by the inertia of a 
body, namely its apparent unwillingness to 
do what we try to make it. AH the prop- 
erties of tops are due to this familiar inertia. 
One way to make a body, say a stone, go out 
of a straight line is to fasten it to a string 
hold one end, and whirl it around, when the 
stone will describe a circle, and the pull that 
the stone exerts in bcinj; forced out of i 
straight line is plainly felt by the pull of 
the string on the hand. Everybody knows 
that we have only to release the pull on the 
stone to have the latter fly off in a straight 
line in the direction that it was going at the 
instant of letting go. This fact vias knovin 
thousands of years before David used it to 
kill Goliath, and was not considered myster 
ious. Now every boy knows that the pull of 
the hand may be replaced by the pull of an 
other stone tied to the other end of a string 
and that if the whole combination be whirled 
around and let go the two stones will revolve 
around each other, keeping the string 
stretched, since each stone has to leave its 
straight path to describe a circle, and conse- 
quently pulls back on the string. Now, in- 
' stead of two particles connected by a. string, 
let us consider a whole ring of particles solid- 
ly connected together into a rigid body like a 
hoop. If this be set into rotation in its own 
plane, that is, so that every part of it goes 
around in the same circular path forming 
the shape of the hoop, it is plain that each 
particle pulls outward from the center as 
before, hut that the pull of each outwards is 
counterbalanced by that of the one opposite, 
so that the whole hoop has no tendency to 
leave its position or change its motion. How. 
ever, if it rotates fast enough the pulls will 
be shown by the bursting of the hoop, which 
sometimes happens to great fly-wheels with 
dire results. 

THE DISTURBAN'CE CAUSED BY GRAVITY. 

In the experiment with the hoop, and in 
all such experiments where we wish to bring 
out the effect of rotation, we are much dis- 
turbed by gravity, and are obliged either to 
throw the hoop into the air, or to find some 
other means of getting rid of the effect of its 
weight. Let us try to find such a means. 
If we fasten two wires as diameters of the 
hoop at right angles to each other, and where 
they cross fasten a string from which the 
whole is suspended, the hoop may turn about 
freely, and there will be no difficulty in mat- 
ing it turn in its own plane, whether that is 




horizontal or not. This point of intersec- 
tion is the center of gravity of the hoop. 
Every body has such a center of gravity. Let 
us now suspend a top on its center of gravity, 
so that it may spin about it as a fixed point. 
This may be done by making the top bell- 
shaped, as in Fig. i, 
and making the 
point on which it 
spins come exactly 
at the center of 
gravity of the whole 
top. This will be 
the case when the 
top 'will, when not 
spinning, jest indif- 
ferently in any posi- 
tion without oscil- 
lating. If the top 
is now spun, while 
the axis is held 
fixed, by support- 
ing its upper end 
with the finger, it 
^"^' ■■ will continue to 

spin quietly about 
this axis, so that, if the top is accurately made, 
from a little distance its motion cannot be 
distinguished. 

The reason for this is of course perfectly 
plain. Each particle of the top describes a cir- 
cle, and finds its pull counterbalanced by 
that of a particle lying opposite, as before. 
In fact, we may think of the top as cut up 
into rings, each of which has its center lying 
on the axis of the top, and whose motion is 
precisely like that of the single ring previous- 
ly considered. Thus we may make the state- 
ment that a top freed from the action of its 
weight by being supported at its center of 
gravity will spin about its axis, which will 
maintain its direction in space unchanged. 
This fact is still perfectly familiar. Yet not 
all of its consequences are familiar, for if a 
top can be kept spinning for some time, so 
that the earth has turned about on its axis, 
if the axis of the top still points in the same 
direction in space it will have moved relative- 
ly to the earth. In fact, if it points to some 
star it will continue pointing to it as to seems 
to move in the heavens. Thus WC have a 
demonstration of the rotation of the earth. 
This experiment was actually carried out lo 
1852 by the French physicist, Foucautt, and 
forms a most convincing and startling exper- 
iment. Foucault's mounting of the top was 
not that described above and shown in Fig. 
I, but another mode of accomplishing iSe 



THE GYROSCOPE AND HOJV WE MAY MAKE IT USEFUL. 



Wfl 




object of freeing the rotating body from the 
action of gravity. A flywheel, F, Fig. 2, 
has its axis run in pivots set in a ring, A, 
which can itself turn on pivots in a line at 
ri^t angles to the first set in an outer ring, 

B, which can turn 
about a third axis, 

C, at right angles to 
the other two. Thus 
the axis of the top, 
or flywheel can take 
any direction in 
space, and all the 
time the center of 
gravity of the top is 
a fixed point. The 
top can spin as be- 
fore quite free from 
the action of grav- 
ity, and if it is care- 
fully enough made 
the motion of its 
axis can be perceived 
in a few minutes, at 
any rate if a micro- 
scope is used, as it 
was by Foucault. 
But with an ordin- 
ary apparatus, the 
axis of the top seems 
to stand quite still. 

A practical application of this property 
is made use of in the Whitehead tor- 
pedo, which when discharged from a 
torpedo-boat must be steered against the 
enemy, and carries, instead of a human steers- 
man, a small gyroscope, mounted in rings 
as described. When the torpedo is discharged 
the axis of the flywheel points at the enemy. 
If now the torpedo strikes any obstruction 
and is turned off its course the axis of the 
g)roscopc, true to its nature, keeps pointing 
In the same direction, and thus the outside 
ring turns relatively to the hull of the tor- 
pedo, and moves a little lever which controls 
the steering engine, moving the rudder, and 
thus bringing the torpedo hack on its course. 
It is this pyi"oscopic gear, invented by the 
Austrian Lieutenant Obry, that has made the 
torpedo the instrument of precision capable 
of doing the damage done by the Japanese to 
the Russian ships. 

STARTUNC PROPERTY OF THE GYROSCOPE. 

We come now to the unfamiliar property ''°' ^' 

of the gyroscope. If, with the top of Fig. i scope to prevent the rolling of ships. Dr. 

spinning quietly about its axis, we appiy a Oskar Schlick of Hamburg has placed a 

force tending to change the direction of the large gyroscope made as a steam tMt^\tvc'«v^ 



axis, say by pulling on the string, P, we find 
that the axis resists the pull, and that in- 
stead of moving in the direction in which 
we pull, it moves off in a direction at right 
angles, M, This is the startling property 
of the gyroscope, and if we understand this 
we understand every pljenomenon connected 
with this supposedly mysterious apparatus. 
We may then explain this property by say- 
ing that if any force is exerted on a sym- 
metrical top tending to change the direction 
of its axis, the axis will not move in the di- 
rection of that force, but will tend to move 
at right angles thereto, to the right if the top 
spins as in the figure, to the left if in the re- 
verse direction. We now see why the gyro- 
scope as shown in the picture does not fall — 
its weight tends to make it do so, so by the 
property of the gyroscope it does not, but 
moves off sidewise. When it begins to move 
horizontally the gyroscopic effect tends to 
make it move again at right angles, that is 
upwards, so that it does not fall. In fact, 
if we could examine it carefully we should 
find that it does not move in a horizontal 
plane as approximately described above, but 
rises and falls periodically, describing a curve 
with loops or points, as in Fig, 3, which is 
from a photograph made by the writer by 
putting a small electric light on the axis of a 
gyroscope and exposing it to a camera. When 
the top spins fast the rise and fall is too sli^t 
and too rapid to be seen. It is visible only to 
the sensitive plate. 

APPLICATION TO THE MONO-RAILROADS. 

We can now easily understand one of the 
recent interesting applications of the gyro- 



.XJIJI 






THE AMERICAN liEyiE]V OF REVIEWS. 



its axis vertical, and the axis of the first ring 
horizontal and across the ship. If the ship 
rolls, say to the right, it is as if we pulled 
the string above to the right. The axis of 
the gyroscope then resists, but instead of 
moving to the right tips toward the bow or 
stern. It is easy to see that if allowed to tip 
over horizontal the resisting power would be 




FIQ. 4. 

lost; in fact, we may state the property of 
the gyroscope by saying that if we attempt to 
rotate it about a certain direction as an axis, 
as here the horizontal direction of the keel 
of the ship, it Vfill turn until it sets the gyro- 
scope axis as nearly as possible parallel to 
the given direction. This explains how a 
gjTOScnpe carried by the earth tends to jet 
its axis parallel to the earth's axis, and if its 
own axis is confined so as to move in a hori- 
zontal plane, it tends to point north and 
south, constituting a mechanical compass. 
The experiment may be made of holding the 
gjToscope, Fig. 2, in the hands, and turning 
quickly about on a vertical axis, when the 
gyroscope will set its axis vertical. 

THE BREN'XAM RAILROAD. 

One of the most interesting applications 
of the gyroscopic principle is seen in the top 
shown in Fig. 4, which, like the one above 
described, is balanced on its center of grav- 
ity, and can thus spin with its axis immova- 
ble. If, however, it is brought into contact 
with the wire guide shown, the top rolls 
rapidly along the wire, and even when it 
comes to the end of the wire does not let go 
and fly off, as we should expect, but clings 
to the wire and rolls around the end as if 
held by magnetism. The reason is plain. 
The rolling makes the axis run along the 
wire, the gyroscopic effect makes it push at 
right angles thereto, and the faster it rolls 



the more it pushes, so that it must stick 
tightly to the wite. This is the principle 
used by Mr. Brennan in his curious mono- 
rail railway, which has lately taken the pub- 
lic by storm. The problem of balancing a 
car on a single rail, though similar to 
Schlick's problem, is not to be solved so sim- 
ply. Brennan puts his gyroscope axis hori-' 
zontally across the car. If, now, one gyro- 
scope is used every time the car comes to a 
curve the gyroscope will tip it over. Conse- 
quently two are used, revolving indejjend- 
entty and in opposite directions. Now, at- 
tached to each side of the car is a horizontal 
shelf parallel to the rail. If the car tips to 
the left, the shelf on the right comes up 
against the horizontal axis of the right-hand 
giToscope, which immediately begins to roll 
on it, as in the top, arid thus presses hard 
against it, preventing tHe car from tipping 
any more. By simple gearing, the two gyro- 
scopes are made to turn together in opposite 
directions about their vertical axes, so that 
they help each other in counteracting the tip- 
ping, though they counteract each other 
when going around a curve. 

WHY THE " PULL TO ONE SIDE "? 

I have heretofore contented myself with a 
description of the phenomenon of the gyro- 
scope, working up from the more to the less 




familiar. It remains to answer the ques- 
tion, " Why does the gyroscope exhibit the 
pig-like characteristic of always pulling off 
to the side instead of following in the direc- 
tion it is ui^d ? " As the writer has been 
asked the explanation of this many times 



SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE GYROSCOPE. 209 

since, as a boy, he vainly attempted to con- erly velocity by being hefd back, it pushes to 

trovert the statement of a showman at a the east, as shown by the arrow. The farther 

mechanics* fair that " Nobody can explain north it gets the more its easterly velocity is 

this marvelous instrument," he will now un- destroyed, and the harder it pushes, as shown 

dertake to give one, having left it to the end by the longer arrows. The points below the 

in order that the tired reader may skip it if he equator, on the contrary, like R, gain easterly 

chooses. motion as they come up, and hence push 

For simplicity of description let us suppose back to the left. Thus the upper half of the 

the axis of the gyroscope to lie horizontally in sphere experiences a push to the right, the 

the equator of a terrestrial globe, Fig. 5, the lower to the left, so that the left-hand end 

flv'wheel turning from south to north on the of the axis of the wheel tends to tip up as a 

side toward us, from north to south on the consequence of its horizontal motion. But 

back side. The globe is turning from west this is exactly the phenomenon to be ex- 

to cast, as the arrows indicate. Then a point plained. It is easy to see that the parts of 

on the wheel like P, when on the equator, the wheel at the back of the figure exert the 

besides moving upwards with the rotation, same effect as those in front. Thus all the 

IS moving eastward with the greatest velocity phenomena of the gyroscope are referred to 

of any points on the earth.- When it gets the familiar phenomenon that a body tends 

farther north, as at Q, it is not moving tow- to move in a straight line with a uniform 

ard the ea<5t so fast (at the pole not at all), velocity, as stated more than two hundred 

and, therefore, having lost some of its east- years ago by Sir Isaac Newton. 



SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE GYROSCOPE. * 

BY J. F. SPRINGER. 

" I ^HE properties of the scientific toy knowkj success of his invention upon a small scale, 

as the gyroscope promise to eflEect some This car maintains its balance upon an irreg- 

wonderful results in the practical world, ular piece of gas-pipe, or upon a stretched 

Thus, the future of railroad transportation cable. It descends grades, mounts inclines, 

may disclose some such outcome as the sight rounds curves with ease and certainty, — all 

of a train of incredibly large palace cars with but one row of wheels upon one rail, 

swinging along at a terrific rate of speed Equilibrium is maintained whether the car 

around curves and over straightway stretches is at rest or has a forward motion. The bal- 

with the evenness of balance of a great bird, ancing apparatus weighs about 5 per cent. 

— the whole on-rushing mass being poised of the whole. A large car is now under con- 

upon one single shining rail. struction with assistance supplied by the 

If this be a dream, it has at least some Government, 
considerable foundation. It will readily be 
admitted that the crux of the whole matter 
is the maintenance of equilibrium upon a sin- Mr. Brennan anticipates that it will be 
gle rail. This difficulty, it would seem, has feasible to operate cars of the breadth of 30 
been successfully met by a British engineer, feet. This would much more than realize 
Mr. Louis Brennan, in his application of the the dream of Mr. E. H. Harriman, who pro- 
gyroscope to railway service, Mr. Brennan poses the adoption upon the present-day 
mounts upon horizontal transverse axles two stj'le of railways of a track with a compara- 
g>Toscopcs revolving in opposite directions at tively moderate increase of space between 
a high rate of speed. They are enclosed in rails. 

casings from which the air has been practi- Mr. Brennan's proposition would appear 

cally exhausted. The whole arrangement is to be a practical engineering possibility, while 

secured to the car. By means of numerous Mr. Harrlman*s would not. And for the 

experiments and tests with a large sized following reasons: It is, at present, a practi- 

model, having a single row of wheels run- cal necessity to group wheels together in sj'S- 

ning upon a single rail, Mr. Brennan would tems containing not less than four wheels 

appear to have completely demonstrated the whose relative positions are unalterably fixed. 



THE WHEEL AND RAIL PROBLEM. 



210 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

If a truck has a less number, it can scarcely is a catastrophe paralleled somewhat by 

be relied on to remain on the track. This breaks in our car wheels, axles,- &c. The 

requirement of a unit of four relatively fixed increased safety, arising from want of sig- 

wheels would not operate as a prohibition of nificance of slight imperfections of track, 

the widening of the inter-rail space of our would perhaps more than compensate for 

two-rail tracks, if there were no curves to this. 

round. When our present truck swings As to the general proposition of locomotion 
round a curve, the outer wheels have a on one rail, — it would not seem to be in- 
greater distance to cover than the inner ones, trinsically more preposterous to maintain the 
This difficulty could probably be met by some equilibrium of a car mounted on wheek ar- 
arrangement where the outer or inner wheels ranged in tandem than for the bicycle rider 
were rotatable on their axles. But this is to balance his wheel. At any rate, experi- 
not the great and apparently insuperable dif- ments already tried would seem to give as- 
ficulty. That consists in the fact that the surance of success. No doubt various difficult 
curve requires that the two axles of the ties may be expected to arise in connection 
truck should now be no longer parallel but with the application to cars of excessive dse 
should converge towards the center of cur- and weight. But, it may be asked, just how 
vature. With our necessarily parallel axles is the maintenance of equilibrium secured? 
this cannot be done. And further, the great- How do the wheels, rotating in a vacuum, 
er the inter-rail space, the more pronounced negative as it were the disturbing e£Fects of 
must be the departure from parallelism, gravitation? In order to understand this 
Consequently, the broader the tread of our matter, even to a limited extent, it will be 
trains the greater the friction at curves. Mr. necessary to know some of the properties of 
Brennan meets this difficulty and solves it at that wonderful scientific toy, — the gyno- 
onfe stroke by reducing the tread to approxi- scope top. 

mateiy notnmg. experimenting with the gyroscope top. 

DOESGREAT WEIGHT DESTROY THE BALANCE? A • i k -. • ^kl ^ ^ ^ W^ 

A simple but serviceable gyroscope may be 
Many no doubt will say that perhaps an bought for 25 cents, and with this instrument 
experimental car weighing 175 pounds may certain startling phenomena may be observed, 
be entirely successful and yet cars of stand- The essential elements are a heavy rotatable 
ard size prove failures. This was expressed disk and a frame in which the spindle 
editorially in the Scientific American and of the disk is journaled. (Note illustration, 
has no doubt occurred to many. Of course page 205.) Now suppose that the disk has 
this matter must come to an actual test. In been set in rapid rotation by the use of a 
the meantime, however, Mr. Brennan has string, as with an ordinary top. Holding 
dealt with the question of increased dimen- the frame in the hands and moving the whole 
sions in a recent number of the Engineer about, we shall notice nothing very peculiar 
(London), and arrives at the conclusion that as long as we are careful not to change the 
if the linear dimensions be increased two and general direction of the spindle. If, however, 
one-half times, the ratio of the weight of the we make an attempt suddenly to change this 
gjToscope wheels to that of the car w-ill not direction, there will be experienced a very 
only not be increased but will actually be de- singular resistance on the part of the gyro- 
creased. In fact, he finds that the gjToscope scope. There is, no doubt, a certain amount 
percentage will be one-half the present rate, of resistance to movement in any direction, 
Another great difficulty in present-day road but that accompanying an angular displace- 
construction is to lay the two rails so that ment of the spindle is surprising on account 
they shall accurately correspond in level and of its peculiar character. With the disk 
should remain so. With Mr. Brennan's rotating rapidly, let the projection D b<j $up- 
SA'Stem there will be no matching one rail ported on a suitable standard with the spin- 
with the other. die in a horizontal position. Remove the 
The question that will arise in many minds support of the hand, and, contrary to expec- 
is. What will happen if the power fails which tation, the g>Toscope will not fall. On the 
maintains the g\Toscopes in rotation? Noth- contrary', it will begin a circular movement 
ing will happen. At least not for a while, around the point of support in the direction 
The>' will maintain sufficient speed to pre- of the motion of the lower part of the disk, 
serve equilibrium for several hours. But if as shown in the picture. In considering the 
the gyroscopes fail through some break? This matter, let it be observed that, aside from 



SOME APPLICATION?, OF THE ^YROSCOPE. 




any rotating motions, the whole apparatus 
is subject to the action of gravitation. That 
is, there is a downward motion nf the disk as 
a whole in the direction of the normal" EF, 
page 205 ) . This in combination with the ro- 
tation gives rise to a motion at right angles 
to this normal and following the direction 
given by the lowest point E, — that is, by the 
side next the gravitational influence. 

By extending the projection D beyond the 
point of support and weighting it sufficiently 
to cause the gyroscope (when quiescent) to 
ascend instead of descend, it will be observed 
that the resulting circular movement of the 
whole will be similar to that obtained before, 
but in precisely the opposite direction. It 
observes the rule, however, just pointed out 
inasmuch as the direction of the motion of the 
disit at the origin of the normal that gives 
the line of attempted movement is the re- 
verse of what it was before — the normal 
now being abot-e instead or below. This mo- 
tion of a rotating body about a new axis in 
consequen ce of an attempted an gular dis- 

■ • A Dormal In a line n<'rn •'■"I I ciilar In n tanKr^nt at 

niTl'^rDcldc* In dirWdon wllii tho radius drawn to 
the polbt. See IHnstTBtlon, " Of roscope top, on 
p«ia30S. 



placement of its main axis is denoted by the 
technical name precession. 



A writer in Popular Astronomy has called 
attention to those whirling storms which 
sweep over the surface of the globe and has 
cited them as examples of gyroscope action. 
Thus, suppose an immense cyclonic move- 
ment of the atmosphere to have been set up in 
the loner latitudes. We have here a rota- 
ting body precisely similar to our artificial 
gj'roscopic disk. The axis of rotation of such 
a rotating mass of air passes through the cen- 
ter of the earth. But the earth itself has a 
rotational movement carrying the whole 
n'clone with it. This has the effect of giving, 
^-or attempting to give, — an angular move- 
ment to the axis nf the cyclone. Now such 
storms in the northern hemisphere usu.illy ro- 
tate counter-clockwise. And the rotational 
motion nf the earth is from west to east. 
We have thus an atmospheric gj-roscope ro- 
tating counter-chick wise and the earth dis- 
placing the gyroscopic axis from west to east. 
To determine the precessional movement, we 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REI^IElVS. 




construct our normal, then, at the extreme 
eastern side of the cyclone. The wind at 
this point is moving north. Consequently, 
the whole whirling mass of air is carried 
northwards, similarlj' to the p recessional 
movement of the rotating disk in a horizontal 
direction in conformity to the direction given 
by its lower part, in consequence of the at- 
tempted motion under the influence of gravi- 
tation (Fig. l). The Galveston hurricane, 
it would seem, was such an atmospheric 
gyroscope-. Following the destruction of 
(jalveston, it proceeded north, leaving the 
continent by the St. Lawrence Valley and 
exercising its destructive influence in a region 
as far north as Iceland. Another case cited 
by the same writer is a storm whose course 
was traced by a member of the British me- 
teorological service. This pj'roscope pro- 
ceeded from the Philippines in a northerly 
direction to Japan, then across the Pacific, 
North America, the North Atlantic, Europe 
and into the wilds of Asiatic Russia. 



To turn aside from nature, attention is 
called to the fact that Dr. H. Anschutz- 
Ki-mpfe has .tuccessfully applied the gyro- 
scope to the purpose of correcting tlic de- 
fects of the old magnetic compass. Con- 
sider for a moment the disturbing factors 
which tend to render the ordinary compass 
an imperfect instrument. In the first place, 
it is suspended in such a sensitive manner, 
(with the purpose of rendering it responsive 
to the feeble influence of the magnetic cur- 
rents), that it is subject to disturbances aris- 
ing out of the rolling and pitching of the 
ship, the vibration of the hull, the move- 
ment of large masses of iron or Steel on 
ship-board, and magnetic storms. At titnes 
it thus becomes very unreliable. The ob- 
ject which the Anschiitz compass seeks to 
attain is to determine the true direction when 
conditions are favorable for the purely mag- 
netic compass and then by means of the gyro- 
scope to maintain this correctness througji 
the periods of disturbance. The binnacle is 
fixed to the ship. In this, by means of gim- 
balls the bowl or cup is suspended. In the 
bowl, arranged on a vertical axis, is the cmn- 
pass system. The gyroscope rotates on a 
horizontal axle capable of assuming any di- 
rection. The function of the gyroscope is, as 
already intimated, to maintain the direction 
after it has once been fixed. The later 
model of this invention is fitted with an elec- 
tro-magnetic device from which the current 
may be cut off after the direction is ascer- 
tained magnetically. The rotating disV or 
disks then operate as a gyroscope pure and 
simple, uncomplicated by magnetic currents. 
The rotational speed is about 3000 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

There have been very exhaustive tests of 
this p>-roscopic compass by authority of the 
Imperial German navy department on board 
the war-ship Vndinr. which have yielded 
very satisfactory results, 

THE GYROSCOPE ON SHIPBOARD. 

About the middle of the last century, Prof. 
Piazzi Smyth developed a successful method 
of controlling a platform on board ship. Dr. 
Otto Schlick has, however, during the past 
few years, been perfecting an invention which 
applies the gyroscope to the management of 
the entire vessel. The object it seeks. — and 
it would seem, attalns,^ — is to eliminate that 
lateral movement of a ship's hull known as 
rolling. This is a most disagreeable motion, 
and constitutes the most unpleasant feature 
in sea travel. With this eliminated and vi- 



SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE GYROSCOPE. 




THE SCHUCK GYROSTAT i: 



THE SEEBAER, 



bration controlled, transportation by water 
wil! not differ markedly from that on land. 
The new invention is getting well past the 
experimental stage. For the HamburK- 
Amcrican Company are said to have ordered 
a g>roscope equipment at a cost of £7500 
for the Sylvania, which sails the North Sea. 
There have been extensive and searching 
trials of the device with the Seebaer, formerly 
a first-class German torpedo-boat. This 
vessel is 116 feet in length by 11.7 feet In 
be.im, and displaces fifty odd tons. In iqo6 
trials were made in German waters with 
great success. More recently, that is in last 
Noveirber, other trials "ere conducted with 
the same vessel, especially for the British 
firm which has acquired the Schliclc patents 
for countries other than Germany. It may 
be added in this connection that Sir William 
H. White, formerly Chief Constructor of the 
British Navy, who has had opportunity for 
personal obsen-ati'on and is acquainted with 
the device in a detailed way, has been lend- 
ing the weight of his approbation to this 
method of controlling the roll of ships, ad- 
vising, however, that the process of introduc- 
tion should proceed carefully, beginning with 
smalln- vessels. There are no doubt problems 



to be worked out, and possibly dan- 
gers to be avoided. It was thought 
by some that with the deck held 
horizontal there would be increased 
danger of shipping seas. Sir Will- 
iam White did not entertain this 
opinion even from the first. And 
experience has tended to confirm 
his judgment. 

The Schlick gj-roscope is mount- 
ed on a spindle or shaft, which is 
vertical when in normal position. 
The spindle does not work in boxes 
which have fixed positions in the 
vessel. On the contrary, — the 
whole Is encased in an iron com- 
partment having two trunnions 
which project to right and left as 
one faces the bow of the ship. 
These work in boxes secured to the 
vessel. They are somewhat above 
the center of gravity of the iron 
casing and the enclosed gjToscope. 
In consequence of these arrange- 
ments, the disk of the gyroscope is 
normally horizontal and the spin- 
dle vertical, but the latter is free to 
incline fore or aft. The disk Is 
rotated as a turbine by steam ad- 
mitted and exhausted through the 
trunnions and which operates against blades 
on the periphery. Braking arrangements arc 
used to control the oscillations of the iron 
casing. 

Now. when the vessel tends to roll on one 
side this sets up a precessional movement of 
the spindle in a fore and aft direction. Just 
as in Fig. p, where the action of gravitation 
corresponds to the impulse to roll, the fall 
downward did not take place, but was 
coalesced as It were into the horizontal move- 
ment, so here the roll does not take place 
but the pitching fore or aft of the spindle 
does. This pitching is controlled by the 
brakes, in connection with which the energy 
of the roll is converted Into heat. 

The principles of the gyroscope are truly 
wonderful in their character. Some of these 
promise far-reaching and striking results in 
the world of practical mechanics. Certain 
of these applications may appear startling in 
their results. But that In itself is not suffi- 
cient reason to regard them as necessarily im- 
possible. Let us view tlie future of the gjTO- 
scope in its engineering applications. — not 
with careless credulity and an unreasoning ac- 
ceptance of any and all marvels, but, — with 
a mind at once open and critical. 



THE AUTHOR OF ''UNCLE REMUS/* 

JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS did not v\ere mightily interested in finding that 

look like a literary man, did not talk or the same stories were being told on 

act like one, And, for that matter, always the plantations of Georgia that amused 

refused to consider himself as one. But the small coolies in the rice fields 

" Uncle Remus " has heen translated into of India. While the learned people 

twenty-seven languages, and it would not he were s:) profoundly impressed by " Uncle 

easy to name any American author who will Remus," it does not appear that he was much 

be surer of his readers' hearts a hundred impressed by them, save for the appeal to his 

years hence. shrewd sense of humor. His was the most 

Mr. Harris was a Georgia newspaper man, charming disposition to take fright when 
a very quiet, shy person of homely tastes in asked to take himself seriously, 
everything save reading, an author who was But though Mr. Harris considered " Un- 
ohscured by immediate panic when a strange cle Remus " an accident and himself a fifth- 
admirer worshiped before him. He was, rate literary man, one does not need to read 
however, the truest and most unaffected further than the immortal adventure of the 
friend in his own little circle, — a man who Tar Baby to feel that there is more in the 
could enjoy taking the reins of the street-car matter than chance and the ordinary abili- 
horse that plodded toward his office while ties of country journalism. The best key 
the driver ate his dinner inside, as much as he to the accident is to be found in the habits 
could suffer when a strange interviewer in- and recreation '^^ young Joel in those years 
vaded his sanctum, bent on exploiting him. during the great war, when most of his day 

He always felt that the '* Uncle Remus " was taken up with setting type, carrying 

stories were a sort of accident in which he ** forms,'* collecting bills, soliciting advcrtis- 

bore a comparatively unimportant part. The ing, and otherwise making himself useful on 

stories appeared first in the Atlanta Consti- Colonel Turner's little newspaper, The 

tution in the 'yo's. Harris had at the age Countryman, The >^ungster had a way of 

of twelve entered a county newspaper office going straight to the best reading for young- 

as printer's devil. He had gone through the sters in Colonel Turner's very reasonably 

multifarious " grind " of a provincial news- well appointed library, where he devoured 

paper man in Savannah, Macon, and else- Scott, Dickens, Hugo, Goethe, and Gold- 

where, when in 1876 Colonel Howell smith. This enables us better to understand 

brought him to the Atlanta Constitution as the kindly philosophy, that shrewd humor, 

editorial writer and capable journalistic man- with something of the universality of appeal 

of-all-work. Soon after this " Si " Small, of an Aesop or a La Fontaine, that make 

who had been doing dialect sketching for the Uncle Remus, Bre'r Fox, and Bre'r Rabbit 

Constitution, resigned, and Colonel Howell, irresistible and inimitable. The cotton plan- 

with some difficulty, persuaded Harris to step tation, the negroes, the folklore stories 

into the breach and keep the readers amused, common in their essentials to those of 

The only thing the young editor could Europe, Asia, and Africa, these made the 

think of was to write down the old planta- opportunity for Harris. In the meantime he 

tion stories he had heard in the negro cabins had by companionship with the great hearts 

while, after the fashion of Southern boys, he and minds of men of letters and by diligent 

had loafed with the darkies in front of the application to his craft made himself ready 

big open fireplace, with hoecake browning to take the opportunity so naturally and eas- 

and bacon sizzling. So he ransacked his ily that he literally knew not what was being 

memory for the most characteristic of these done when he gave a new character to the 

darky stories, printed them in the Constitu- story-tellers of the ages. 
tion, and became famous. Joel Chandler Harris produced many 

This last result surprised him not a little, works besides the " Uncle Remus" series. 

When he began to get letters from all over sufficient in quality to have given him a re- 

the world from " fellows of this and pro- spectable reputation if the masterpiece had 

fessors of that, to say nothinir of doctors of not given him a great reputation. Most of 

the other," he became aware for the first time them were volumes of short stories of 

that he had invaded the preserves of learned Georgia life, in the same family with 

philologists and students of folklore, who Thompson's "Courtship of Colonel Jones" 




" UNCLE BEML 

(Born December 8. 1K4! 

and Richard Malcolm Johnston's charming 
Georgia sketches; one was a novel, " Gabriel 
ToUIver," and two were historical, — a life 
of Henri- W. Grady, founder of the Atlanta 
Constitution, and a history of Georgia, 

After a quarter-century of quiet, steady 
editorial work on the Constitution. Mr. Har- 
ris retired from his desk in igoo- ""J ^or 
the next few years applied himself to his 
literary labors. He had married in 1873 and 
had six children. The enormous success of 
" Uncle Remus " in Europe as well as Amer- 
ica brought him material comfort for his 



s " IN igo8. 

1. rH«l July 3, 1008.) 

large family. During the past two years he 
had thrown all his energies into a new South- 
ern monthly, the Vnch Remus Magazine. 
conducted by himself and his son Julian. 

As a modest, large-hearted man who pur- 
sued his quiet way with whole-souled devo- 
tion to the work before him, Mr. Harris will 
be affectionately remembered by every one 
who was fortunate enough to be his friend. 
As the author of " Uncle Remus " he will 
undoubtedly hold an affection not less deep 
and true fr<im many generatiot;s who come 
after those who knew him in this life. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER PROBLEM. 



THE real heart and soul of the prosperity 'he Mississippi Valley. Railways will be rela- 

of the United States is undoubtedly tively less able to cope with the rapidly growing 

, .^. . . ... r.. ,^r c 1 demands for transportation facilities in the 

the Mississippi basin. 1 wo-iifti s (A the future. ... It cannot be denied that the 

country Is 'within this area. The center improvement of our greatest inland waterways 

of the cotton belt lies in Mississippi, Louis- >^ould be followed by vastly more important 

1 T^^ T-i • ^- „i ^,,^„ koi* ;- industrial advantages than can ever result from 

lana and Texas The principal corn-be t i^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^» p^„^^^ ^^^^1 ^^^^^ ^^_ 

in the Upper Mississippi and Uhio valleys, vantages would be not to the people of the 

More than half the population of the coun- Mississippi Valley alone, but to the people of 

try is In the States bordering on the naviga- every county and corner of the Union through 

1 1 ' r ^u \i\..'.^'JZ: ^„c«.o,v, Pr.,r ^"C>r dependence on the products of this region, 

ble portions or the Mississippi system. V^ov- *- f © 

ered as this region is with the thickest net- The project is, however, fraught vi^ith im- 

work of railways, transportation facilities are mense difficulties. 

altogether inadequate; corn and cotton are Like all big rivers, the Mississippi and its 

excluded froni the markets by reason of in- tributaries have bad habits, the worst of which 

creased railway rates; ''Shortage of Cars" are devastating floods, followed by very low 

r .1. u 11. • 4.u«° «..,„«,.^.c.. Stages of water at other times; rapid changes 

IS a familiar headline m the neuspapers, -^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^j^ ^^^ sapping of banks; 

and the farmers, with record crops, are nat- and constant shiiting of the channel, often over 
urally disheartened. Conditions have stead- night, on account of the formation of sand- 
fly gone from bad to worse, until the ha- !>»r^- • • • J^^ sand-bar evil in the Missouri 

•^ J J ^u * ^i • 1 ^1 *.• IS so great and so perplexmg that it completely 

rassed producers see that their only salvation overshadows the question of flood control and 

lies in a co-ordination of rail and water facil- sapping of banks. 

ities, writes Dr Walter Sheldon In the p^^^ c^j^^ ^^ ^j^^ q^jj j^ ^^^^ (^ 

Popular Science Monthly for Jul^ ^ji^g^ but, owing to the tortuous course 

A deep waterway from the Lakes to the ^.j^ich the river has developed, the distance 
Gulf has been talked about, written about, ^y water is twice as long, and on every one 
and dreamed about for half a century; but ^f ^^e bends throughout the I200 miles the 
it was not until about a year ago that con- ^^^^^ ^ank of the channel is being constantlv 
certed action w^as taken. As the result of a undermined and worn away. Every landing 
conference at St. Louis, the Lakes to the ^as been driven back by the river at the rate 
Gulf Deep Waterways Association was ^f ^^ ^^ ^^^ f^^^ ^ ^^^^ f^^. ^^e last twenty- 
formed, having for its object a ship canal, ^^^ years 

Vr rather^channel, throuj^h the Mississippi Kaskaskia, the former capital of Illinois, 

Valley. 1 he project was supported by the ^^ ^een wiped out of existence by the chang- 

Rivers and Harbors Conjrress at Washing- j^g currtnt of the Mississippi, " while the 

ton last winter; the President indorsed the p^spect of a cut-off at Cowpcn Bend, above 

scheme in his Memphis address; his annual Natchez, indicates that the harbor of that 

message, shortly afterxvard, referred to the ^i^^ ,,.;,, ^e destroyed by the deposition of 

need for river improx^ment; and now the i^^^ge quantities of sand along the entire 

question is in the hands of Congress. 1 his ^ater front " 

waterway will be of such immense Impor- Half a d^n floods have entailed losses in 

tance to the economic proj^ress of the country ^he last quarter of a century aggregating a 

that It must be reckoned second to none m ^^^rter of a billion dollars, " while the sum 

the list of our great national policies. ^^^^i f^on, all ^^^^ ^xzs equaled many times 

The proposal is for a waterway with a over the entire cost of the most effective and 

depth of fourteen feet from New Orleans to permanent means of protection." 

Chicago, with channels of less depth in the xhese perplexing problems have to be 

Ohio and Missouri. j^olved before the Government can afford to 

It is an enterpri.o which the United States ?^P^"^ «"^ ^'^ ^\7, hundred millions in river 

must inevital)ly undertake sooner or later, as improvement. Water fronts and terminal 

the density of population increases tliroughout facilities must he Insured a reasonable degree 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



ai permanency; disastrous floods must be 
checked; and the formation of sand-bars 
must be stopped. For a number of years the 
federal Government has been building 
levees to prevent or to control floods; and it 
is estimated that it has spent on the work 
$225,000,000, not one cent of which has 
feone toward permanent improvement. But, 
while the levee system is fairly effective in 
the case of ordinary floods, its desirability' is 
impaired by the fact that the levees must be 
constantly repaired. Dr. Tower considers 
the cheapest and most certain remedy to 
lie in the construction of a series of reser- 
voirs in the headwaters of the chief tribu- 
taries. In these reservoirs the excessive 
water which produces flood-stages might be 
impounded. 

.A.S soon as the irresistible rush of flood- 
waters is stopped, the sapping and caving cf 
banks will be reduced to a minimum. . . . 
The prevention of the artnual flood damagi' in 
the Ohio would in itself be worth thi- i-ntirc 



cii-t of tlif rcservoiri!. . . . Cutting down 
tht liooil viitunii-'' mvans a marki'd alleviation 
of the sau<l-liar evil. 

Dr. Tower, assuming the feasibility of 
such reservoirs, meets the question of the ex- 
pense of their am^tructirm with the asser- 
tion that their total cost would be less than 
the sum which has already been spent on the 
Mississippi sv-stetn. He points out that there 
would be an enormous development of 
water-power from each reservoir, which 
could be used for industrial purposes. On 
a very conservative estimate, " a purely nom- 
inal rental would be ample enough to repay 
in two or three decades the entire original 
expense of the system, besides a good income 
on the investment." 

The average life of a levee is not more 
than twenty years; the reservoirs would be 
permanent. " Considered solely on their 
own merits, the present system has nothing, 
the reservoir plan has everything, to recom- 
mend It." 



THE NEED OF A N.'VTIONA:, HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 



' I 'HIS is the burden of a remarkably in- 
structive paper by Samuel Hopkins 
Adams in AtcClure's Magazine for July, in 
which he presents certain plain, unvarnished 
facts concerning our health boards, which 
ccmpel the attention of every right-minded 
citizen. It may not be generally known that 
cur only federal guardianship of the public 
health is vested in the United States Public 
Health and Marine Hospital Service, which 
is placed in the Treasury Department. " It 
is • " " a highly trained and efficient 
body of hygienists and medical men * " 
" Any germ-beleaguered city may call upnn 
this service for aid. It is a sort of flying 
squadron of sanitative defense.'' 

This writer holds that of the State boards 
only a fourth are to be regarded as actively 
efficient: the rest "are honorar)- and orna- 
mental." In some instances, however, the 
boards lack any appropriation upon which to 
work. On the other hand, the medical poli- 
tician blocks the road to reform. 

It was in South Carolina thai ,1 modical pnli- 



appeal for certain sanitary rcfni 
do you want of laws tn prcvi-n 
sick? Ain't that the way ym 



City, with Pr. Thomas Darlington at il 
head, is "' the most thoroughly organized i 

the United States," 



lis : " What 
folks being 



Of the city bureaus, that of Ne\ 




218 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

A serious hindrance to the successful op- Not infrequently the municipalities them- 

erations of what may be termed the public- selves refuse to bear the expense necessary 

health army is the lack of reliable vital sta- for the installation of a proper system of san- 

tistics. Only fifteen States record all deaths itation. In Charleston, for instance, though 

and forbid burial without a legal permit, the city has a fairly good water supply, the 

** Outside of this little group of States the public schools are furnished with water from 

decedent may be tucked away informally un- polluted cisterns. " Therefore, typhoid is 

derground and no one be the wiser for it." not only logical but inevitable.** 

In certain Southern cities the deaths of col- Throughout the South hygienic conditions 

ored people are not recorded, the white death- are complicated by the negro problem. ** The 

rate being held to be the key to the health of frank statement of what may seem a brutal 

the town. Other cities eliminate the deaths fact ** is that " New Orleans, Atlanta, 

under ten days by regarding them as " still Charleston, or Savannah would be loath to 

births" (!) diminish their negro mortality." The negro 

Much of this unreliability of statistics may breeds rapidly, and unless he died rapidly he 

be set down to the account of the medical would in the cities soon overwhelm the 

profession. whites by sheer force of numbers. Health 

A considerable percentage of physicians Officer Brunner puts the case thus: 

falsify the returns to protect the sensibilities of y/^ f^ce the following issues* First* one set 

their patrons. That they owe protection rather of people, the Caucasian, with a normal death- 

to the lives of the public, they never stop to rate of less than i6 per thousand per annum, and 

think. . In many communities it is con- right alongside of them is the negro race with 

sidered a disgrace to die of consumption. . ^ ceath-rate of 25 to 30 per thousand. Second : 

In order to save the feelings of the family, a the first-named race furnishing a normal amount 

death from consumption is reported as bron- of criminals and paupers and the second race of 

chitis or pneumonia. The man is buried quietly people furnishing an abnormal percentage of law- 

The premises are not disinfected, as they should breakers and paupers 

be, and perhaps some unknowing victim moves is the negro receiving a square deal? . . . 

into that germ-reeking atmosphere as into a The negro is with you for all time. He is what 

P*"^"* you will make him ; and it is " up " to the white 

In Salt Lake City forty-three deaths were People to prevent him from becoming a crimi- 

•1 J ^ ^ 1 1 . ^ 1 ^1 nal and to guard him against tuberculosis, etc. 

ascribed to tuberculosis, yet, under the or- if ^e is tainted with disease, you will suffer; if 

dinance requirmg the registration of all cases he develops criminal tendencies, you will be 

of consumption, only five persons were re- affected. 

ported as ill of the disease (!) y^^^^ ^^ ^y^^ American Health League. 

I he facts concerning epidemics are fre- 
quently suppressed out of regard for business ^" ^^^ f^^^ Norden Magazine for July, 
interests. under the caption " To Help the Nation's 

T . XT ^ 1 t I 1 J. Health," Mr. Michael Williams has an 

It was so m New Orleans, where the leading „,^- u j-««..;u*., *.u^ i ^l a 

commercial forces of the city, in secret meeting, article describing the program of the Amer- 

called the health officer before them and brow- »can Health League, organized by the 

beat him into concealing the presence of yellow Committee of One Hundred on National 

fever. And "concealed" it was, until it had Health of the American Association for the 

secured so firm a foothold that suppression was a j -^^„* ^rc*^ ttj ^uu-. 

no longer practicable. Advancement of Science. Under the ban- 

rr^, , , , 1 . t • lers or the committee 50,000 persons are en- 

The doctors are not alone to blame in this (j^^j j„ f^e fight against disease and death, 

matter of suppression : sometimes the news- j„ j^^ constructive campaign, politically, are 

papers combine to omit news concerning ;„^i„j^j j,,^ following three items: ( i ) The 

epidemics. passage by Congress of a bill for the redis- 

Ear|y in 1900 the first case of the present tribution of the existing health bureaus ; 

bubonic plague onset appeared in San Fran- /-\i,„ •..■/ ..u ui 

Cisco's Chinatown. . . A conference of (2) larger appropriations for the work of 

the managing editors, known as the " midnight the bureaus ; ( 3 ) the establishment of new- 
meeting," was held, at which it was decided bureaus. 

that no news should be printed admitting the j^ has been suggested that the Department 

plague. The Chronicle started by announcing r .1 ^ t«*«-- - • u^ i u ^m 

under big head-lines : " Plague Fake Part of ?^ ^^^ Interior might very properly be util- 

Plot to Plunder " ; " There Is No Bubonic »zed as a department of health. 
Plague in San Francisco." This was " in the 

interests of business." . . . Sick Chinamen There would be a bureau for the purpose of 

were shipped away; venal doctors diaj?nosed infant hygiene: expert physicians and .scientists 

the pest as " chicken cholera," " diphtheria," devoted to research combining to gather and 

and other known and unknown ailments. make utilizable knowledge of how to decrease 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 219 

the present appalling waste of baby-life. There Harvard, of Mr. Carnegie, and of a host of 

would be a bureau of sanitation, a bureau of n prominent citizens, 

pure food, a bureau of health information. . . . ^r^i i • ex . • t* r 

1 he chairman of the committee is Prof. 

The national registration of physicians, Irving Fisher of Yale, who cured himself of 

druggists, and drug manufacturers, problems tuberculosis, and who is naturally in sym- 

of quarantine and of labor conditions would pathy with a movement which has for one of 

be among the matters which the new depart- its objects the stamping out of the " white 

ment would take in charge. plague." Prof. Russell H. Chittenden, who 

The movement has received the indorse- strongly supports the league, says: 

ment of President Roosevelt, a letter from The purpose of our movement is, of course, 

whom on the subject is printed with the "^^ merely the establishment of national 

^^.VU. ^^ ..Ko !««.- r",^.,— . n\^.,^\r.^A r.i bureaus of health. That step is itself merely a 

article: of the late Grover Cleveland, of nieans to an end. The end is the elevation of 

Archbishop Ireland, of President Lliot ot the health of the American people. 



QUEBEC, A FOUNTAIN OF AMERICAN LIBERTY. 

'^HE presence of Americans at the recent populating of their new territory, — they far 

Tercentennial Celebration at Quebec outstripped the French. In the whole of 

was singularly appropriate, according to Mr. Canada the white population scarcely exceed- 

W, Addxn^on Y^rnct in tht North American ed 3000; in New England it was over 

Revietu: for, he says, " as a historical herit- 80,000. Something had to be done to pre- 

agc, Quebec is theirs fully as much as it vent the English from overflpwing into 

belongs to the people of Canada." French territory. Troops and colonists 

It has exercised no less powerful an influence , . * . , 
on their destinies than on the destinies of the advent a new impetus was given to what 
Canadians. In fact, remote as the connection historians describe as the " hinterland move- 
may seem, Quebec is well entitled to rank with ment." To oppose a barrier to the English, 
Jamestown and Plymouth as a primal fountain .^ould they attempt to cross the Alleghanics, 
of American liberty. In one way and another, %. • c c j »• 
almost from its beginning, it was a foremost » chain ot torts and trading-posts, to con- 
factor in developing the ideals that culminated nect the mouth of the Mississippi with the 
in the Declaration of Independence. mouth of the St. Lawrence, was to be creat- 

Very different motives inspired the Eng- ^^ ' »"*1 '^e first step was the building of 

lishmen and the Frenchmen who braved the ^ort Frontenac tn 1673. In the same year 

dangers of the Atlantic to take possession Marquette and Joliet made the.r famous 

of the New World. The former sought voyage down the Mississippi, 

homes; the latter, to amass wealth, prompt- , I" '^e Seventy Years War, except in its 

ed also by a love of adventure and by mis- '««/ "^K^^-. ^)^ ^r"?''*'' •?'j'"u*'\'^""' I 

sionarv zeal ^° ^ battles unaided by the mother 

country. Had aid been forthcoming, or had 

Consequently, while the English were content the colonists presented a united front, the 

to cstabHsh themselves along the coast, the war would soon have ended, 
ardent French ranged far inland, making 

friends of the Indians, trafficking with them, But such were the jealousies prevailing be- 

Christianizing them. Champlain himself had twccn colony and colony, union was out of the 

little more than built his '* habitations " at Que- question. . . . The merchants and farmers 

bee before he was up and off on the cxplora- who rallied to the defense were not slow to 

tions that have contributed so greatly to his plan conquest on their own account. They saw 

fame. Within a decade of the founding of clearly that the seat of French power in 

Quebec, a Recollet friar was laboring among America was Quebec, and that until Quebec 

the Lake Huron savages. Only a few years fell they ccmld not hope for a lasting peace. As 

more, and Xicolet was canoeing through Wis- early as \6qo, — acting, it is claimed, on the sug- 

consin's network of streams. A little later, and gestion of Peter Schuyler, the first Mayor of 

*nf Wack-gowned Jesuits were planting the Albany. — a colonial congress decided on a plan 

Cross among the Indians of Sault Ste. Marie. of campaign which had for its objective the 

rp, capture of Quebec and the conquest of New 

Inc English, on the other hand, made France. This attempt failed, as did several 

little attempt at westward expansion. Twen- similar " glorious enterprises." 

^ years after the Jesuits had reached the Meanwhile the British colonists began to 

Sault the English were but a few miles from be alarmed at the progress of the hinterland 

™ coast In one particular, however, — the movement ; ** but no representations could 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEW OF REVIEWS. 




traditions of French Onn»d».") 

move the home authorities to action." The 
colonists did not, however, 
waste breath tn vain reproaches, nor did they 
allow the French to overrun them. Instead, 
they hegan a hinterland movement of their own, 
intended to cripple their adversaries by divert- 
ing from Montreal and Quebec the rich fur 
trade of the interior, and to pave the way for 
trans-Alleghany settlement. And, keeping their 
eyes fixed steadfastly on Quebec as the source 
of all their woes, they awaited only a favorable 
opportunity to deal a crushing blow. 

The chance came with the war of the 
Austrian Succession, when England and 
France were at odds again. 

Aided by an English fleet, and led by a 



England business 
fought their way 
of Louisburg. "C 
cry. In the end n 
to shift for themselv 



colonial volunteers 
the Cape Breton fortress 
I Quebec! " was then their 
nly were the colonists left 
but Louisburg 



n back (o the French. 
Soon, however, England was forced to 
let in the colonists' behalf, on her own ac- 



count, if not for her love of the colonies. 
In 1753 orders were sent to the colonial gov- 
ernors to repel, by force if necessary, any in- 
vasion of English territory, and within a 
year young George Washington was sent 
into the western wilds to fire the shot which 
announced to the world that the bitterly con- 
tested Seven Years' War had entered on its 
last stage. 

Without recapitulating the story of the 
struggle that ended with the fall of Quebec, 
we may note the part that the colonists 
played in it: 

They were battling in defense of their homes, 
and to them must be given a large share of 
credit for the triumph ultimately achieved. . . . 
The colonies put into the field more troops than 
the mother country. Of the 7000 men who 
marched with Forbes to Ihe reduction of Fort 
Duquesne 5000 were volunteers from Pennsyl- 
vania and Vii^inia. Brad street's contingent 
that mastered the ancient Fort Fronienac was 
recruited mostly from New England and New 
'^'ork. Upon colonials, again, fell the burden of 
defending the western frontiers against the at- 
tacks of the Indian allies of the French. It was 
thus that ' Washington got the military training 
which availed him so well a few years after- 
Military training, however, was only one of the 
minor benefits accruing to the colonists from 
their seventy years of effort to win Quebec and 
thereby rid themselves of the French incubus. 
The long-continued struggle had developed in 
them to a conspicuous degree the spirit of self- 
reliance and self-confidence. It had helped 
them to appreciate their innate strength, and 
had conjoined with the influence of their wilder- 
ness environment to foster the qualities of alert- 
ness and resourcefulness. Over and above all 
this, it had brought them far, however uncon- 
sciously, on the road to independence, by opening 
their eyes to the deep-rooted selfishness of the 
mother country. 

In 1775, when war could no longer be 
averted, they Invited the Canadians to unite 
with them to throw off the English yoke, but 
Canada remained loyal. Friendly eflorts 
failing, the A mo Id- Montgomery expedition 
was undertaken. 

This is usually described as a gigantic fail- 
ure, . . . yet it was also of tremendous 
profit to the American cause. When Benedict 
.Arnold was beateiv back from Quebec's grim 
walls, he did not at once give over an attempt 
that had cost the brave Montgomery his lite. 
Instead, he patiently laid siege to the city, hold- 
ing it in close investment until the arrival of 
English reinforcements in 1776. ... It is 
perhaps no exaggeration to say that the manner 
iti which Arnold conducted his retreat from 
Quebec was the saving of his country. So that, 
failure though the invasion was. it forms 
another and not the least impressive chapter in 
the story of Quebec's contribution to the 
making of the United Slates. 




LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 

LOUIS FRECHETTE, "POET OF CANADA." 

LOUIS FRECHETTE, who died re- 
cently, was born in L«vis, Province of 
Quebec, in 1839. After graduating from 
the Seminarj' of Quebec he studied law. 
His first poems were written in 1858. 
" Fleiirs Boreales," published in 1881, were 
awarded the honors of the Prix Montyou. 
M. Frechette wrote both prose and poetry, 
but to his poetr}' he owed the greater part 
of his glory. 

In August la^t, at a public seance of the 
" Immortals," in Paris, Camillc Doucet, 
speaking for the Academy of France, " pro- 
clainted " the Canadian poet, who that day 
had become the laureate of the French Acad- 
emy. The applause was general. I remem- 
ber even now, says a writer in Les Annalet 
(Paris), the cry: "Is he here? May we 
see him ? " heard when the secretary re- 
called the notable past of the poet whose 
work, " Poesies Canadienncs," the Academy 
had just cro«-ned. Camille Doucet on that 
occasion made an eloquent speech, tn the 
course of which he said of Frechette: 

Still young, he has had the honor to represent 
tlic County of Levis in the Federal Parliament. 
To-day he belongs to literature only. We know 
him only by his verse, but Canada knows him 
by prose as well as poetry, and Montreal has 
received with enthusiasm the great drama writ- 
ten by him. It is in French, gentlemen, that 
they speak and think in that land once French, — 
ilie land we love, the land that loves us. 

When the audience cried, "Is he here? 
May we see him? " Frechette was modestly 
hiding among the people, " tasting with 
(grateful delight the joy of his public wel- 
come. But almost immediately after he had 
received the recompense ai\'arded by the 
Academy he set out from France for Can- 
ada, sick unto death." 

From Columbus to Rial, I^uis Frechette 
collected, one by one, the gems of his literary 
reminiscences. He was the poet of a strong, 
national initiative, 

.\ll Canada's beginnings are draped with the 
(traccful imagery of his fancy. He stood with 
the laborers or the first harvest-fields of a vir- 
Rin land. He hailed the triumph of Montreal. 
He assisted in the ton^ and determined strug- 
gles between the English and the colonists of 
France in that tenacious and superb war where 
French soldiers struggled with the British regi- 
ments for the country discovered by the French 
sailors, the country where France had plnntcd 
her sword beside the Cross. 

According to the writer already quoted, 
Louis Frechette was one of the few voices 



of literature that vibrated in sympathy with 
French sorrow over the loss of her Ameri- 
can domain. In his writings we see not only 
the patriotic Canadian, but the traditions of 
ol.] France. We quote again from the article 
in he Annates: 

To the Canadian. France means; Our mother. 
They say to the man just landing: "Do you 
come from home? " The past of France is their 
past. It is the time of times of their own people. 
At Ihe puhlic gatherings Ihcy fly a hundred 
French (lags lo one Enslish Hag. In 1870, our 
trial lime, every sorrow, every himiiliation of 
France, was marktd in Canada by increasing 
numbers of vohiittfers clamoring to be per- 
mitte<l (o embark for our defense, the defense 
of France, — ours and theirs. I.oiiis Frechette's 
was (he voice thai vibrated in sympathy with 
our loss of Canada and onr humiliation at 

An EnBllah-Canadian Tribute. 

In the editorial department of the Cana- 
dian Ala^tizine there is an appreciative 
tribute in the course of which the editor 
declares: "No one will dispute that for a 
generation Dr. Frt^hette w:is the most con- 
spicuous literar\- figui'e in Canada, and that 
his death leaves even now no rival in French 
Canadian poetry. ... No Canadian, what- 
ever his ancestral evtraction, but will be 
proud to claim Dr. Frechette as a country- 



222 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 

ARE AMERICANS REALLY LOVERS OF THE DOLLAR? 

\4UCH has been said about the wonder- *' quick," grows uo ** quick," works " quick," eats 

^^^ ful energy of the American business li ^"l^K "'^J^^?. "Pj^^T'""^ i^'i '*"\^*''^^^^^^ 

J t' J ri i-i_ 111 quick, and dies quick. May I add that he 

man, and his love of the almighty dollar, j^ ^^ried "quick," for the very funeral proces- 

Every stranger vs^ho visits these shores stands sions go through the streets ** quick." 

amazed before the eternal rush and swirl in , . . . . . r n !.• -i 

which he finds himself, and goes home to re- And yet m the midst of all this turmoi 

fleet on it all, and to marvel that Americans »"<1 hustle, the very center and cause of it 

do not all die young. Now comes a plaint «"' ^^^ ^"j'"«=\* -jj^" ^'"}^^{' '? ^^^^ ^"'^ 

from France, that country of gayety: "Do unperturbed. If he speaks, it is in mono- 

you Americans think of nothing but busi- syllables, for beneath his quiet exterior he is 

ness? Can you never stop your incessant thinking deeply Besides, he is following the 

hurrying, even to sleep? What is it all for, ^"^^ «^°^P'1«=<1 ^V '^. eminent business 

anyhow?" To this Mr. Hugues Le Roux, '"^" ^''°"' ^'^ vast experience. Those that 

a recent visitor to America, after observing ^PP^y *" conversation are : K Have somc- 

the methods, feels qualified to reply. In his ''""g «« ^V- ^^ ^ay 't. 3- Then be quiet, 

article in La Revue, he takes the Frenchman In France every man of the world has a gen- 

on a little adventure with him. "^' '="'i".'-e. and can converse intelhgently on 

many subjects. But the American business man 

Let us suppose you are entering the harbor of disclaims this superficial knowledge, and claims 

New York for the first time. Enveloped in a that the point is not to know many things, but to 

golden haze you see gigantic buildings of all know one thing thoroughly, and to use that 

shapes and heights outlined against the sky. knowledge to advantage. Money, like oil, will 

What feudal city of the Middle Ages is this, not mix. 

j;i^he\^';hatl.?s Tetl^;' tt^fe'to'^scSMfi ^Je ultimate aims of the Frenchman and 

horizon from afar? Or is it to cause anxiety, the American are as far removed as the two 

or to awaken respect among men ? You are the poles, continues M. Le Roux. From* time 

first on the gangplank, and you ask yourself with immemorial the Frenchman has been polite, 

secret trepidation: "Has the New York fever ,^„,«.^^,.^ ♦.,^,;««. ♦•/^ »>1<>oca ««^ «•/^ ur.'n k^ori-c* 

seized me yet? " Not so soon, my French friend, courteous trying to ple^ and to win hearts, 

What seems to you haste is to the American but whereas the American has been active, on 

a leisurely calm. Hardly have you set foot upon the go," and has tried to make money. He 

the dock when a voice that admits of no reply eliminates all pursuits and interests that 

calls out : ' Step lively ! Move on ! ^^,^^, j ^^„ j ^^ jj^^^^^^ y^^ f ^^^ j^j^ ^^^ j^^^^ 

There is sounded the watchword of New — the dollar, — toward which he must cease- 
York, so different from the coaxing: " Come, Icssly bend all his energies, 
let us hurry, please," of the French capital. What is the use of culture and education? 
However, unless you wish to be pushed aside, Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clews arc 
jostled, or even trodden underfoot, you must agreed in saying that a man who has taken 
obey the stern injunction and " move along " a university degree is practically worthless in 
with the crowd. You see every one appar- business. He does not stand half the chance 
ently running like ants in all directions, of advancement as the small office boy, who 
What is the cause? you wonder in alarm, starts in, at fourteen years of age, to sweep 
That? why, that is only the New York and run errands, because his extra culture 
walk, my friend. will not allow him to start at the bottom of 

Everywhere you see signs promising to do a ^he ladder and work up. The average age 

host of things ** while you wait." The tailor that the " self-made man " started in busi- 

presses your suit, the hatter blocks your hat, the ness has been found to be sixteen and a half 

shoemaker repairs your shoes, and all " while yg^rs 

you wait." Often the scene in a barbershop is a ^ ^ * ., , mj j • i t mi* 
most amusing one. An American lounges in a . ^ven outside the gilded circle of million- 
huge chair while a man shaves him, another cuts aires, in the world of letters, there may be 
his hair, a bootblack shines his shoes, and his found examples of that intensity of purpose, 
hands are given over to the services of a mam- ^^at firm faith that whoso applies himself 
cure. If step lively is the first exclamation i i ^ u • mi • ^iT j • j j 
a stranger hears on landing, "quick" is the sec- closely to business will gam the d^ired end 
ond. Scattered everywhere in the business dis- that marks the true American. The well- 
trict you may read this alluring promise above loved Mark Twain, at the age of sixty, suf- 
restaurants as the sole guaranty of the culinary f^^ed a considerable monetary loss. Son of 
attractions : Quick Lunch. 1 his is not the , . u ^l / u • 
countrv of " All or Nothing." but the realm of ^ business man, brother of a business man, 
"Quick or Nothing." The American is bom rather than accept the proffered gift of his 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 228 

millions of appreciative readers, he preferred money to enable his father to realize his 

to tempt fortune again. He has triumphed fondest dream. 

over fate, and is once more clear of debt. " Happy country where such miracles can 

Another example is Augustus Thomas, happen and happy people where such 

who counts his income in millions to-day. strength of purpose can dominate a child of 

At the age of twelve he started to earn twelve ! '* 



THE RELIGION OF THE SENSIBLE AMERICAN. 

IJNDER this unique caption President the words of Jesus and the teachings of \ 

David Starr Jordan, of Leland Stan- man experience, which . . . we can 

ford Junior University, sets forth " the atti- science." To him the creeds are mostly 

tude .ind belief of one, no longer living, harmless. '* They will not harm us if we do 

whom he claimed within the inner circle of not read them." As his religion is not reg- 

his friendship, — one whose religion was justi- ulated by " intellectual assent to any proposi- 

ficd in a rare power of swaying the lives of tion in metaphysics," he is not alarmed 

American men and women toward high about the Higher Criticism. Enough that 

thoughts and sturdy righteousness." This is genuine goes back to the teachings of 

friend died in 1898, and various memoranda Jesus. 

of his notes and talks were brought together To the sensible American it is clear that 
by his companions. It is from these notes the religion of Jesus has no necessary con- 
and from his own recollections that President nection with church or state, save as church 
Jordan has reconstructed " a religion which, and state may be permeated with its spirit, 
however incomplete, is not far from the As regards doctrine, " Calvinism and Ar- 
idcal toward which the average sensible minianism are trifling matters compared with 
American of to-day is tending." the fact that God is and that we may call 
The positive phase of this religion is " the Him our Father." No man can embrace the 
feeling of being at home in God's universe." religion of another ; it must become his own 
The sensible American believes that this is first, or else he can not receive it. Emotion- 
God's world, none other more so. alism as such is no necessary attribute of re- 

This is no alien world. Our fathers were bom |jg;,^"- ^o^^ must purify itself by action 

here and our fathers' fathers, and the same hand Ai thou lovest Me, feed My lambs, 

has led them on from the primordial sandstones There is no other way in which emotion can 

of Quebec to the foundations of our own Re- impinge on religion. 

public. . . . We are links in an eternal chain, AA/it-K ,.«rro,..i «./^ ;!««,^,.«.oi;«..r 

and the little part assigned to us is the conquest ^'^^ ^^^^^^^ ^° immortality, 

of Here and Now. Wisdom is knov/ing what to Our American docs not ask for immortahty 

do next; virtue is doing it. as a debt due him from tlic Creator. In this good 

T^M ^ • ri'j \ I ' \ T\ world he has had his rewards and punishments, 

in the notes of his deceased friend Ur. each sufficient for the day thereof. He asks no 

Jordan found these words: ** It is a great fmal compensation for dreary and dispiriting 

e\'cnt in a boy's life when he can say, * I and service. He has known no such service. . . . 

my father are one.* It is greater when a J^ 'nmiortality is not inevitahle it is no part of 

«,«- £,,, I ^ -li^j his rehgion to crave it or to demand it. He 

Iran hnds that he can keep step with Ciod ; realizes the futihty of an appeal to .science, 

that he wants to do, and can do, the things . . . Outside the field of knowledge and of 

that God is doing." reason, outside of science and of philosophy, lies 

^» ,,.-.- , 1 r . /- , 1 -11 ^l^c belief in immortality. 

•Men think if they can only find dod they will n . , t i • » i . /■ i 

pet faith from him. It is not faith in c;od that President Jordan gives the basis of the 

they need, but faith in themselves. God will do sensible American's belief in his friend's own 

his part . . . No man ever falls away from words: 
Goj without having first fallen awav from \\\n\' 

self. . . . Faith in self is to be won, like any No fact is actually knunvn unk-ss it is stated in 

other power, by persistent and constant exer- mathematical terms, and with (luestions such as 

cise. You, and you alone, hold the key to your this no demonstration is possible. Attempts to 

heaven. demonstrate deii^rade the truth. . . . Ininior- 

^. MIA' r 1 i_ tality is not proved bv nature. Nature is full of 

Hie sensible American hnds that the suggestions and analoj^ics. but analogies prove 

teachings of Jesus, though reported in frag- nothing, llomolo^ios prove. If we can trace a 

mcnts only, and with many variants and f""<lamental identity bet wceti any clenient of our 

rMrk... J jv 1. ^1- • '^ character and the nature of dod, if we can find 

perhaps additions, bear their own witness. i„ j,^^. beneticent heart of (iod a lu)nu»logv to the 

iicalso recognizes no antagonism between heart of man, we have commenced to build the 



ti - 



224 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 

demonstration of the fact of immortality, can is one of faith and love and action, — ' 

. When a man begins to live,-love, deny u^ confidence that the universe of matter 
himself, serve, — he understands what nfe is, and , ^ • v • i*^ ^u ^ '^ ^ 

knows that death cannot touch it. . . . Love and of spirit is a reality, that its functions 

for men,— and this soon passes into love for God. are in wise hands, for the time being our own 

—lifts man above the physical, where death is, hands as well as the hand of God, and our 

into the spiritual life everlasting. part is to help our brother organisms to more 

Thus the religion of the sensible Ameri- abounding life." 



SLEEP MOVEMENTS IN PLANTS. 



P 



LANTS are capable of moving to an eX' gradually became less marked and finally 

tent that varies in different species, stopped altogether. But after complete ccssa- 

Parts of some plants move as energetically tion they could be called forth again by 

as any animals, while in other instances the subjecting the plants to cither natural or arti- 

motions are hardly noticeable. Some of the ficial daily rhythmic changes of light and 

higher plants are capable of making move- darkness, showing that the power of rhyth- 

ments following each other in rhythmic sue- mic movement had merely become dormant, 

cession in response to external conditions, but was not lost. 

that approach the purposeful movements of Evidently the motions were self-regulated, 
animals, although there is nothing in plant but were set going in response to perfect con- 
structure comparable with the nervous sys- stancy in the recurrence of external condi- 
tem of an animal for the direction of intelli- tions. If such plants are lighted at nig^it 
gent movements. and kept in darkness during the day so that 

Among the commonest rhythmic motions the time of alternation of light and darkness 
are the sleep movements, so-called, probably, is changed about twelve hours, there is a 
because they are made at night, for there is corresponding change in the time of occur- 
not necessarily anything suggestive of rest rence of the sleep movements and the rccov- 
in the position assumed, and leaves and ery from them. 

blossoms asleep stand straight up just as fre- Leaflets of the acacia, however, main- 

quently as they droop. tained their rhythmic movements at the 

Some plants never make any of these mo- usual time when exposed to a change of light 
tions, while others, including many of the and darkness made every six or every four 
commonest plants and weeds, assume very hours, and even continued undisturbed when 
noticeable sleep positions. Young seedlings, kept either under constant illumination or 
clover, sensitive plants, and many others, in continuous darkness, showing that in this 
assume definite sleep positions every night, species the impulse toward a certain definite 
and the leaves, or needles, of many ever- rhythm is very deep seated, 
greens take diflEerent positions during their A plant of a different species under a six- 
long winter sleep. hour, and again under a three-hour, alterna- 

In discussing the origin of these move- tion of light and darkness took up a very 

ments in the last number of the Biologischer perfect corresponding rhythm. 
Centralblatt, Dr. W. Pfeflfer says the first No doubt sleep movements would occur 

thing to consider is whether they are caused in plants raised from the seed. of any species 

by changes of external conditions which re- having this innate tendency, and all of the 

cur daily in rhythmic succession, or whether plants would assume their sleep positions at 

there is an inherent impulse, acquired the same time, even if part of the seeds grew 

through heredity, toward constant rhythmic nearby and the others came from plants 

action which the regular sequence of exter- growing in distant countries, where the sun 

nal conditions, such as changes in illumina- rises twelve hours later. In ever>' instance 

tion, temperature, etc., serves as a stimulus the reactions are brought on by the stimulus 

to set in action. of a rhythmic recurrence of certain changes 

When, for experiment, plants were sub- in external conditions, even when the move- 

jected to unusual conditions by varying the ments have previously ceased under the effect 

time of exposure to light or darkness, the of a constant illumination, 
sleep movements were affected. Under the Plants of this type have developed a high 

influence of continuous illumination they degree of sensitiveness, which is hereditary. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 
THE AUTHOR OF "L'ABBE COXSTANTIX.' 




^ NUMBER of the most eminent French 
literar>- and critical writers have 
been contributing articles to the weekly 
and daily press on the life and works of the 
late dramatic author, Ludovic Halevj-. Be- 
sides having written a number of light plaj's 
on littrarj- and social topics, which have be- 
comt known all over the world, Haievy 
made himself famous by the authorship of 
two or three books, " L'Abbc Constantin " 
bting the most celebrated. With Mellhac 
he produced the following well-known 
plays: "U Belle Hclenc," " Barbe Bleu," 
" La Vie Parisienne," " La Grande Duch- 
esse," " Frou-Frou," "La Perichole," "La 
Pflitt Marquise." and many others written 
to the music of Bizet, Offenbach, and Lc 
Coq. For many years Haievy, who was 
bom in Paris on New Year's Day, 1834, 
wed as clerk of the Chamber of Deputies. 
Hewasnever, however, active politicall)-. In 
a rtcoit article in the Annahs. Jules Clare- 
tic tbincterized Haievy in these words: 



The playisriglil who laiight gayclj' to llie peo- 
ple drew from the people's hvos material for 
his benevolence. Professor of patient kindness, 
doctor of llie law of charity. — these are the 
titles of the man whose goodness was neither 
a mask nor an affecioiron. Ludovic Halevy's 
was the kindness anil the chanty unconscious of 
self. 

As to his style, M. Lemaitre says in an 
article in the same number of the Annales: 

They are among the jewels of our dramatic 
literature. The persoirs in ihe drama are very 
much alive, and of a life close to ours. Woman 
holds the best place. Perhaps no author has 
better depicted women, — their "nerves," their 
inconsequence, and their feminine grace. The 
lillle actresses and their small world, the moth- 
ers, the distant relations, llie serv.inls,— they are 
all pretty, and either sly, stupid, bright, greedy, 
defeitful, or something else equally hinnnn. 

Speaking of the instant popular success 
of " L'Abbe Constantin," "SI. Lemaitre says: 

The entire company of the Academy received 
it gratefully, and for the first time Haievy tasted 
the sweets of appreciation for his own individual 
work. In one hour he had surpassed his col- 
laborator Meilhae and received immorlality 
from the hands of the " Forty Immortals." 

This writer concludes by characterizing 
the joint productions of Haievy and Meil- 
hae in these words; 

Meilhae was very witty and of very fine sensi- 
bilities. Haievy was very wise and very sympa- 
Ihelic, very kind. Both knew all sides of life 
and all ihc peculiarities and foibles of humanity. 
They bad had the experience which makes for 
philosophy. They saw all that is ridiculous in 
life and in society, hut they were powerless to 
-Stamp out in themselves the weaknesses that 
they railed at when they found them in others. 
Ambition, glory, the trials and the petty miseries 
of artists and hterary men, their own life, the 
common effort, the partnership classed as " lit- 
erary marriage," — what is it all but a type of 
that other marriage whose party of the first part 
and parly of the second part are separated by 
selfishness or bad temper? . . . The piavs 
written by Meilhae and Haievy have no thesis: 
they make no pretention; they do not aipire to 
social satire. They are peculiar and original. At 
first sight we can tell that they are new. The 
work is not in any way like the work bi^gun by 
Scribe and continued by Sardou; it di>es nut 
resemble the work of Augier or the work of 
Labiche, Labichc's dramatic writings contain a 
good deal of burlesque of Dudert and Lausanne, 
and. almost always, or almost wholly, they e.t- 
clude woman. Whatever declarations to the con- 
trary may he made, they keep within the iimit.-i- 
tions of the farce. Haievy set out very modestly. 
He began by writing vaudeville, but by one 
stroke, as it seemed to us who were watching 
him. he invented a come<ly less tense and less 
prim (hnn that of Dumas or of .\ugicr. His 
composition was less artificial and less briokisli. 



THE AMERICAN REflEW OF REylEWS. 

THE FIRST WOMAN CANDIDATE FOR THE PARIS 
MUNICIPAL COUNCIL, 

For a series of years, however, Frenchwomen 
seemed to have left all prc^ganda for political 
rights to their American, Gennan, and English 
sisters. Suddenly, — as a woman is apt to do all 
things, — the suffragette looms up in Paris, toa 
No one knew why, how, and whence she cam& 
But it was ascertained that she was handsome, 
and that was sufficienL Until then the convic- 
tion prevailed that a suffragette must necessarily 
be a scarecrow. The gallant Parisians came 
within an ace, that bright Sunday, the 3d of 
May, of inducting the first Madam,— a Made- 
moiselle, indeed, — into the City Hall by their 

Jeanne Laloe, formerly a teacher, then a 
journalist, still on the sunny side of thirty, 
set up her candidacy as a Socialist in the 
Quartier Saint-Georges, on the sl<^ of 
Montmartre, in opposition to the Nationalist 
Paul Escudier, and obtained over 900 votes. 

This result naturajly rejoices all the suffra- 
gettes who have flodced around Jeanne Laloe. 
For, of course, the goo votes were cast by men, 
and not by women. Should there, then, be already 
among the men of Paris so many adherents of 
woman's rights? It cost the candidate no little 
trouble to carry on her election propaganda with 
any show of legality. In the first place, it was 
necessary to obtain permission from the prefec- 
ture of the Seine for an electoral assembly in a 
schoolhouse designated for the purpose, and the 
officials there maintained that the law resarding 
municipal elections ignored women. Fortunate- 
ly, however, several woman lawyers of the Court 
of Appeals stood by her ; for example, Maiire 
Maria Verone, who, in barrister's gown, cap 
jauntily perched on her curly head, with pretty, 
rosy lips, is in the habit of delivering trenchant 
speeches in the Palais de Justice. Maria Verona 
pointed out that the election Taw of 18S4 stales 
that all French people take part in municipal 
elections, and no one dare affirm that the women 
are not French. It is not known what proved 
more seductive to the officials of the prefecture, 
the legal lore or the rosy lips of the advocate. 
At any rate, they conceded the fireau, the school- 

A meeting was held to which there 
thronged 10,000 people. Only a small por- 
tion of those in the hall could see with their 
own e>-es that Mile. Jeanne Laloe was come- 
ly and fair enough to represent the interests 
of the district. 

She bravely mounted a table and promised the 
" citizens " that she would, like a good house- 
keeper, carry order into the City Hall. The in- 
terruptions of a facetious individual put her, it 
is true, somewhat out of countenance, but on the 
whole she created a very favorable impression, — 
particularly because, in her elegant tailor-made 
gown, she declared that she was a daughter of 
the masses. A female doctor and several woman 
lawyers spoke after she had concluded. Then, 
as a sole adversary, a youth declaimed against 




npHE " suffragette " h.is made her appear- 
ance in France. In ah article in a 
recent numher of the Leipzig Ulustrirle 
Zeilung an account is given of the new pio- 
neer of the woman movement in France, 

" To inoculate women with the principles 
of Socialist education, and to attain genuine 
universal suffrage." This was the task 
which the Societe pour I'educathn, naturelle 
des femmes, founded in 1848 by three au- 
thoresses, Desiree Gray, AnaTs Segalas, Sa- 
bine -Casimir- Am able Tastu, set itself. The 
acquisition of political rights for women was 
taken very seriously by them, — so seriously, 
that perhaps it became ridiculous, and as 
there is nothing, as is well known, more fatal 
in France than the ridiculous, the Societe 
went to pieces just as swiftly as its sister un- 
dertakings, the Cluh de 1' Emancipation des 
femmes and the Club fralernel des Lingrres: 
the Club des Femmes alone, where lectures 
were given by male advocates of the woman 
question, enjoyed a longer lease of life. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



227 



women in general, and in favor of the National- 
ist Esciidier in particular, whereupon an oM 
man with venerable gray hair assured the smil- 
ing audience that he no longer made any dis- 
tinction between the sexes. With a single voice 
in opposition, the following motion was adopted : 
" The electors of the Quartier St. Georges, as- 
sembled in legal form . . pledge them- 
selves, in voting for the citizen Laloe, to organ- 
ire a double movement, — feminist and repub- 
lican." The immense crowd outside, that awaited 
the end of the meeting, escorted Jeanne Laloe 
and her female staff home, singing to the melody 
of the "Lampion"; " C'est Lalo, Lalo, Laio, 
L csl Laloe quil nous faul." 

SaJ to say, the Nationalist Escudier, who 
was up for re-election, possessed so little gal- 
lantry- that on the following day he had all 
the election placards of his opponent plastered 
over with his own larger ones. He afHrmed, 
moreover, that the candidacy of a woman was 
entirely illegal since it was rtb longer the law 



of 1884 but that of 1885 which was in force, 
and since the latter distinctly states that all 
ci/oyens are entitled to the suffrage; civil 
rights, however, are the privilege of men 
alone. This opinion was shared by the 
Premier, Clemenceau, who interdicted the 
admission of women on Sunday to the polling 
places, even for purposes of supervision, and' 
who ordered that the votes cast for women, 
though they should be counted, should be 
declared void. The suffragettes attempted 
to gain forcible access to the polls and in one 
instance even overthrew the urn, but it did 
not help them. " However, they arc verj' 
well satisfied with the number of votes cast 
for Jeanne Laloe, and are desirous to con- 
tinue the campaign, so that finally a woman, 
too, may become a Deputy or Senator in the 
French Republic." 



A CANAL OVER THE ALPS. 



TpHE people of upper Italy arc at present 
greatly interested in a plan to bring 
their country into much closer connection 
with the industrial and commercial centers 
of Germany and Switzerland. This project 
is nothing more nor less than a canal from 
Genoa, in Italy, to Basel, in Switzerland. 
A journey from one of these points to the 
other, however, necessitates crossing the Alps. 

A writer in a recent number of the 
Deutscher Haussckatx (Munich), in de- 
scribing the project, pays great tribute to the 
inventive genius of present-day Italians, espe- 
cially in matters of the application of water 
power. They are continually striving, he 
says, to open new resources to compensate 
for %vhat Nature has 
denied their fatherland. 
He claims, further, that 
the time is not far distant 
when not only artists and 
architects, but engineers 
also, will go to Italy for 
purposes of study. 

A certain hydraulic en- 
gineer named Caminada 
is responsible for this new 
canal scheme. He pro- 
poses, not to tunnel 
under the mountains, as 
the railway lines do, but 
to have his canal go over 
the Alps. This may at 
fir^t seem impossible, but 
{the Gcnnan writer re- 



minds us) engineers have long since learned 
to overcome the greatest difficulties with 
the aid of sluices and locks. When 
greatest differences in altitude have to 
be overcome they make use of sluices ar- 
ranged after the manner of a flight of steps. 
Such a system has already been used along 
the Trolhatta Falls, in Sweden, where there 
are seven locks, so arranged that a vessel can 
move up the river against the rapids. 

On this principle Caminada bases his project. 
A new development, however, is that where the 
greatest differences in altitude are to bt over- 
come, tubes or conduits of very large diameter 
are to be used instead of the open sluices. On 
the bottom of the conduit line guide r.iils are set. 
to which the vessel i.i .ittached and on which it 




228 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS, 

is rolled forward. The tubes are on an oblique on the conduit plan. Genoa is the starting point 

plane, and when water is allowed to run into of the system, from whence it leads to Alexan- 

the chamber the vessel is slowly driven (or dria, Milan, and to the Lake of Como, at the 

floated) forward through the water on the rail, nortlierly end of which the Alps division begins. 

Since, therefore, the lower end of the second On the Swiss side of the Alps it passes through 

block is a direct continuation of the upper end Chur (in the valley of the Rhein), the Lake of 

of the first, the vessel can at once enter the next Constance, Schaffhausen, and, finally, ends at 

chamber, the upper gates of the first auto- Basel. It is proposed that various branches also 

matically closing behind it. The same method be constructed to connect with the main system, 

holds good, of course, until the highest level is which would open up a much larger territor>'. 

reached. There are two separate tubes in this y i . ^i . t .i. .» i 

part of the svstem. arranged side by side and . In conclusion the writer of the article in 

connected with each other. The water from one the Deutscher Hausschatz says that while 

chamber is used to fill the one lying alongside. Caminada has proven the practicability of his 

Great quantities of water will be thus saved, project it still remains to be seen whether he 

with a consequent savmg m cost of operation. '^ ■' , vi-^^ ^ -.u 

It is intended that two vessels shall enter this can persuade capitalists to put up the ncccs- 

part of the system at the same time, one going sary funds for the construction of such a 

up the mountain side and the other coming canal system. The estimated cost of carrying 

^^^^'"- out the project is $120,000,000, and this Ger- 

At its extreme height (some 7500 feet man writer doubts if Italian and Swiss capi- 

above sea level) the canal changes to a tunnel tal can be interested to this extent. Ncver- 

ten miles long, and passes under Spliigen theless, there is great enthusiasm in Italy 

Pass^ over the proposition, and a model of the canal 

1^1- X . 1 1 .u r .1 • ^ 1 1 • has been exhibited at the Accademia dei 

The total length of the projected canal is ap- t • • ^ t> l / ^ • -.•£ u j 

proximately 370 miles, of which about 143 miles Lmcei, of Rome, the foremost sacntihc body 

are existing waterways and 2y miles are to be of the country. 



SYDNEY, THE QUEEN CITY OF AUSTRALIA. 



I 



T is 120 years since Captain Arthur Phil- world. It has been well described as " a 

lip, landing from an English man-of- string of lovely lakes running into innumera- 

war, unfurled the Union Jack, and pro- ble small bays; here and there a fort on bold 

claimed the supremacy of Great Britain over headlands; wooded hills with shores fcath- 

the territory on which now stands the capital ered with gum and other trees ; and verdant 

of the colony of New South Wales. The slopes dotted with villas and handsome 

first encampment, says Mr. Walter D. houses." Here will ride at anchor the Amcr- 

White, in Alunsey's Alagazine for July, was ican fleet, when, in acceptance of the invita- 

formed at the head of a cove, which was tion extended by the Australian Government, 

named in honor of Viscount Sydney, a mem- it reaches the southern island-continent, 

ber of the younger Pitt's government. The Sydney is rapidly advancing to a leading 

site was determined by the proximity of a place among the commercial ports of the 

stream of fresh water. " Those who built world. 

the rude huts of the infant settlement had no _ ^ .. • ^ 1 j *. 

r • £ ^ ^ 1 .1 In 1006 ... its imports were valued at 

conception of its future greatness, and they $,4o,ooo!ooo and its exports at $175,000,000. Its 

made no adequate provision for its growth ; wonderful harbor draws to itself mammoth ocean 

yet for nearlv half a centurv practically the liners and sailing vessels from eveo' land and 

whole trade' of Australia was carried on every sea. Steamers from London, Southamp- 

•^1 • c J -.u u '^ »» ton, Bremen, Marseilles. New 1 ork, Vancouver, 

either m Sydney- or through it.^ ^ S^„ Francisco, Hong Kong. Manila. Singapore. 

The chief glory of Sydney is its magniti- and from some of the cities of South America. 

cent harbor, of which the late Anthony Trol- find rest within its land-locked sea ; and they 

lope once wrote : " I despair of being able to cast their anchors, so to ^peak, in the very center 

convey to any reader my own idea of its ^ e ci >. 

beaut\^'* The entrance to it from the Pacific Next to the harbor, perhaps the most note- 
Ocean is through a remarkable gap, about worthy feature of Sydney is its aggregation 
three-quarters of a mile wide, in cliffs 400 to of parks, which cover a quarter of the whole 
500 feet high, known as " The Heads." The area of the city. 

winding, land-locked harbor itself extends r^^ ,^^^^^^ ^/^^ ;^ ^^^^ Centennial Park, com- 

for 14 miles, and is large enough and deep prising nearly a square mile of land. ... At 

enough to accommodate all the navies of the a few miles distance are two great national 



LEADiya ARTICLES OF THE MOMTH. 




230 • THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 

parks, each of them containing more than 30,000 of little more than 70 degrees, while in winter 

acres, intersected by rivers, and with wide areas the mercury seldom falls below 54 degrees, 

left in their natural condition. One may pass ... At the great holiday festivals the whole 

into deep, silent gorges, thickly set with tall for- population swarms down to the sunny beaches 

est trees, while here and there are table-lands and wave-washed reefs which actually form a 

starred with the beautiful Australian flora. part of the pleasure-loving city itself. . . . 

nnu- ^,.ki;^ u .-u-^^ r 4.1, •*. Sydney well justifies the two names which are 
The public buildings of the city are ex- popularly given to it,- ' The City of the Beau- 
celled only by those of its younger rival, Mel- tiful Harbor" and " The Carnival City." 
bourne Its town hall is considered to be ^^^^ ^^^ p^^^^^ Canal shall have been 

one ot the finest in the world, while the ^^i««.^j c j~ j n a ^ i- 

u^.^i u ^ .^1 completed, bydney, — and all Australia, m 

Dotanic Gardens represent a masterstroke e„, -n u u u^ • * u 1 

r 1 I ^ *• . »» n-u L ^^c^> — ^^'11 be brought into much closer con- 

of landscape artistrv'. 1 he names of many ^„ , „ • 1 .1 ^ ^^ ^ ^ e % 

X ^u * ^ u : .• . .u u- . • 1 t^ct with the great eastern ports of the 

of the streets bear testimony to the histoncal t !«•«.« j c * t^u j- . u- i_ 

. ^. X ^u 1 -.u .u .u United btates. 1 he distance which now 

association of the colony with the mother ^ **u -huu^jl 

country; as. for cxample.George Street, Pitt T'''"''^. '^T 7 ^\^^?''^^^ ^ ">»">■ 
Street.- and Elizabeth Street, named after ^ousands of miles, and the terrors of the 

T7ij» ^ XI XT' ^ ' long voyage around Cape Horn will become 

England s greatest queen before Victoria. ^ j-/- x .u ^ 

T^ • u 1 J .u * A . r J a tradition of the past. 

It is often remarked that Australians and ^ 

Americans are more alike than any other of Sydney demonstrates the extraordinary 

the great groups of the English-speaking possibilities of the young commonwealth, 
race; >'ct, as a rule, Americans know very Xo quote Mr. White further: 

little of Australia. .r^, , , r , 

. . . , ^ ,. _ , . The thoughtful stranger who visits Australia 

The spirit of the Australian Commonwealth for the first time is most impressed by the cx- 
rescmbles that of the American republic. In traordinary possibilities of the young common- 
Australia one finds the same activity and inde- ^^^^^^ jy^^ southwestern country contains mil- 
pendence, the same originality and self-reliance. ,• „^ ^e ^^^^^ ^f r..„:*f..i i««^ u-^u 

. . As in America, the spirit of democracy ^J,^"^ ^^/^^^? ^^ ^Tl?^'^ .1, ^".F*?^ 
is in the ascendant. Wages are high, public edu- almost anything, and which are still practically 
cation is widely diffused, and the Australian undeveloped. Here is room for great sheep and 
women have the same freedom from convcn- cattle ranches, for farms whose nch virgin soil 
tional control which their American sisters en- "as not yet been scratched by the hoe or cloven 
joy. ... As in America, some of the states by the plow. Even such great cities as Sydney 
of Australia have given the franchise to women, and Melbourne, each with a population of more 
In South Australia women may sit in Parlia- than half a million souls, represents only a he- 
rn ent. ginning. The same is still more true of Ade- 

In one respect Australians differ from laicle, and Hobart, and Brisbane. The ^t 

* ^1/ ^ u^rj«.«, n<^t *ar distant when Australia s potential wealth 

Americans: they are more given to holidays ^ju ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^p^^^^jy ^^^. 

and outdoor enjoyment. tied continent will teem with a great population. 

When they work, they work hard; but they Uke the United States, Australia is a land 
devote much time to amusements and open-air r ^«^^,-.,.«;* n 1 _j -.u -. x ^ ^u 

sports. This is perhaps due to the mildness of »* opportunity, a land that faces not the 

the climate, which in summer has an average past, but a splendid and triumphant future. 



SEVEN THOUSAND NEW ACRES WON FOR ITALY. 



T 



HE Nuova Antolog'ta (Rome) prints a through Mt. Salviano, which should lower 
very interesting article about a great the level of lake, and leave a zone of new 
engineering feat in Italy, which affords the land around it. Ca?sar, however, had rather 
most piquant contrast to such undertakings too much else to do to begin on this enter- 
in our new America, for it was Julius Csesar prise, w-hich lay dormant but not forgotten 
who first conceived the idea of draining Lake under several emperors until Claudius (A.D. 
Fucino, and the project was not completely 41-54), the father of Nero. He gave the 
accomplished until the year 1876, although task into the hands of an engineer named 
under the Emperor Claudius the great enter- Narcissus, who with none of the modem 
prise was partially successful. means for such vast labor, with nothing but 
Caesar felt the need of a large tract in the pickaxes and chisels and plenty of labor, 
center of Italy where grain could be raised, achieved success at the end of eleven years 
and had among his other vast plans, the of incessant toil. In order to get air into his 
notion of cutting an outlet to Lake Fucino tunnel and to transport building material he 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 231 

was obliged to run shafts to the top of the wild yell that had terrified the court of 

mountain, and to make galleries leading Claudius, the waters of Lake Fucino again 

down to the main subterranean tunnel, a pic- dashed beneath the mountain, leaving the 

ture of which is shown herewith. lake bed, as Narcissus had left it, with a 

Something of the prodigious labor ex- central lake eighteen miles in circuit. But 

pended in Roman times on this undertaking this did not satisfy Torlonia. His army of 

can be guessed, when we are informed that men dug a great canal which was to collect 

Narcissus made the tunnel almost four miles most of the remaining water, colossal dykes 

long, and that he employed 30,cxx) slaves were erected in the mud, watched by hun- 

during eleven years. The opening of the dreds of sentinels day and night, and finally 

tunnel was marked by a great gladiatorial the last refuge of the lake was violated and 

show in the form of a naval battle on the the water streamed out with a roar as of 

lake in which I9,cxx) sailors took part, of thunder which lasted two months. There 

whom a large number were killed. The now remained an immense plain of mud 

Imperial court drew near the entrance to the which for many months it was impossible to 

great gallery and the water was let in. Ac- work, but little by little the mud dried into 

cording to Tacitus the great volume of water fertile, — and, astonishing thing for Italy, — 

leaped for\vard down the tunnel with such absolutely virgin soil. 

a terrifying uproar that ever}-body in sight Then began the reward of the Torlonia 

was sure that some dreadful accident had family. There were about 7000 acres of 

occurred and fled in confusion: a scene that this valuable land favorably located with an 

was exactly reproduced eighteen centuries excellent temperate climate. Of this the 

or more later at the opening of the Torlonia Torlonias kept 500 acres as private estate 

tunnel. The subsequent history of Claudius' and the rest was all let and sublet and sublet 

tunnel can be briefly told. again. There are now in what was Lake 

Italy of later days had no money or time to fucino over 125 miles of good roads, lined 

keep up properly so great a piece of engineering, with poplars. 1 he lake returned to the 

and little by little the tunnel filled up and the national government about 70,000 lira 

Lake began to rise. The snows from the sur- (about $14,000) a year. Its dry bed now 

rounding mountams melted and poured down _^ 1 u^ * ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ r \\. l 

into the old basin, and there was Lake Fucino Produces about 5,000,000 lira worth of agri- 

again, almost as if th«re had been no Claudius, cultural products. Where 200 fishermen 

In the times of the Bourbons a few feeble at- made a scanty living out of the lake, I2,000 

tempts at restoration were made, in which fresh inhabitants find lucrative occupation in i!ic 

pr(>of was discovered that papier-mache carv- ^ 

injjs and other frauds practiced in State under- ^^^ spot. • r i . 

taking are by no means modern inventions. Lyen after the great stram of the engi- 

Narcissus and his assistants knew as well as neering problems was over, all this was not 

nK»dem contractors how to cheat the treasury, accomplished without difficulty and many dis- 

Onlv a part of the great tunnel had been made ^^,,^„„^^«„«.^ t* ,..«^ \.»^a '*^ ..«,^,.«/« «.u^ 

of liiasonrv-and that part was still in perfectly couragements. It was hard to persuade the 

Rood condition— but there were gaps where the limited, obstinate peasants to try any new 

TCK>i was supported simply by rough wooden methods, or to risk their small capital in a 

heam<;. for which, of course, the Imperial treas- new enterprise, for, as always in Italy, the 

urv had paid the price of good stone walls, vi- „«„«.„^^^^^^ ^«^^ u„ 1 „'^ «.^ A,*^*...:^^ 

na'llv in the nineteenth century a stock company venturesome ones had gone to America 

was formed to drain the lake, of which Prince ^ow, however, there are over 5000 small 

Alexander Torlonia owned more than half the tenants who successfully work their holdings. 

^t(Kk. The work was begun but very soon the There are also tracts where farming is done 

enormous expense of the undertaking frightened 1 , nnnnti'tiV^ nf <;iifrar 

the stockholders, who clamored to give it up. ?" a large scale, great quantities ot sugar 

Prince Torlonia bought them all out and con- beets being raised for a refinery which is one 

tinned single handed to strive to realize his of the finest in Italy, and which turns out 

dream. For years he poured his vast wealth into about 8,000,000 pounds of sugar a year, 

the apparently bottomless pit. and the question QinnfiViVQ nf <:hi»pn arp mi'^spH • the rpmnn has 

all over Italv was. "Will Torlonia drain the lake ^^"^ntities 0^ sheep are raised , the region has 

dry before tht lake drains Torlonia dry ? " The proved wonderfully suitable for fine stock 

man's strong tenacious face as shown in the por- breeding and raising: but it is worthy of 

trait here reproduced gives the right answ-r to note that Julius Grsar's dream is realized 

that question. j^ ^^^^ j^ j^ ^^ ^ producer of grain that the 

For twcnt>' >^ars 4000 men worked stead- ex-lake Fucino is most noteworthy. Five 

ily in this forgotten valley, visited by their hundred and fifty million bushels of grain 

indomitable leader. In April, 1862, the are raised in each year off the ground which 

main tunnel was complete, and with the same was for so many centuries lost to Italy. 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 
THE NEW MONUMENT TO BACH IN LEIPZIG. 

Bach, erected chiefly through the exertions 
of Felix Mendelssohn, the reviver of Bach, 
in 1843, but it was rather a well-meaning, 
pious eflort than an adequate r 




A MID ceremonies lasting three days, there 
was unveiled at Leipzig some weeks 
ago a notable, heroic statue of Johann Se- 
bastian Bach, the founder of German music. 
It seemed eminently fitting, a piece of poetic 
justice, that his memor>' should be specially 
honored on a spot which, though not his 
native town, was " the birth-place of the 
greatest of his immortal works, where he 
wrought so long and was so sorely harassed 
by the unappreciativc authorities above him." 
The statue, which is of bronze and ahout 
four meters in height, stands upon a pedestal 
of about three meters; an organ, as being 
most strikingly representative of the musi- 
cian's art, is placed behind him, greatly en- 
hancing the artistic effect. The monument 
occupies a point near the Church and School 
of St. Thomas, where Bach worked as cantor 
and teacher for twenty-seven years before he 
had attained fame as a composer. 

A recent issue of the Illustrirtr Ze'itung of 
Leipzig devotes three articles to the great 
musician, accompanied by reproductions of 
the monument, of various portraits, etc We 
glean some of the interesting points. 

Leipzig already possessed a memorial of 



It was in 1894, when the little Church of St. 
Thomas was rebuilt, that Bach's remains ( sup- 
posed to have been scaltcrcd) were exhumed in 
what up lo 1850 had been the churchyard. Seff- 
ner, ihe noted German sculptor, reproduced, by 
the aid of the recovered skull and some well- 
aulbenticated portraits, a wonderful bust of the 
musician, and Ihc idea was tlien conceived of 
incorporating this masterpiece of portraiture in 
a monument which should g;ive commensurate 
expression to the greatness of Bach and to the 
reverence in which Leipzig holds his memory. 
This project was consummated only after many 
struggles, other proposals having likewise been 
suggested. The powerful figure may be ac- 
counted one of the happiest of Seffner's crea- 
tions. Those who have followed his career and 
observed his peculiar excellence in portraiture, 
note the sculptor's love and joy, the persistent 
creative force, of which this statue seems an em- 
bodiment 

Bach was thirty-eight when, being one of 
the aspirants for the position of cantor of the 
Church of St. Thomas, he submitted a trial 
production. 

He had already been organist at Arnstadt and 
Miihlhausen, organist and chamber-musician at 
the court of Weimar, and for six vears Kapell- 
meister for the great musical connoisseur. Prince 
Leopold of Anhall-Kothen. Besides some twenty 
church cantatas, he had composed the greater 
part of his work for organ and clavichord, his 
solos for the violin and cello, the Saint John 
Passion, etc. The ignorance of the Town Coun- 
cil, to which he was responsible, of his real 
worth would seem as inconceivable as their 
slight appreciation of his later glorious religious 
music, did we not reflect that an artist's fame 
and achievements were not then spread by means 
of journals and printed music, and that, as- 
suredly, there were no real connoisseurs of art 
in council, consistory, or the governing bodies 
of universities. His income, — a fluctuating one 
dependent upon the number of marriage and 
funeral services, — amounted to about $j6o.oo a 
year, and this with a numerous family! The 
unrecognized genius sufTered all manner of an- 
noyances from the authorities, but no small part 
of these may be traced to his intractable nature. 

Bach, though obliged to compose for tJie 
demands of the day, was, nevertheless, the 
" greatest musician of the future, of all time, 
— his tones were destined to an imperishable 
revival." 

We have no clear knowledge of the fate of 
Bach's music the first fifty years after his death ; 
apparently it received but little attention. Sure- 
ly, however, around the opening of the nine- 
teenth century, there was a genuine revival of 
Bach's music, and Leipzig became from the out- 
set the center of all Bach's publications, re- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 233 

searches, and undertakings. An inspiring esti- of Breitkopf and Hartcl. which issued the great 

mate of the master, by Forkel, published there collected edition of Bach's works, excellent biog- 

in i8q2, gave a special impetus to further study, raphies of the master, etc., other firms, too, m 

and in 1850, a hundred years after Bach's death, Leipzig are zealously engaged in bringing out 

a Bach Society was founded in the city, whose carefully revised, expensive and cheap editions 

object it was to publish his complete works, of Bach's compositions. 
And the musical world was amazed at this o^i « • *u x ^u • ^ ^u 

wealth of art treasure, which, appearing in va- ^ ^^l^ ^ ^" ^"^ ^^^^^^ «^ ^"^ nineteenth cen- 

rious forms, including cheap popular editions, tury, Johann Sebastian Bach and Leipzig 

could gain a wide circulation. Besides, the came to be fused into a single conception, of 

^'I'^'^tXr'''" ^1 Leipzig; organized in 1854, un- ^^hich the Bach Memorial, making us forget 
dertook the production of Bach s music on a fine 1 j ^_i ^ j ^- 1 *• ^ x -.u 

scale; while - The Passion According to Saint ?^? "^P^^V ^""^ stimulating us to further, 

Matthew" is generally given in the town on taithful culture of art, may be regarded as 

Good Friday. Outside of the publishing house the beauteous symbol." 



A DEFENSE OF THE GANGES. 

TpHAT marvelous and mighty river of They not only drink it, but they put it in 

India, the Ganges, sacred to the Hin- casks and ship it long distances. Any of the 

dus as a goddess with gift of healing, is at all reigning Hindu princes receiving a cask of 

times an extremely interesting natural exhibit this delicious beverage becomes so overcome 

in a country filled with peculiar and unique with joy that he and his retinue take a day 

natural phenomena. off from their ordinary devotions in order to 

Its source is odd, being in an ice cave at celebrate the event, and bathe. The Hindu 

the foot of a snow bed in the Himalayas, at a traveler from distant parts, after visiting the 

point over 10,000 feet above the sea. In Ganges and paying a Brahmin priest for the 

length it is tremendous, extending 1500 miles, privilege of a drink from some particularly 

to the Bay of Bengal. It embodies, during its sacred spot or section, goes home and can have 

swift downward course, several other big the highest office in the gift of the people 

rivers, notably the Jumna and the Gogra. without even suggesting anything of the kind 

On its banks are numerous famous large himself. 

cities, including Calcutta, Patna, Benares and Baba Bharati, in the Light of India, de- 
Allahabad. Agra and Delhi are on Jumna's clares that the Ganges is worthy of approval 
banks, above its junction with the Ganges, from every point of view. He quotes 
It accumulates, in its course, yearly, millions E. H. Henkin, who wrote " Following the 
of tons of mud and sand from flowed districts Equator," and Mark Twain, who has writ- 
and deposits solid matter in similar quantities ten several humorous works, to the effect that 
along its banks. the Ganges water will kill cholera germs at 

The Hindus, for hundreds, — ^yes, thou- the rate of millions In six hours, and is there- 
sands, — of years have resorted to its banks to fore a splended antiseptic, 
bathe there and be healed of various diseases. The Baba is very Indignant with some of 
They take their dying relatives to its banks his Hindu brethren who favor the English 
from all parts of Hindustan, and after the view of the polluted character of Ganges 
souls of these relatives have departed, the water. He observes: 

surviving ones cast the bodies into the Ganges jf patriotism means love of one's country, their 

to consecrate them and prepare them for the patriotism means love of their country in her 

Hindu hereafter. Millions of Hindus per- present topographical, political and, lately, eco- 

form their vear's ablutions on the Ganges' "^[Il^^.^'^f- ^''"^^V,.T.n'^nr^^r.ii\^*L^^ l^'^^^\c 

, . - TT ' J 1 t t_ 1- •! J 11' "With the Hindu religion or social or domestic 

brink. Hundreds of others built dwellings institutions, most parts of which they are cry- 

and live at all times within stone's throw of ing out to reform. All these Anglicized patriots 

the sacred river are reformers of almost all their national insti- 

If that sort of thing were to happen on the JJ'ti""^- •''"d '* strikes one as a wonder sotnc- 

- - r t_ TT 1 i_ Tfcir* • • • *.u times how thev have condescended to enlist 

banks of the Hudson, the Mississippi or the themselves among the Hindus. Some of them 

Missouri rivers, the chances are that the have a perfect abhorrence for their countr>'mcn 

natives of New Jersey and New York living who worship the Ganges as a cleanser of human 

along or visiting these banks would distinctlv ^'"^^ ^"^ ?P"7*\f:.?^f'3w thlfe'^n ortU' 

- ^ "*, r J • 1 • J with the utmost disgust that tnev near an ortno- 

refuse to use the water tor drinking and ^^^ Hindu ^av that the Ganges flows from out 

cooking purposes, but in India it is different, the Lotus Feet of Vishnoo, which mcaxv?» iVv^t 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




it is a current of the purest Divine Energy which 
courses down throngli all the upper spheres until 
it touches the top of Ihe Himalayas, when it 
turns into water aii<l flows through the heart of 
the land of the gods, — which India is, — to the 
seas, and through the sea-waler its vibrations 
touch all the lands of the earth that are. 

Baba Bharatj quotes thus from Mr. Hen- 
kin, who had written a pamphlet on " The 
Cause and Prevention of Cholera ": 

Since I originally wrote this pamphlet I have 
discovered that the water of the Ganges and the 
Jumna is hostile to the growth of the cholera 
microbe, not only owing to the absence of food 
materials, but also owing to the actual presence 
of an antiseptic that has the power of destroying 
this microbe. At present 1 can make no sugges- 



tion as to the origin of this t 

The Hindu sage pays his respects to the 
Anglicized member of his race who takes the 
English view of the Ganges in these words: 

Almost all the millions of Hindus not only 
believe in the holiness of the Ganges and hold 
her in the highest reverence, but cleanse their 
body and soul by having a dip in her water daily 
or whenever convenient if she is near by. But 
the " educated " Hindu, whose consciousness is 
Anglicized out of all recognition, shares the 
opinion of his Western teachers that the holiness 
of that mighty stream is the merest superstition. 
A greater moral slave of the English and " Eng- 
lishism " there is not in the world than this 



LE/1 DING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 
IS A NEW CHINA BEING BORN? 



' I 'HE idea of a rcvolutionarj- upheaval in 
China in the sense in which the uord 
re\-o!ution is used in civihzed Europe must 
sound as strange to the American reader as 
the idea of chronic revolutitHi in Russia has 
become familiar. Yet " Parvus in a recent 
article in the Neaf Ztit, depicts a condition 
of things in that " land of no-change which 
forcibly recalls the anti- revolutionary da}s in 
France. 

The difference between China and any 
European country historical I > and institu 
tionaily is so great that even a modern revo 
lution with all the appurtenances of a modern 
revolution cannot have the same significance 
in China as the revolutions of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries had in Europe But 
the resemblances are sufficiently striking to 
indicate how far China has followed the 
example of Japan in the direction of Euro- 
peanization, A constitution and even a re- 
public have become common demands of the 
Chinese populace, and the methods by which 
these demands are made and the general 
principles in the name of which thej- arc made, 
all have a familiar ring. 

A French missionary writing in the Bulle- 
tin (let Missions Calhaliques, says: 

Even if events in China iii the last few years 
have become monotonous as far as outer nppcnr- 
ances are concerned, they art- by no means so in 
reality if we take into consideration the growing 
movement among the yellow races of an ideal ot 
independence and political libertj'. This ideal is 
still somewhat obscure and vague, but the words 
progress, civilization, justice, national autonomy 
are again actjuiring in this country a special sig- 
nificance which they seem to have lost among 
the old nations of Europe. One sees proffress in 
China everywhere; progress in the larfte cities 
where for twenty years hundreds ot steamers 
have been enterinii their ports, where since but 
yesterday many railroads converge, where quays, 
schonis, and apothecaries are built, where the 
tradesman in a richly folded robe and with an 
engaging smile on his face offers you a glass of 
adulterated champagne . . . where even the 
man of the plow, now more acquainted with 
the European and with his ideas, approaches you 
in a most reverential manner, and. finally, wliere 
even among the village population you often 
hear intelligent remarks that owe their origin 
to experimental science. 

So conservative an organ as the German 
lilarinf-Rundschnu concludes an article ema- 
nating from the German circles in China 
with these significant words: 

It seems to-day as if in consequence of the 
RoMO-Jatkanese war the great Asiatic states are 
iriifrt with an ardor for further politiral develop- 




(Tho itinnt powerful man \n China.) 

mcnt. and in a direction which is in diametrical 
opposition to all their old historical traditions. 
Considering the bloody crises which have marked 
the paths toward constitutional government in 
the Occident one cannot help reaching tlic cnn- 
chision that .-\sia offers a imich more iVrtilc field 
for politic.il catastrophes. .At any rate, in China 
the conditions for a political upheaval are pres- 
ent in grc.-it abundance. 

The language of the Evan/rrlische Mis- 
sions-Magazin is still more ominous: 

Already the loud knocking of the revolution 
is heard at the frmlcs. The discontent of the 
kingdom is making itself too audible, the de- 
mand tor the ■' promised constitution '.' has be- 
come too energetic to make it possible for China 
to continue in its old way. Edicts ordering re- 
forms are not wanting. But the native press 
speaks with gloomy pessimism ot such declnra- 
nons, it utterly mistrusts the government, and 
does not credit it with a real desire to make any 
changes except such as will redound to the 
greater misery of its subjects. 

The attitude of the Chinese Government 
toward the popular rcvolutionarj- movement 
is vacillating. At one moment it seems to 
be anxious to encourage the rising spirit of 
independence, and holds out hopes for a con- 
stitution, and at the next moment it is seized 
with panic, grows moic icacx!TOt\a,T^ -Ct^Mv 



THE AMERIC/IN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 




(ClilnpBe Minister 



Unltwl SUtea 



ever, and prohibits al) political discussion by 
the pressor in public meeting. 

By abolishing the old sj'Stem of education 
and examinations, which for over acxw years 
since Confucius have formed the basis of the 
Chinese official career, the Chinese Govern- 
ment has undermined its own strength and 
prepared the field for revolutionan' ideas. 
The education now required of the Chinese 
official is a Western education. For this pur- 
pose the Chinese Government sent many 
thousands of young men to Japan, America, 
England and Germany. On returning home 
these students organized a " literary move- 
ment," through which they agitate among the 
masses and offer opposition to the govern- 
ment, not stopping short even of bomb-throw- 
ing and furnishing a close analogy in their 
activity to the political movement of the 
Russian ." Intelligenzia." 

As a result of the propaganda by the in- 
tellectuals and the gradual introduction of 
European ideas and business and industrial 
methods, all classes of China are clamoring 
for radical reforms. The rich population in 
the province of Yunnan formed themselves 
into a party by the name of " For Life or 
Death," with the watchword: "We will 
either live as free citizens, not as the beasts 
and slaves of France and England, or we 
will die together!" In the provinces of 
Kwantung and Kwangsi the inhabitants are 
in a state of open revolt, and bands of rebels. 



equipped with modem weapons, offer fre- 
quent battle to the government troops. The 
press of Indo-China keeps up a continual 
agitation for the overthrow of the Mandschu 
dynasty, and for the establishment of a Chi- 
nese republic. The starving peasants rise in 
rebellion, and the salt smugglers band to- 
gether into armies and engage in regular bat- 
tles with the government troops. Even the 
powerful governors of the provinces openly 
side with the people against the central gov- 
ernment. 

Recently when the ■ government i 
plated a loan from England for the c 
tion of a railroad, it adopted a course un- 
precedented in the history of China. It 
called together representatives from the prov- 
inces that would be affected by the projected 
railway to discuss the loan with them and 
obtain their opinions. But, instead of dis- 
cussing the loan, the assembled representatives 
declared themselves " the beginning of a par- 
liament." " We have come here," they said, 
" to assert our rights against the government, 
and we will dare to fight for them to the 
end." A popular agitation arose and numer- 
ous meetings were held, with the result that 
the government issued an edict forbidding 
public meetings and restricting the freedom 
of the press. 

But the press can no longer be restrained. 
Every day new papers spring up in Peking, 
and they read like Russian underground lit- 
erature after the Bloody Sunday in St. Peters- 
burg. The follo\ving are characteristic pas- 
sages from the Chinese press of to-day: 

The tliird edict reminds the people that they 
are still without a constitution, and that the peo- 
ple have no voice. It is clear that the govern- 
ment wants to preserve its absolutism and is un- 
qualifiedly opposed to a constitution. It is only 
the fear of revolution that keeps it from saying 
so openly. They tell us over and over again 
that the people are not ripe for a constitution. 
But when evidence to the contrary is offered ii 
is accounted as a crime. In Peking the principle 
of Louis XIV. holds good: " L'elal c'cst moi! " 
But the people arc no longer as timid as they 
used to be. The government is forcing them 1" 
a war which will benefit the government least 
of all. The Chinese people have from olden 
times fought for their rights against the govern- 
ment, but have always had to yield to violence. 
Now, too, they are fighting for their rights, and 
it is proposed again to hold them down with 
violence. But the times have changed. The 
people must fight again. They can and will 

Revo! u tion a ri' conspirative societies are 
formed for establishing a republic in China, 
and the conspirators boldly spread proclama- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 237 

tions among the people with their own signa- what the European understood by China was 

tures attached. ^^^ Chinese goveniment as the embodiment of 

^jt 1 . * J .1 X 11 ^u tbe Chinese idea of state. As to the people 

Merchants and noblemen follow the exam- themselves, we knew only of the coolies or of 

pie of the revolutionists and they, too, appeal the Boxer uprisings, which seemed to us to be 

to the people with political manifestoes. In mere barbaric revolts against foreigners. Now, 

a circular published by them they call upon J\owever, progress and modem cities have made 

^1 1 r V *A ^\^ I L\. their appearance. We learn that there is a pub- 

the people to unite with them for the common ijc opinion in China which takes issue on polit- 

welfare of China: ical questions, a press which creates opposition 

The men of caste and the merchants of Shang- !.1^^1^?>:!5"T" i' ""^^ ^^'^ "^'""^^a '^''w^T ^"1 

hai have come together, conscious of the constitution which have marked the history of 

solidarity of the Chinese people, and their voices ?"^^P%^^^, more than a century now resound 

have found an echo both among the educated \or the first time from the far eastern shores of 

and the small people. The pack-carriers in ^sia. China appears for the first time before 

Hongchu, the cake bakers in Shao-hsing, the the civilized world as a political nation, as a 

actors of the lowest class, and the servant girls people with a political will. This is a historic 

display a noble rivalry and strive to outdo one factor which must henceforth be reckoned with 

another in contributing their mite. Hitherto in any estimate of Chinese events. 



I 



THE COMMERCIAL MORALITY OF THE JAPANESE. 

T is remarkable how seldom one meets in that every bank in Japan is in all its more 
the business world, — especially in Amer* responsible positions manned by Chinese, the 
ica, — with any one who has a good word to inference being that the Japanese cannot trust 
say for the merchants of the land of the their countrymen in such positions. The 
Rising Sun. The Chinese, it is said, are professor cannot imagine how ** such a fool- 
thoroughly reliable, but the Japanese, — well, ish and absolutely false statement could have 
they will ** skin " you, if they can. The al- arisen." He himself never saw a Chinese 
leged low commercial morality of the Japa- employee in any responsible position in a 
nese forms the subject of two recent articles Japanese bank ; and a friend of his who has 
in American magazines, by Prof. George spent his life in Japan " confidently avowed 
Trumbull Ladd and Mr. Adachi Kinnosuke, the same experience.'* 

respectively. After all just apologies are made, however, 

Professor Ladd has made three separate we are forced back to the conclusion that the 

journeys to Japan for the purpose of lectur- Japanese commercial classes with whom for- 

;«« ;« «.k«#. r^.,.^«.,^r K.'e 1oe«> ^.'cV i^^¥m,^A\nn cigncrs have hitherto come into contact have not 

ing m that country his last visit extendmg ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ standard of business honor which 

from the summer of 1900 to the autumn ot characterizes the same classes in the United 

1907. Since his return, he has " striven to States or in northern Europe, or even in the 

counteract the misunderstandings and hostile treaty ports of China. 

feelings with regard to Japan which have What, now, is the explanation of this dif- 

becn manifested in parts of the United ference? The first and most profound rea- 

States." Writing in the July Century son is historical. Until very recently, " men 

he discusses the question, how much of of honor " in Japan would not and could not 

truth there is in the charge " that the busi- engage in business. 

ness morals of the Japanese are of a rela- They despised rather than sought the making 

tively low order, not only when compared of money. The shopkeeper, with the innkeeper, 

with the greater commercial nations of the the maker of sake, the Huddhist monk, and the 

1X7 -. . ^ ij u * ^ •♦u *k«:. ^M.\r^u peasant, belonged to the lower order. — not so 

Western world, but even with their neigh- f^^ .^^^^^ ^^\^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.jl ^^^-^^ distinctly 

bors m the Orient, the Chinese. apart from the Samurai, or knightly gentlemen. 

That there is much truth in the charge^ whose rule of life was the bushido. To this day, 

would, he thinks, be confessed and deplored the more old-fashi^oned of the upper-class fami- 

. u 5 • ^ n* ^ X • • 1 A 1 hcs m Japan feci somewhat degraded bv the 

by the more intelligent, fair-minded, and i,,termarriage with them of a son or a daughter. 
patriotic of the Japanese themselves. t- 1 n 1 
^^ . , , .^ . From these Samurai have come the great 
The case is by no means, however, as it is or- j „ * * j t^u« 
dinarily represented by the complainants, who Japanese statesmen and warriors. They 
in general arc as lacking in experience as they went abroad to observe, investig:ate, and 
arc in ability to take an impersonal and unselfish, studv " ; and on their return to their father- 
not to say sympathetic, point of view. ^^^^ f^^itiX all the responsible positions in the 
He cites the assertion, frequently made, army and navy. 



238 THE AMERICAN REI^IEW OF REI^IEIVS. 

Of late years, but only of late years, they have you suppose your company would hold its high 

turned themselves to business and to the eco- standard of to-day ? " 

nomical development of their country ... " Oh, not many years, — ^two or three years 

and the sons of the classes formerly counted of perhaps." 

the lowest are being carefully educated in the ** Let me give you a few figures from a simple 

ways, and in the accepted morals, of the modern statistical table. In 1868 the foreign commerce 

business world. All this is rapidly changing, and of Nippon amounted in value to 15,553473 yen. 

indeed has already profoundly modified, the char- In 1907 the foreign trade of Nippon amounted 

acter of the business morals of Japan. to 924,708.000 yen. . . . Pray read the sig- 

- . , , , , , X nificance of these figures." 
It IS commonly charged that the Japanese 

have scanty regard for the sacredness of a Patent violation is another charge that is 

contract. The Oriental, says Professor Ladd, made against the Japanese. Mr. Kinnosuke 

does not appreciate this business device as was recently talking with a representative of 

^^*e do. one of the great press-makers in the world. 

Get a true Japanese . . . committed to you We quote him at this point: 
under a pledge of personal fidelity, and there is 

no other man on the face of the earth whom Said he to me : " We sent to Japan one of 

you may trust more implicitly, and to the death these great presses, — just one, and we haven't 

if need be, than him. But it requires education sent another." 

and experience to make the same man under- " Why ? " I said. 

stand why he should be faithful to a form of " Oh, you know, you fellows over there are 

words which he has perhaps not thoroughly com- so clever that you just buy one machine of us, 

prehended at the beginning. and when you get it over there you take it to 

,^. . . . . - pieces and at once begin to manufacture the 

1 hen, agam, m the petty transactions of whole thing." 

trade the traditional method of the Orient is 

different from that of the Western world. Mr. Kinnosuke then pointed out that not 

" The well-to-do tourist should pay for tea more than four persons in the whole of Japan 

and cakes ten times as much as his coolie, could possibly make use of such a large press, 

One price for all seems absurd." and that it would cost millions of dollars to 

Buyer and seller begin at a notable distance »?stall the plant for manufacturing the va- 

from each other, and courteously maneuver until r»ous parts of this great press, — a ridiculous 

they succeed in meeting on some middle ground, outlay for so few machines. 

Thus neither thinks of the transactions as tainted Mr. Kinnosuke was taunted also with the 

with dishonesty or falsehood. 11^ *.* ^ *u «. *u t ui* j -. 

^ allegation that the Japanese were obliged to 

These conditions are rapidly being employ Chinamen in their banks. For an- 

changed. When Professor Ladd was asked swer, he took his detractor down to Wall 
to speak at the Government Fisheries Insti-. Street to the branch of the Yokohama Specie 

tute, he inquired, ** On what shall I speak? " Bank. ** Can you see a single Chinaman 

"About practical morals," was the reply, here?" he asked. "Sure," came the reply, 

On ever>' hand are to be noted the desire to " you can't fool me. Those two boy^ over 

adopt the highest standards of business moral- there are Chinese who have cut off their 

ity and the determination to extend to the queues "(!). As Mr. Kinnosuke says, "Let 

whole nation " that spirit which has charac- an Anglo-Saxon get an idea into his head, 

terized in the past their own best types of and it is verj' difficult to get it out." He also 

manhood." mentions the interesting fact that the Chinese 

Views of a Japanese. employed in counting money have a rcmarka- 

ble faculty tor detecting false coin. 

Mr. Kinnosuke, who is the proprietor Like Professor Ladd, Mr. Kinnosuke sees 

and editor of The Far East, is a Japa- the dawn of a new order of things. The 

nese of American training, and a writer of children of the Samurai class no longer com- 

force and elegance. He is naturally some- pose quatrains and look down on the " men 

what more outspoken in behalf of his coun- of the market," but they hold to-day the vast 

trymen. Being questioned by a New York majority of the greater mercantile enterprises 

business man in regard to the alleged low of the empire, 
commercial morality of his countrymen, he 

replied: Many a Western critic still insists upon judg- 

insT the Nippon merchant of to-day by the stand- 
"You are at the head of one of the largest ard of fifty years ago. That is wrong. The 
industrial corporations in the United States, order of the thing is not that the Nippon mer- 
Suppose to-morrow you were to adopt the Jew- chant should change so much as that the West- 
peddler policy of ' skinning ' ever>'body that may ern critic should lay aside his antiquated stand- 
come to deal with you. For how many years do ard of judgment. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 

IVORY HUNTING, ITS ROMANCE AND REALITIES. 

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S an- 
nouncement of his projected excursion 
into the wilds of Africa, in search of big 
game, lends especial interest to Mr. Berke- 
ley Mutton's " Story of an Ivory Hunter," 
in Everybody's Magazine for July, Ivory 
hunting, he saj-s, is the one profession " that 
a man can't be trained into, or kicked into, 
or driven into, unless he's bom into it as 
well." 

Vou can make a lawyer, or a merchant, or a 
banker, or even a doctor, or a sailor out of al- 
most any man of average intelligence, but you 
can't make a hunter out of him unless he wa; 
born a hunter. . . . Many a time I've come 
back (mm a trip, half dead with fever, swearing 
that I'm done with the business for good. And 
some bright day, in six months, or even three, 
the smell of the jungle gels into my nostrils ; 
tlirougli all the roar of the street traffic I hear 
the squeal of an elephant, or the coughing roar 
of a lion's challenge — and that settles the busi- 
ness. Back 1 go again, knowing precisely what 
is coming — the sweating days, and the chilling 
nights, the torments of insects and of thirst, the 
risks, the hardships, and the privations. For 
once Africa has laid her spell upon a man, lie's 
hers forever. 

Mr. Hutton at 20 found himself stranded 
in London, and meeting at the docks a man 
who ^vas " going out after ivory," he joined 
the expedition ; and he has been " going out 
after ivory" evcrsince. Hcrecommends heavy 
guns for beginners. The black powder they 
bum makes a dense cloud of smoke; and to 
this fact many a hunter owes his life. " An 
elephant's eyesight is notoriously defective, 
and when enraged and wounded, he will 
often charge riiis cloud of smoke, and so give 
the hunter time to escape." Mr, Hutton's 
own life was saved in this way. He had 
wounded an elephant, and the recoil of his 
gun caused him to trip on a vine, and he fell 
on his back. The brute charged, and, the 
hunter having dropped his gun in his fall, it 
seemed that nothing on earth couid save his 
life. His gun-bearer, on the opposite side of 
the trail, happened to step on a rotten log 
which gave way with him, and tn his fall 
his gun went off. Instantly the elephant 
wheeled and charged for the smoke, while 
the hunter got out of range " as quickly as 
the Lord would let him." Five hours later 
he killed the animal, whose tusks were fully 
seven feet long. 

In Mr. Hutton's opinion, rhineroceros 
bunting is the most dangerous of all hunting, 
bar none. 







The beast seems possessed of a .sort of devil- 
ish cunning ; ;y-ou can't fi'ol him as lou can an 
elephant, nor intimidate him as you can a lion. 
. . . He docs not wait to be attacked. . . . 
Like the elephant, he can show a speed that is 
nothing short of marvelous. . . . Once vou 
rouse him. you must kill him, or he'll kill you, 
if he can get you. 

No matter how experienced the white man 
may be in hunting, he has to depend upon the 
" ignorant native." Mr, Hutton admits 
that his own knowledge is as a child's com- 
pared with that of a black " boy," 

Tn the dry season his instinct, inherited from 
untold generations, teaches him llie best spots to 
finil or to dig for water; in the rainy season 
he knows how best to cross the treacherous 
morasses and quaking bogs. He knows leaves 
th.nt. compounded, will allay the slinks of in- 
sects; he knows how to keep off vermin by the 
use of herbs whose smell Europeans can scarce- 
ly stand. 

But when the hunter has secured his 
ivory, his troubles are only just beginning. 
Each of the tusks weighs from 50 to 250 
pounds. Assuming that he has got together 
$100,000 worth of fine ivory, this will be 
represented by a load of from 50.000 to 
60,000 pounds. The hunter will probably. 



240 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REk'lEWS. 

be " a thousand miles from anywhere " ; there ica are increasing. Recently ivory sold in 

are no railroads, no wheeled vehicles, and no London at $453 a hundredweight; and prett>' 

draft animals. The ivory has to be trans- soon, Mr, Hutton thinks, choice ivory will 

ported on the backs of native porters; and command $15,000 a ton, and there w^ill be 

these think nothing of dropping their loads precious little in the market at that, 
and deserting. Sometimes, too, they are shot The finest of all ivory is used in the manu- 

down by hostile tribes from ambushes. facture of billiard balls, of which only 5 can 

Tusks may sometimes be obtained from be made from one tusk, so that 10 balls rep- 
native kings " for an old scarlet military resent one elephant. In a certain warehouse 
tunic with a bit of gold braid on it," and in London may be seen a store of 20,000 bil- 
one weighing nearly 200 pounds was ex- Hard balls, which means that 2000 elephants 
changed ** for a demoralized cocked hat and were slaughtered to supply them. The same 
a pair of purple satin corsets." firm ** calls on the African forests for 100 

When finally the ivory reaches the coast, elephants a month," so that it \v'\\\ be readily 

it is shipped to London or to Antwerp ; prac- seen how necessary have the " big game " 

tically the whole supply is disposed of through laws become. 

two firms in those cities. The price is steadily Mr. Hutton says there is good money in 

advancing. The herds are rapidly diminish- the business. For years his income has ranged 

ing, while the demands of Europe and Amer- from $10,000 to $20,000 a year. 



THE LACK OF TEACHERS IN THE GERMAN SCHOOLS. 

TN a recent article in the Neue Zeit, Otto is, 22.15 per cent, of all the school children are 

■■• Kiihle quotes some interesting figures re- taught i^n overcrowded school rooms. In 692 

J. ^1 ^ ^ ,1. 11 !_• 1 classes the attendance in each class ranged from 

gardmg the German public schools, which ,20 pupils to 236. Even Saxony, which enjoys 

reveal a condition in the elementary schools the reputation of having the best schools in Ger- 

of the classic land of learning no less deplora- many, showed by the latest statistics a record of 

ble than in those of our own country. Ger- 4i5 public schools, more than half the entire 

, . I, «. • r 11/ number of the Kingdom, with classes of 80 

many is chronically suffering from lack of an p^pjis and over. The maximum number pre- 

adequate teaching force, and the school sta- scribed by law is 60 pupils for a class. Consid- 

tistics prove that this evil has been constantly ered in detail the figures are still more appalling. 

on the increase for the last thirty years. ^"^, hundred and seven schools had 80 to 90 

■^ ^ pupils in a class, 87 numbered up to no, 59 to 

In 1901 there were in the whole of Germany 120 in a class, and 61 schools averaged an at- 
59*348 public schools, with 146.530 teachers and tendance per class of from 130 to 174. 
8,924,779 pupils. This makes on an average 61 y -itt.. .1 ^1 v / ^ u 
pupils to I teacher. Under normal conditions ^ I" Wurtemberg the paucity of teachers 
there should be at least i teacher to every 30 has been so greatly on the increase since 1 90 1 
pupils, which would necessitate an increase in that the minister of education, Weizsacker, in 
the present teaching force of at least 150,000. ^ recent utterance in the chamber character- 
in the higher schools these conditions do not • j ^1 j* . r ^\ i_ 1 c* 
exist. In Prussia during the years 1904 and ^^^^ Y^\ condition of the schools as unwor- 
1905 the ratio of teacher to student was i to 17, thy of the state. A similar situation prevails 
or 18 in the high schools, and i to 15 or 16 in in Hessen, especially in the industrial cen- 
the gymnasia. ^g,.g^ where the growth of the working popu- 
In addition to this absolute deficiency there lation has been so rapid that the school ad- 
is also a relative scarcity which the Prussian ministration has proved itself utterly incapa- 
ministry of education explains as due to the ble of meeting the increased demands made 
impossibility of finding available teachers. In upon it. 

1901, 1828 teachers' positions were left un- The chief causes of this paucity are the 

occupied, and this number increased in 1906 low salaries, and the strict, military-like disci- 

to 3049. pline imposed upon the teachers, which often 

T ,QQ^ *u ^Q^^ 1 1 • r- subjects them to humiliations from the higher 

In 1882 there were 2879 schools m Germany , •' , i_ • • t-< •1 

with only one-half day attendance, in 1891 this ^^^oq\ authorities, l^or many years it has 

number rose to 5078. and in 1901 to 7873. More- been the endeavor of the liberal elements in 

over, the statistics of 1901 showed that 1,255,922 Germanv to secure legislative reform meas- 

children m 8815 schools were so distributed that ^^es aiming at the removal of these evils. 

in the one-grade schools there were more than t> 1 i. • 1 1 /-« 

80 children in a class, in the two and three grade P^^ ^"^ strongest political party, the Center, 

schools, 70, and in the half-day schools, 60; that is opposed to any school reform. It fears 



LEADING ARTICLES OP THE MONTH. 241 

the influence of an improved public school The agitation for school reform is growing 
s>-stem upon the sectarian schools, and as it particularly strong among the teachers them- 
represents chiefly the agricultural classes, selves, and at the last election for the Prus- 
whose interests in the main are in the sian Landtag they succeeded in raising this 
farm laborers, it has nothing to gain from question to a political issue. In a program 
the extension of education among the drawn up by the teachers of Prussia and sub- 
masses, mittcd to the candidates for the Landtag they 

Under these circumstances the liberals are ^^^^ ^^^ following demands: 

compelled to resort merely to palliative meas- (i) Increase of salary; (2) the abolition of 

ures, among which they advocate the increase ecclesiastical inspection; (3) reform in the 

of schools for teachers, the employment of as school curriculum and in religious instruction; 

great a number as possible of women teachers, (4) decentralization of the school administra- 

and the lowering of the standards of examina- tion; (5) the abolition of all preparatory and 

tion for teachers so as to permit students of privileged schools, and the free admission to the 

intermediate schools and high schools to become high schools of the more gifted students grad- 

tcachers after a certain age. uating. 



EDUCATING OUR BOYS. 

T-IAVING discussed, in recent num- ing numbers to go to college, even though 

bers of Lippincott*s, some of the merits they demand a type of college training while 

and some of the shortcomings of private sec- in preparation for it." 

ondary education, Mr. Joseph M. Rogers On the question of vacations, Mr. Rogers 

treats, in a concluding paper, the whole sub- says: 

ject in a broader manner; "for," ^ he says, j^^^^ j^ „^ j^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^y^v^^gt boy 

** what aitects the private school affects also or girl should not start to school early in Sep- 

the public school, its competitor." tember and remain until the middle or latter 

One of the greatest educators of the coun- Part of June, with two very brief vacation 

*i J 1 J *k -. <« «.k- ^^^,^--.« «^J periods. . . To have a boy at home three 

try recently declared that the progress and ^^^^^ ^^ Christmas time and two at Easter is 

prosperity of the whole country are abso- gimply dividing up the year in a way that injures 

lately bound up in secondary education." It the boy's mind, makes concentrated application 

is estimated that there are nearly 1,000,000 difficult, and compels him to resort to all kinds 

boys and girls pursuing academic studies in ^^ subterfuges to pass examinations. 

our secondary schools, while in superior edu- Anticipating that he will be laughed at 

cational institutions the number is less than fot the suggestion, Mr. Rogers contends that 

200,000. Of the latter probably less than the boy needs more time for poetry. " How 

30,000 are entirely engaged in academic many boys," he asks, " read poetry nowadays 

study; the remainder are entered in profes- except under compulsion? . . A course 

sional and technical schools. Consequently in Shakespearean literary anatomy or a few 

It is upon the secondary schools that " the didactic dissections of poems, as often prac- 

bulk of academic preparation for profes- ticed, is worse than nothing at all." If only 

sional and technical study falls." his tendencies be steered in the right direc- 

According to so eminent an authority as tion, if only he be initiated into its beauties, 

President Schurman, of Cornell University, the boy will, during his adolescent years, read 

" the spirit of the age is not favorable to poetry with avidity. 

the notion of liberal culture. . . Our ^^ ^^u q£ „s ^^^^ ^^^^ poetry in our lives. 
youth frequent the gainful occupations. Our it makes better husbands and better wives, bet- 
colleges of arts decline, while the scientific ter fathers and better mothers. . . We sneer 

and technical schools are overcrowded " rV^^/^'n^^lI^t^rel'ol'ofToftrroT^r^: 

The college of liberal arts having practical- mance, and action. ... It developed and per- 

ly ceased to perform its functions, there is fected the arts and sciences when Europe for 

nothing to fill the void except the secondary centuries was submerged in barbarism and in- 

schools; and the anomaly exists, " that while tellectual sloth. 

the scope of these schools has been widened Mr. Rogers pays a high tribute to " the 

so as to include a curriculum which will pre- noble band of men and women engaged in 

pare the student for entering college, at the secondary education," who, he says, " are 

same time boys and girls attending the pre- the peers of any men and women in the 

paratory schools are refusing in ever-increas- world. Their labors are intense, they are 



242 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REt/fElVS. 

underpaid, and their greatest handicap is Parents being unwilling to admit their 

that they have to work against the prejudice full responsibilities in this matter, the State, 

of patrons who want bricks made without the city, and the teachers have to take it up ; 

straw, but insist on the full tale at the end and the parent measures the teacher by what 

of every session." he or she in this way does for his child. One 

The secondary schools are called upon to result of this is that many of the ablest 

do much of the work not only of the univer- teachers are unpopular because they refuse 

sity but of the home circle as well. Mr. to take up the burden imposed upon them by 

Rogers truly says : " The boy who does not the parents, while many of the most popular 

* get at home most of his education, — using the educators are those who act more as parents 

term in its widest sense, — is unfortunate." than as pedagogues. 

The majority of parents, however, do not Mr. Rogers considers that our boys need 

realize what a serious problem education is, to have more opportunity for thinking on 

and how much their children's success in life their account; that more time should be 

depends on the thought the parents put into given to developing the imaginative faculty, 

the problem. " If," he says, " a boy is to become a mere 

business machine, and nothing else, we had 

The man who takes his son into -business better at once close all our schools except 

watches oyer him with sedulous care: no detail ^y^^^ j^^^^gj ^^ commercial instruction." 
IS too slight to escape his observation, no 

amount of time and attention too great to be- He must divine the future, whether it have 

stow upon him so that he may leam the busi- to do with an empire or a labor-saving machine, 

ness in its petty details and its larger factors. . . . The great cathedral, the mighty bridge, 

But the same parent sends his boy to school the great painting . . . are solely the re- 

and shuffles off his own paramount responsi- suit of imagination. . . Every boy should be 

bilities upon the shoulders of the teacher, as trained to become creative, no matter in what 

he might present him with an umbrella. groove his life may run. 



A DUTCH VIEW OF THE NORTH-SEA AGREEMENT. 

il T a meeting of the representatives of According to this writer's opinion, there- 
Great Britain, France, Germany, the fore, Germany's hands are left perfectly free, 
Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark it was notwithstanding this agreement, 
solemnly agreed that the North-Sea bounda- ^^ ^^^,^j„,y ^^^, ^^^^.^^ ^^^ comfortable 
ries of the nations represented should be kept under our close juxtaposition to the great Ger- 
inviolate by each and all of the contracting man nation, while, at the same time, we are the 
parties, and that they should collectively and happy possessors of rivers, harbors, and sea- 

individually see to the faithful observance of ^US ts%'eiS:i^riJl^!'r:Ie ot 

this agreement. ^ mighty neighbor eager to remove the disad- 

How this treaty is regarded now by some vantage of its lack of these by any means what- 

of the leading thinkers in one of the coun- soever. And we are sufficiently at home in his- 

tries concerned,— the Netherlands,— we i^!;!:,*^,.^"^^,^!!''* ^l^r/if'*^ """I'?' ^u"" '^'^ """ 

, f * . £ \. ji Other than take what they want whenever a 

gather from a recent issue of the Amster- favorable opportunity presents itself to do so. 
dammer. One of their ablest writers treats And when it is recalled how that mighty Ger- 
the matter in this weekly in no euphemistic man nation has conducted itself toward Den- 
fashion, in the article from which we quote: '"Y^' .^^'^^^;^r^\"!; ^"1 ^^1^"^; hj>^J." 
* ^ order to crush the latter utterly it treats this 

The fact that, in case of war between Gcr- as if, in the treatment of the weak, the ideas of 
many and France, and still more of war with right, nobility, and magnanimity could be ut- 
France and England, the two latter nations terly ignored, the Netherlands may well be ex- 
would have to respect the seacoast of Holland, cused for looking upon any protestations of 
could prove no otherwise than advantageous to this peaceably disposed Emperor with utmost 
Germany. In the coast regions,— confining our- suspicion. But, notwithstanding all this, and 
selves now only to the Netherlands, — are cer- much more that is destructive of sjrmpathy in 
tainly not to be reckoned the eastern boun- the direction in question, the notion that Hol- 
daries, with Lunburg, Brabant, and what fur- land stands in fear of Germany has little or no 
ther, for any reason whatever, might be of ad- foundation. It knows happily but too well that 
vantage to further the designs of Germany, for the present there is no danger of attack 
Not a single penalty exists, moreover, for the from that quarter, as long as the proportion- 
infraction of the treaty ; nay, the obligation of ate strength of England and France, on the one 
carrying out a joint resolution is not even men- side, and of Germany, on the other, remains as 
tioned. it now is. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 248 

"Holland exists by the grace of England rying out any hostile design toward Holland 

and France. In this the Dutch do not suffer ;''"<-' j,^ T.Zlt"w!ii', f Ji^'" * 'h^^k""* °" **'*' 

. „ part ot h^mperor Wilnelin. And therefore we 

themselves to be deceived. affirm that the advancement of France and 

England as military powers is of more value to 

As long as those two nations, taken together, Holland than any dozen of North- Sea agrec- 

remain too strong to permit of Germany's car- mcnts originating in (lermany. 



THE AUSTRIAN ANABAPTISTS IN AMERICA. 

T^HE prosperous communities of Anabap- halls, apothecary shop," etc. The produce of 

tists in South Dakota and elsewhere in the Anabaptist Brothers was bought readily 

North America have their traditions of so- and was praised highly. Even Count Ro- 

journ in different lands. An interesting light mantzov spoke with pride of the success and 

is thrown on these traditions by a recent arti- prosperity of his "Germans." We are told 

cle of Herr Wolkan in the Osterreichische further: 

Rundschau (Vienna). The writer relates jj^e clothing of the brothers and sisters was 

how, after cruel persecution by both Catho- very simple. The men wore short, black 

lies and Protestants in Austria, Holland, and breeches, -the si.sters blue dresses, and white 

o • 11 4,* ^ ^c 4-kA A««4kor.«-;c^c Kerchiefs on tlicir heads. 1 he gathermg of hay 

Switzerland, a portion of the Anabaptists .^^ ^^^ „,eadows by the brothers and sisters thus 

found a peaceful temporary haven m Kussia, dressed made, therefore, a pretty sight. Every 

and finally emigrated to the United States traveler admired the little comnmnity. The in- 

and Canada. ternal arrangement was as attractive as its ex- 

1^1- A u -.• -. •-« Kr^..4.u A.^«^;oo ofo ternal relations. After nursing* her child for 

The Anabaptists m North America are one year and a half the mother brought it to the 

followers of the reformer, Jacob Huter, who children's hall. A number of women were 

was burned at the stake in 1536. They came charged here with the care of the children, and 

originally from Carinthia, in Austria, whence especially with the preparation of their food. 

t J -. ^ •«.«••- ;^ «.ko ^\rr\y¥ Aw^ ^f the women watched over the children 

many were forced to emigrate in the eight- ^^ ^j^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^^^ rt^chc^ the age of three 

ecnth century. they were taken to the small school. They were 

The persecutions to which the Huterites were !^»g^V ^-^'^ ^"^ i^""^^ """"^ f}'^l ^^'""^^^^^^ ^^ 

subject^ b^oke up s^^^ of their communities, infant mmd could grasp. At the age of six they 

The chronicle states that - children were parted were brought to the large school. The members 

from father and mother for the sake of re- f ^^^^ community came together every morning 

iS." In 1755 a number of Anabaptists were ^^^enhi^or^^^^^^^^^ ' " "' "*^^' ^""^ '^' 

exiled to Transylvania, and after a long period evening prayers. 

of wandering were scattered over the entire It was in 1874 that the Brothers resolved 

countiy. In time they came together again, ^^ migrate to America, since the carrying 

formed an organization, and the number of their - ^ ^lu- i-- .^ 

followers increased. New attacks by the Catho- of arms was contrary to their religious tenets, 

lie clergy led them to a new emigration, this The first of the Huterites to come to the 

time to Roumania. Sixty-seven of their num- United States were Michael Waldner and 

ber departed secretly for /^at country in 1767. Jacob Hofer. who settled with their fami- 

The Russo-Turkish War of 1768 compelled them f. • tj _i 1-1 , *l at- 

once again to seek a new home, and at the in- l»es m Bonhomme County, on the Missouri 

stance of the Russian General, Semetin, they set- River. 

tied, in 1770, .on the estate of Count Romantzov jj,^ community soon increased so rapidly that 
in the Ukraine. Good fortune came to them ^ ^^^ settlement was established at Miltown. 
here and they prospered. They led a communal ^j^^.^^ ^^^^^ j^^^^. j,^j,j a^o^her one at Rosedale, 
existence, and every member was compelled to ^„^ ^^^Uy j„ ^^^ ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^ established at 
learn a trade. Maxwell, all of them on the James River, a 
The settlement soon acquired an enviable tributary of the Missouri. In 1906 provision 
• r ^u • J *~. ^..,,^1;.,, ^^A was made for the establishment of a fifth settle- 
reputation for the industry, fniglity, and ,^^„^ Another company of Huterites, under 

intelligence of its inhabitants.. Their cus- the leadership of Darius Walter and George 

toms and mode of life were in striking con- Hofer, founded in 1874 a communitv at Wolfs 

trast to those of the Russian peasantry and peek, also^ on the James River. New arrivals 

ii<»i. i.vr M #*^ ^ 3- . 1 . from Russia necessitated the establishment of 

occasioned much comment among their new- additional settlements at Jamesville and in its 

neighbors. We arc told that members of vicinity. A number of Huterites settled also, 

the nobility visited the community and ex- in 1899, in Manitoba, Canada, and prospered 

pressed their gratification with what they saw ll;^r<^>f ^V '""T "'"'''''^i* however, they left 

!i ^^ * 1 t • f »^ f i_ i 1 their Canadian home and settled, in TQ05, m 

♦ • • and adniired the workshops, schools. Spj^k County, South Dakota. A third Huterite 

house of worship, dining-halls, children s colony was established, in 1877, by Jacob Steiff 



^ THE AMERICAN kEI/JEW OF R^yliU^i. 

and Peter Hofer. Other settlements were the laundry machinery, where the garments 

founded in the following years until at present f^^ ^^e entire community arc washed. The 

there are in South Dakota fourteen Anabaptist ^^^^ ^j ^^^ f^^ ^^^ community is 
settlements, contammg each from ten to thirty r j • ^ ui- u ^ ^u u ^.*. 

families performed m one establishment, the butter 

and milk are kept in a common cellar, while 

In point of wealth and numbers the colony the thousands of pigeons which breed at the 

at Wolf's Creek is perhaps the most impor- settlement arc sold at remunerative prices in 

tant of the Anabaptist settlements. It has Chicago. 

seventy-six claims (each i6o acres), splendid "The Huterites live here," says the author 
herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, fine build- of the article already quoted from, "apart 
ings for the housing of the animals, and from the world, yet they are happy. They 
modern agricultural machinery. They have still regard themselves as Germans, like their 
a gasoline engine for the cream-separator and fathers, to whose precepts they have re- 
butter-churn, and employ a horse for driving mained true." 



PUNISHMENT THAT DOES NOT FIT THE CRIME. 

TpHE press teems with reports of flagrant class who could not be certified as insane. The 

'■' cases of disproportion of sentences to ^^y'""^. physician and other experts do not 

Aiz^ixj • J J*, recognize them. They consider them equipped 

crimes. A hrst offender is condemned to ^-^^^ f^n voluntary control, and regard punish- 

pcnal servitude for seven years for stealing ment as the wholesome treatment. Far differ- 

goods worth about $15, while a man who ent is it when the prison doctor has them 

" has stolen nearly a million receives a sentence H"d«r observation. They don't go straight even 

e \ ^ r rj^x j'^' ^ u •-.« in prison, and the doctor finds he has to shelter 

of but five years. These conditions bring ^^em from punishment. They are called morally 

the administration of the law into discredit, insane, which, in other words, means that the 

Before effort can rightly be directed to- moral central authority in the brain is abnormal 

ward a cure, or even a correct treatment, of ^^ deficient 

these conditions, writes Dr. Albert Wilson The term " sports," by which class C is 

in the Westminster Review, it is essential to designated, is used in the botanical sense, 
have a correct knowledge of the criminal. 

Sir Robert Anderson has classified crimi- ^ Every one knows that plants may throw off a 

I " *u « u «««»* ^« ^4.^^:^u- »^A flower or two of quite a different type to the 

nals as those^ who can t go straight and ^^^^^j ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^p^^^^ '^ . . A 

those who won t go straight. Ur. Wilson young burglar aged twenty-eight gave me his 

would make two rather wider divisions: history. His father was one of our wealthy 

, ^ _,, - . ^ , J x* 1 city accountants. His mother was insane. He 

(I) Those who are innately and actively ^^^ i^£^ ^^ j^^^ ^^ ^ ^„^ ^^^^ ^ ^^j^j. 

wicked, using their intellectual gifts for evil, ^al at thirteen, robbing a safe. He has done 

These are perverts ranging from the ^Yhlt- ^^^^^al years in prison. His eldest and young- 

aker Wright class, who ought to be jn prison, ^^^ brothers are normal and in good situations. 

/"" ,the common pickpocket and skilled burglar, pjis sister is insane, and his two other brothers 

(2) Those who are too lazy to work honestly ^ave also constantly been in asylums. He is a 

for their hvmg and commit crime ^or neces- g t, neither sane nor insane, but abnormal, 

sitys sake. These are mostly unskilled. I Though a degenerate, he has some fine mental 

term these inverts because they resemble qualities and gentlemanlike instincts, 
green, unripened buds, — buds that will never 

flower, can never flower. This term covers As regards class D, the causes " may be 

many who are not styled criminals. ... for ^' l^^^ ^^ u^^^ -^-.^-^^rr^^^- ^^ ««„ •K^.k* 

the inverts are well represented in the leisured sickness at home, extravagance or any slight 

classes. Whether rich or poor, they are degen- beginning which sends the individual out of 

erates. his course. . . . Society too often makes 

As the result of his examination of a large criminals. Thus a boy in Manchester stole 

number of criminals Dr. Wilson finds there ^ ^gg ^"^ got a months hard labor. This 

are four classes: (A) Those who are in- ^ ^^^^ ^'^ ^^l^ "^ ^^^^« a criminal, but 

sane; (B) those who are on the border line ; f^s rescued when twenty, after spending 

(C) sports; (D) those caused by environ- ^^^J^ ^^ ^J^. years in prison. Another boy 

ment. Speaking of those in class A, he says: ^tole a rabbit. A heavy sentence, instead of 

curing him, resulted m forty-four years m 

There is no sharp line between sanity and in- prison 

sanity, so that the term " border line " is not ^ j^ ' ,xr*i j /? ^u • • i <* 

strictly correct. It is rather a very wide and .Y***,^*}^" dehnes the criminal as one 

unhappy territory and includes a numerous with the physical strength of a man, the im- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 246 

pulse of youth, and the self-control of a mistake to suppose that criminals necessarily 

child," and he finds a physical basis for this breed criminals. " Though the parents may 

definition in the well-known researches of be bad, there are always certain possibilities 

Dr. Joseph Shaw Bolton. While not insane, from grandparents and other ancestors, some 

the criminal is " far removed from normal, of whom may have been very good." 

He is somewhere in between. . . . He The question of punishment should be 

is not a wreck falling to pieces like the poor met squarely : neither false sentiment nor an 

insane, but a piece of bad construction, ill- excess of s>Tnpathy should be allowed to warp 

jointed machinery, and rudderless." the judgment. Penal servitude, Dr. Wilson 

How is the deficient criminal to be dealt thinks, never cures. He also holds that the 

with ? Should he be segregated or should he abolition of corporal punishment for brutal- 

be punished ? Dr. Wilson considers segrega- ities was a great mistake. " There is only 

tion best, if it were not so expensive. Inci- one punishment which criminals dread, and 

dentally it should be remarked that it is a that is corporal." 



DOES DOMESTICATION MAKE ANIMALS STUPID? 

'^HAT man exerts real influence upon hare offers a good example of this. Its sole 

animals may be considered established means of defense is flight. 

beyond a doubt. It is highly interesting to „ . . ^ , , , r 

«^»- •.k* r.ko^o^«.«^ ^t ^^t ;^fl»-.^^ #.^ Raindrops, snowtiakes shaken from the trees, 

note the character of that mfluence, to j.j^^ j^ from its abode in the woods into the 

observe what changes are wrought by it in field; it has-not learned to distinguish the sig- 

the nature of the various animals. An arti- nificance of sounds, the struggle for existence 

cle dealing with this subject by Dr. F. Skow- ^^^'"8 trained it not to precaution, but fear. 

ronnek appears in the Berlin fVoche. Some animals, such as the brooding bird of 

An Lnghsh writer, he reminds us, recently p^ey, for example, develop much higher ca- 

made assertion that horses are stupefied un- pacity on this point. 

der man's influence. He pointed out that if ^e seek for an example among domes- 

we value m them not cleverness, but bodily tic animals in which the mental faculties 

advantages, such as beauty, strength, swift- have been impaired by the cessation of the 

ncss, and aim to reproduce the species on struggle for existence, we must go to the 

those lines. He asserts squarely that the wild goose and the duck, 
horses of Australia and South America far 

surpass our domestic ones in intelligence. ^ T^« f^s^» I" particular, is positively stupid, 
«,, • 1 i_ 1 t. ^ oi_ being deservedly credited with the quahties 
1 here is doubtless some truth, Dr. bkow- ascribed to it. In freedom, however, there ex- 
ronnek admits, in this contention, for the ists no bird»more cautious! Hunters have re- 
wild horses of Asia, too, which have never sorted in vain to ail manner of devices to chase 

felt man's yoke, are said to manifest an intelli- % f^i ^""T ^'T ^^^ winter crop upon 

•li ' . i_ ^ ^ ^t. J which they descend when wearied, on their 

gencc greatly superior to that of the domes- flight to the south. Far beyond reach of shot, 

tic breed, Brehm, Schlagintweit,.and others the outposts already give a loud warning cry 

give enthusiastic descriptions of how the sav- and the whole flock disperses at once ! And 

age horses of the steppes, led by a bold stal- ^^7,*^ *'/!^;?"^ ^^^ "f""^ difference between the 

,.^ t t ^^ x e \ e 1 Wild and the tame duck, 
lion, evade the attacks or beasts or prey by 

extraordinary precautionary measures, or To what extent the mental capacity of 
bravely repel them. cattle has deteriorated it is hard to deter- 
As to domestication, we are reminded that mine. The possession of the higher faculties 
changed conditions, — for example, the ab- must be absolutely denied them. We can 
sence of danger of life, — exert an important only surmise that the ure-ox and bison de- 
intellectual influence. For it is true beyond veloped somewhat greater capacities in the 
a doubt that the struggle for existence struggle for existence, — not considerable ones, 
sharpens the mental powers. The animal however, since they did not suflfice to protect 
leams to remember where food is found and them from extermination by man. But it is 
to diflFercntiate its foe from harmless certain that they have grown more stupid, 
beings. for the semi-savage cattle of South America 
There is, to be sure, only a one-sided, not are mentally much superior to our domestic 
a general, development of intelligence. The species. 






246 THE AMERICAN REVIEU^ OF REylEWS. 

The greatest difference between an animal not all, indeed, gifted with very fine pcr- 

frec and one domesticated is shown by sheep, ception*:, but they enable them to recognize 

Naturalists unanimously ascribe to the wild and flee from danger and the domesticated 

mountain sheep all the characteristics of a fore- ones have retamed these. 1 he hen recog- 

si^hted wild animal. It is watchful, posts sen- nizes the hawk from afar, warns her chicks, 

tries, and in flight uses the ground as cover, ^nd takes them under her wing. Owing to 

Jv^'l &lfe%^?e°Tl^ Ssftivf r„'d%?^i d! its freedom the barnyard fowl, instead of 

easily losing its senses through fear. At sound bemg stupehed, has added to its capacity, 

of a noise whole flocks take to flight and rush The cat, as a domestic animal, occupies a 

blindly to destruction. peculiar position. It has retained its inde- 

Of man's influence upon goose, duck, cat- pendence, and only where it has been made 
tie, sheep, pig, and goat, little can be said, a pet and debarred for generations from ex- 
He does, indeed, nothing to improve their ercising its natural faculties, remaining a 
mental faculties! stranger to the mouse, does it become in a 

Except in the case of cattle which are used as ^^^^^^ tractable. In a village, on a farm, 

draft animals he demands no service of them, where no attention is given it, it retains com- 

shuts them up in stables, excluding impressions pletely its predatory nature, with the single 

of the outer world, and slaughters most of exception that it regards the premises as its 

them, after fattenmg them, when one or two i^ . -i t. ^^^„* ^ ^„^^ ,„k^« «.k<» ^w.^„ 

years old. The confinement and brief span of domicile. It remains even when the occu- 

life offer sufficient reasons for the conclusion pants depart, showing its detachment from 

that these domestic animals cannot develop their man. This, however, is no fault of its own ; 

inherited faculties but must in the course of properly treated from the start, it can be 

time, — thousands of years are here in question, — ♦.,^' ^j ^^ ^^ii^,„ .Vo ^»^*^^ ^^ ^^ii ,i»w^« 

lose them. Breeders themselves recopiized that f'^a*"^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ '^ ^^^ter on call, upon 

in the pig, for example, even the bodily ability long tramps. 

to resist disease, the strength of the bones and The most striking example of man's in- 

muscles, decreased through confinement, and it fluence over domestic animals is furnished by 

is now kept more m the open. ^j,^ j^g ^^ ^^^ ^jjj j^^^ ^j^^^ j^ j^ ^^^ 

The importance of living in the open air that raised the mental faculties of the dog 

is most clearly shown in the case of barnyard to a point where it is credited with acting 

fowl. The wild species of such fowl are with real deliberation. 



PATAGONIA RECLAIMED. 



T 



HAT the world is constantly being en- supplied with water by a centrifugal machine 
larged by improved facility of transpor- of sixty horsepower, which sends the water 
tation is a truism, but it is no less true that ir- 560 meters high into a reservoir of 300,000 
rigation is constantly adding vast tracts to the liters capacity. From this the water runs 
globe's habitable land. The " great American through a canal a kilometer and a half long 
desert " of our father's geography books to the experimental fields. These were 
forms fertile, well-populated States at pres- cleared by means of automatic scrapers, a 
ent ; the Sahara desert of our own geography somewhat difficult undertaking, for it is to be 
books is yielding in the same way, and now remembered that this waste land is one mass 
comes news from Argentina that Patagonia, of dunes and small sandy mounds. The re- 
the traditional waste and barren land of our suit of watering this desperately unpromising 
children's geography, is being conquered by land has been marvelous. Forage stuflFs of 
the irrigation ditch. all kinds and grains have been raised in great 
Coras y Caretas ( Buenas Aires) publishes abundance and of excellent quality. It is a 
an illustrated article on the experimental irri- revelation to the Argentine Government of 
gation station lately established in Patagonia the immense potential value of this vast desert 
by order of the Argentine Government, and tract, and great projects for more extensive 
notes with much hope the extremely success- irrigation installations are now on foot. New 
f ul outcome of the venture. The station was canals are being laid out ( the present ones 
established in the valley of the Rio Negro, measure 11,575 meters in length), and more 
under the direction of a brilliant engineer machines prepared which shall divert the 
from the ministry of public works of the waters of the Rio Negro widely over 
province. Along the banks of the river vari- Patagonian fields. The immense zone of un- 
cus sorts of methods have been employed, all used land lies in a climate very favorable for 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 247 

agriculture and the soil, like all virgin land, that wheat, barley and corn can be raised to 
is extremely fertile. A brilliant future lies perfection, their average weight being eighty- 
bcfore this neglected province, where it seems five kilos to the hectoliter. 



LIFE AND PERIODICITY. 

COME interesting studies of psychological these later periods coincide with distinct 

periodicity have been made by Dr. W. physiological changes. 
Swoboda, of the Vienna University. The The memory was found to bring back not 
theories advanced by him have gained sup- only visual and auditory impressions but also 
port from supplementary investigations by moods and emotions. A state of high mental 
Christian Claussen, of Christiania, who de- exhilaration or of depression would recur un- 
scribcs some of the results in the Norwegian expectedly at the end of the usual twenty- 
periodical Kringsjaa (Christiania). Accord- three hours, and in the midst perhaps of a 
ing to these two psychologists, our thought- state of mind w^holly opposite. Many dreams 
life* seems to show a wave-like motion, the were found to be caused in this way. Of 
crests of the waves forming our conscious ex- one of these Mr. Claussen tells: 
istence. while the rest remains hidden in the j y,^^ awakened one night l)y the ticking of 
depths of the subconscious. One of the re- my alarm clock, which sound apparently had just 
suits of this state of affairs, — and the one caused me to dream that I was attendmg a con- 
that set them searching alon^ these lines ^^^- ^* ^^'^ concert I read the name of a there- 

tnat set tntm searcning a ong tncse mes, ^^^^^^ unknown composer on the program. This 

IS the otherwise inexplicable periodical recur- ^^me I remembered now having read in the ad- 

rence of certain ideas and impressions. At dress on a letter the day before, and recalling 

the end of a period, the approximate length the exact hour at which 1 had seen the name, 1 

of which has been ascertained by Dr. Swo- ^f ^^^ 'MT'^ ^"'^ f^^ ^k ^Y ^V,^^J^^ ^?"- 

,j J •/?iiTk/roi 1. elusion that it must be about 3 o clock in the 

boda, and verihed by Mr. Claussen, these morning. Striking a match, I soon made sure 

ideas and impressions are cast up by memory, that I had figured out the time almost to the 

so to speak, and raised out of the subcon- niinute. That the same dream may recur sev- 

scious into the realm of conscious existence. ^^ htv^'^rsarriarthl'^LTL^rd: 

Dr. bwoboda observed, says his Nor- its explanation in a similar way. Dr. Swoboda 

wegian colleague, " that for some time after mentions the instance of two sisters who watched 

a concert he found it impossible to recall any together one night at the bedside of their sick 

of the melodies, but these invariably would ^^^^l];^ 9"/^^, fhTth *?r f .f.r^^'' l''^^^^ 

,.*.,, in of them dreamt that their father was dead and 

come into his mind a day or two later. that they sat together weeping at his death-bed. 

Thus he noted that the music heard about i Mr. Claussen believes that this kind of 

o'clock one afternoon recurred to his memory periodicity does not manifest itself to the 

about II o'clock in the morning two days after, sg^e extent in all peopde. On the contrary, 

that is after a period of 46 hours. He observed ^^ jj^jj^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^.^ ^j^^ periodical 
also that each time such a memory recurred , • j- 1 t ^i_ / 1 

again, it arrived an hour earlier than the pre- ^nd aperiodica In the former class are as 

vious time, if not more than a day had elapsed a rule found all who live a strong emotional 

in the meantime. This led him to establish a and spiritual life, and first of all poets and 

period of 2^ hours, or multiplies of 2^ hours, artists. Practical, sober-minded people, on 

for phenomena of this kind. And soon he man- the other hand, show little or no periodicity, 

aged to find corroboration for this hypothetical ^^ile these phenomena at times may prove 

period from many observations in widely diner- ^11 j • • ^u ^r 

^t fields. For instance, a woman was stung by troub esomc and annoying, as in the case of 

a bee. The pain disappeared after a while, but a Student whose ability to concentrate his at- 

only to reappear 2^ hours later in its original tention on his studies was limited by strongly 

acuteness. By degrees, he found that periods of marked periodicitv, Mr. Claussen shows also 

18 hours were more common among women, ^1 ^ ^u u j * *. i « ..«.«.«. 

while men mostly showed 23-hour periods. ^}'^^ 5^^^ "'^>: ^^ V^^^ ^^ ^'^""^ advantage. 

In sickness they insure not only certain 

Another set of periods^ much longer in periods of ebb but also of rising vitality', and 

duration, were finally discovered and veri- the latter may be made use of for the 

ficd. These showed an average time of strengthening and encouragement of the pa- 

twenty-thrcc days in men and twenty-eight tient. The task of memorizing speeches or 

days in women. Dr. Swoboda, as well as other matter may be rendered much easier 

Mr, Claussen, have come to believe also that by observation of the proper period. 






LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



A 



AMERICAN RAILROADS AND ENGLISH INVESTORS. 

NEW YORKER with $5000 to invest, ing " again^ the inevitable percentage of the 

and a praiseworthy thirst for good ad- unforeseeable, 

vice, chanced upon the " American Rail- The United Kingdom is full of people 

roads Section " which the London Statist who combine education and leisure with 

brings out every year about this time. some money. Many of them are in the army, 

He was much impressed by the 100 big, the navy, the clergy, the civil service, or re- 
important looking pages, by their long col- tired therefrom. The investment of their 
umns of statistics and their clear reasoning.^ funds is a solemn matter. They have the 

After a while he consulted the financial time and inclination for statistical research, 

editor in whose office he was: " It says here They religiously read their " Company Re- 

that * Pennsylvania at 123 is certainly a very ports." 

strong and attractive investment.' Do you Above all, these people have been obliged 

consider that opinion reliable ? " to invest internationally. On their own tight 

The editor smiled. " It is one of the little island the real estate and enterprises 

best," he said. "Those English financial are thoroughly capitalized and mortgaged, 

writers are pretty cold-blooded and calculat- Being forced to hunt abroad for suitable in- 

ing." terest and dividends, they learned from ex- 

" Well, I could buy about forty shares of pcrience the benefits of distribution. They 

Pennsylvania with my $5CXK)." saw that money balanced among diflFerent 

The editor smiled again. " That's the enterprises, in diflFerent places, was less af- 

way the American mind works," he said, fected by local depressions, and returned a 

" It would never enter the heads of the higher income consistent with safety than if 

English people who support that paper to it had been put into any single security what- 

put all their money into the common stock of ever, — no matter how well recommended, 
a single railroad. With a thousand pounds 

«« ^ ^»4.^A J?^ Vr.U - «. - • ul U SOME SAMPLE ASSORTMENTS. 

an educated hnglish investor might buy 

Pennsylvania fast enough on that opinion, — This is why the Englishman with $5000 
maybe four shares, — ^but not forty. Why, (^1000) to invest, noticing the Statist's con- 
some of these Englishmen are the greatest fidence in Pennsylvania stock, may possibly 
* hedgers ' you ever saw. When one of them write it down for about $500 worth. Just 
goes into a proposition he begins to look for to make sure of sharing in the renewed pros- 
something somewhere else to balance it. What perity for American railways, foreseen by the 
he loses on gas he gains on electricity. The de- Statist, he may put another £100 into a 
pression in his South African mines is made couple of shares each of Great Northern and 
up by the boom in his South American rail- Northern Pacific. He will have a couple of 
ways. His investment is what you might hundred pounds in the sacred British " con- 
call scientific/' ^ sols," of course. And his remaining £600 
A few words on English investing may may go into things as diflFerent as Austrian 
not be out of place here, because it is pur- railways, Egyptian land companies, Siamese 
posed to give below some quotations from sterling loans, and Hong Kong gas works, 
this same " Railroad Section " of the Statist, He will have satisfied himself that he holds 
which otherwise might mislead many Ameri- only the seasoned securities of promising com- 
can readers. panies under able management. On such a 

HOW THE ENGLISH INVESTOR LEARNED. c«™bi"ation he will sleep without fear of 

anything, — unless an invasion from Mars. 

Long ago English people of means had One instance at hand tells of a retired 

knocked into them the lesson that American civil service official with a total capital of 

investors have begun to study, — the necessity £5000, which he had divided among English 

of learning everything learnable about a com- railway, industrial, and government securities, 

pany before investing in it, and then " hedg- Indian and American railway bonds, and 






LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 249 

Japanese government bonds. The English figures and conditions with similar ones for 

securities fell in price every year he held ten years past, 
them. But meanwhile the American con- 

^..••kl^ J T . • • c u THE CRISIS^ — A TEMPORARY SPASM. 

vertiDles and Japanese 4s were nsmg. So he 

sold the latter two at such a good profit that A young country shooting up fast, suflEer- 

he is now actually ahead on his investment ing with growing pains, causing a financial 

as a whole. :j:d business spasm, which will cure itself, — 

such is the Statist's diagnosis of America to- 

APPLICATION TO AMERICA. jj,y ^ ^^^^ ^g^ ^^is paper expressed itself 

Now we Americans, fortunately, do not to the same effect in prophecy. It believes 

need to look beyond our own big, new coun- the cure to lie in a greater agriculture. That 

try for good chances to "hedge." Between the we may produce more and spend less, capital 

Atlantic and Pacific are enough different must flow into the farm for a while and 

localities, each with its investment opportu- away from the mine and factory. 

nities in the way of mortgages, real es- Right here the outlook becomes bright, bc- 

tate, municipal bonds, railroad and indus- cause our country's power of expanding its 

trial bonds, stocks, and notes, to give even agriculture is. practically unlimited. The 

a billionaire's investment plenty of distri- Statist says: 

532^*' . <• T- !• 1 • li \s not within sight of the period in which 

The practical lesson of English experience it will not be able enormously to increase its 

for the American is that no more than 15 output of foodstuffs. In the West and in the 

per cent, of one's capital should go into a ?^"th there are very large districts still await- 

• 1 . / ^L '^^ -J ,_ >ng cultivation, and these districts are supple- 

smgle security (some authorities consider 10 ^^„ted by great tracts of land where irrigation 

per cent, as much as is safe), and that it is is only in its initial stages. Moreover, after the 

wise to balance money between different en- whole country is brought under cultivation by 

terpriscs in different' parts of the country. ^^^^ »s known as extensive farming the resort 

Txl^i J u J k'-^'j-. -^1 to mtensive farming may enable it to double the 

If the reader has made up his mind to prac- production possible under the present system, 

tice this principle, he should not be harmed. The agricultural lands of the United States are 

and may profit, by the Statist's " opinions." among the most fertile in the whole world, and 

yet wheat is produced at the rate of only 15 

WELL-FOUNDED BELIEF IN AMERICA AND bushels to the acre. Last year the yield was 

ITS RAILROADS ^"^^ ^^'^ bushels. This degree of fruitfulness 

is only one-half that attained in Great Britain. 

In brief, the Statist believes that America In brief, the crisis of last year was simply a 

will soon recover its prosperity; that railway ""4^^"?"^ dramatic readjustment of conditions 

, J L i_ J which the economic development of the country 

earnings may be expected to break records rendered essential, and which will have lasting 

again by 1910 at least; and that certain of and beneficial results. 

the great systems offer securities attractive to ^ 

\ ^ HOW LONG? 

investors. 

A good example of how the careful finan- " American trade rarely declines for more 
cial student works is furnished by this " Rail- than one year," the Statist writes. And just 
road Section." Its authors thought proper now no signs are found that the present de- 
first to bring the whole encyclopedia of trade pression will be unusually long. The bal- 
up to date, — find the exact figures of crops, ance of trade with other countries is very 
pig iron production, building trade, imports, favorable to us. Much of the money taken 
exports, government revenues, bank clearings, out of factories and railroads has gone into 
and so on, compare these figures with similar crops; the acreage this year is much larger 
periods in years past, and look into the mat- than last, and the condition of wheat and the 
ter of politics and new laws; next to get to- other staples is entirely satisfactory, 
gethcr ponderous statistics of the railroad The one essential to new and greater 
trade in general, its growth and prospects; prosperity is confidence. The spirit of en- 
and finally to make a detailed, minute and terprise cannot return in a week or a month, 
patient analysis of each of the big railway after such a shock as the country felt last 
systems in particular, keeping a keen eye for fall. 
evcrj' important factor in every case, from 
the many-million-dollar bond issue down to 
the decimals of a cent which show how much Leaving American industry as a whole 
It costs the railroad to haul each ton of and coming down to the railroads, the 
freight per mile, — and to compare these Statist is quite positive that they are good 



THE RAILROADS ARE STRONG. 



•• * . ^ . 



« 



< 



. 



250 THE AMERICAN REl^/EU^ OF RE^/EIVS. 

business propositions. From a long array of average American railroad had to give up 70 
facts and figures, the following statements per cent, of its net earnings for taxes, inter- 
are taken : est on bonds, and other fixed charges. Ten 

If the events of last autumn and the great V^ars later this figure had been reduced to 

shrinkage in railway earnings had occurred in 48 per cent. Thus the average stockholder, 

the '90's or in the '8o's, a large proportion of the who received only 1J/2 per cent, dividend in 

railways of the country would have passed into jgg^ ^,^5 ^^le to get nearly 3^4 per cent, 

the hands of receivers. vpur*: 1aM>r 

The present trouble has merely caused dis- icn years 1 ace r. . 
comfort to two or three systems which were AH this was done m the face of actually 
notoriously over-capitalized, and which have lower freight rates. In 1 893 American ship- 
spent capital more freely than they could bor- pg^s paid an average of O.893 cents per ton 

^°The Zl^ZrtuLToi American railways Per mile. In 1906 they paid only 0.766. 

is one of the factors prevent.ng still greater ^^^^ INDIVIDUAL RAILROAD SYSTEMS. 

trade reaction, and which will assist trade to 

recover in the not distant future. Their strength Below an attempt is made to group some 

tZ;^l^T::fJ!^^<^.!'^^<^ °f 'he more important.conclusions made by 

ties even during the crisis. the cstatist from its minute analyses ot the 

That the railway industry is in this strong fifty great American railroad systems, 

position in a year of acute trade depression Among the roads which are expected to 

testifies to the ability and conservatism with ^^^^'^^^^ ^^ JCflCo..!*., ,*« ,^»l,^*^»lw^:w^r^ «.U- 

which the railways have been administered in experience no difficulty m mamtaming the 

recent years. Indeed, we know of no industry present dividend rate on their common stocks 

that has been administered more carefully or are the Chicago & North-Western, 7 per 

more wisely. cent. ; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 7 

We look forward to marked recovery m the . nelaware I arkawanna & We«;t- 

traffic of American railways in 1909. We an- P^^ ^^"^- » i^eiaware l^aclcawanna « West- 

ticipate that the greater portion of the shrink- ern, 20 per cent.; (jreat Northern, 7 per 

age of the current year will be recovered next cent.,* New York Central & Hudson River, 

year, and that in 1910 railway traffic will proh- 3 per cent. ; Northern Pacific, 7 per cent. ; 

ably reach unprecedented proportions. ^^ Pennsylvania, 6 per cent. ; Union Pacific, 10 

HOW THE RAILROADS '' MADE GOOD.'' per Cent. 

A great deal is written and repeated novv- A few roads, the Statist figures out, are on 

adays in criticism of railroad finance. It is the way to raise their present dividend rates, 

charged that companies are trying to pay We quote from the exact words: 

dividends on excessive or " watered " stock; Atchison, Topeka & Santa Ffe (5 per cent.), 

that thereby they must charge rates too high In the course of time the company is likely to 

for the service or else disappoint the stock- pay such dividends upon its common stock as will 

holders This undoubtedly is the case with iro^erVl'linrenabl^a^Kn'o'^^^^^^^ 

some railroads and sorne rates. JBut that it ditional capital needed for extensions and im- 

is true of the business in general, the Statist provements to be provided by issues of common 

will not allow. It uses the standard refer- stock. ^ ^, . . 

ence work, "Poor's Railroad Manual," to Chesapeake & Ohio (i per cent). This is a 

L L 1- • Aiv«u 1 x«i uoa, ^.^J ^jjstmctly progrcssive property, and one which m 

show that the prosperity ot 1900-7 was built the course of a few years may greatly increase 

upon solid foundations. the dividend upon its capital stock. 

If one first considers the disastrous period , Riding (4 per cent). Taking into account 

r^( TQ/^'^ A A*,^:^^ ..rk:r.k ^^..o «.K«,, ^^^ t"C large profits even in the current year of 

of 1893-6, during which more than one- ^^-^-^^ ^^ ^^jjj^y ^^ p^^ ^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^^ > ^ ^j^.j. 

third of American railroad track was being dend, and the enormous potential value of its 

operated by receivers, and then contrasts the coal properties, the common shares do not ap- 

results of the ten years* work ending with P^^*' ^^ he over-valued. 

1906, it is plain that the railroads made good As to bonds and notes, confidence is ex- 
in the interval. They increased their traffic pressed in the strength and attractiveness to 
by 127 per cent, but increased their capital investors of those of all the railroads men- 
only 26 per cent. They learned to handle tioned above, and in addition those of the 
traffic more cheaply, although they paid Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Dcla- 
grcatly higher wages for labor and spent ware & Hudson, the Illinois Central, the 
nearly twice as much for supplies. Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern 

Moreover, more of the new capital was in Pacific, 

the form of stock than of bonds, and thus the In a few other cases the Statist's opinions 

financial condition of the railroads was tre- will be widely interesting: 

mcndously strengthened. In 1895-6 the Baltimore & Ohio (6 per cent.). In consid- 






LEADING FINANCIAL AkTICLES. 261 

ering the affairs of this company we must recol- maintaining this rate. The bonds can be bought 

Icct that the present year is a year of crisis, and to give yields of from 45^ per cent, to nearly 

is exceptional in every respect, and that the 4^ per cent. The 4 per cent, convertible 

earnings of a railway serving the coal and man- bonds at the price of 86 look especially at- 

ufacturing districts, which have most suffered tractive. 

from the crisis in such a year, are no true index Rock Island. The States served are those in 

of its normal earning power. Under average which population is growing with great rapidity, 

conditions there should be no difficulty in earn- and where the greatest extension of agriculture 

ing a profit equal to 10 per cent, upon the stock, is likely to occur in the next few years. With a 

The bonds arc exceedingly well secured. return of normal conditions to the States, a 

Norfolk & Western (4 per cent). In conse- reasonable rate of expenditure and a steady 

qucnce of the decline in earnings and profits, the growth of earnings, the company should experi- 

dividend has been reduced to 4 per cent, and ence no difficulty in paying the dividends upon 

not much difficulty should be experienced in the preferred stock. 



AFTER THE PROFIT— WHAT? 

TpHOUSANDS of investors who never either good or bad, and since only a specialist 

trade in the stock and bond market, can be trusted to know, the best way to buy 

under ordinary conditions, took advantage these securities is through the mortgage or 

of the financial convulsion in 1907 and real-estate companies which issue them in 

bought securities low. Many of them have large quantities and can show a good record 

sold out this spring and summer at a profit, of intelligence and honesty for years past. 

Their money is in the bank. It must be re- The investor's opinion of the real estate 

invested. How? which is behind the mortgage or bond may 

Some of these fortunate ones arc in the not be worth much. But any one of intel- 

habit of studying security movements. So ligence can examine into the record of an in- 

they are purchasing the higher grade of corporated cogtipany, can learn the reputation 

short-term notes and bonds which come due of its managers and the scope of its business, 

within a year or two. The idea is to have and talk to people who have dealt with it in 

the money where they can get hold of it in a business way. 

case the market sags off again. Another class of securities desirable for the 

The majority, however, are very sensible investor who wants to stay away from the 

if they say to themselves, " Once is enough," market, and get all the income possible, is 

and make up their minds not to try to " beat composed of public utility bonds. They are 

the market " again until another real grown- more suitable than mortgages for those who 

up panic comes along. Their best chance wish a long time security running twenty- 

now lies among certain of the less active five or fifty years. The same necessity exists 

securities, those which are not bought and for a personal investigation. The banking 

sold often, and which are not to be expected house vvhich is found to have a record of 

to rise in value; because among this kind sound judgment, running through many 

they can find the highest interest rates con- dealings with such securities, is a good house 

sistent with safety. to write to for offerings. Very conservative 

The financial editor of the World's Work securities of this sort may be bought to yield 

describes the opportunities for such prudent from 5 to as much as 6 per cent, 

investors. They begin with the farm mort- With the circulars offering public-utility 

gage, — " the very heart and center of this bonds at hand, the investor can get some in- 

market." formation on his own account. Some of 

A second opportunity lies in the purchase the important points are suggested by the 

of real estate. But this takes a great deal of World's Work: 

local and technical knowledge. And " the Get all the facts about the franchises, the pop- 
mortgage or bond secured on improved real ulation served, the legal restrictions on rates, the 
estate is a third." earnings of the company through all the years 

it has operated. Above all, find out whether or 

In the farm-mortgage and the real-estate bond not it piled up a lot of floating debt during the 

there is no element of speculation. The bond is critical period from August, 1907, to April, 1908. 

practically always quoted at par and interest This will serve as a fair test of its ability to do 

except when it goes bad altogether. There is no business through a crisis. Any well-managed 

trading txackward and forward. public-utility company should be in a position to 

live on its own fat through so short a lean period 

Since a mortgage or real-estate bond is as this. 



252 THE AMERICAN RE^IEU^ OF REVIEWS. 

THE MAKING OF MORTGAGE BONDS. 

**T AM familiar with the handling of best available firm, one whose reputation has 

1 , 1 ^ 1 ^4. 4.^ «,.♦ been established by years of faithful service and 

mortgages, but now 1 want to put ^^hose business might be wrecked by one serious 

part of my money mto an assortment of high- error. This abstract is afterward passed upon 

grade bonds, and I would like to know the by a leading law firm. 

main points of difference." These lawyers, or possibly another firm, next 

o X ^' L • 1 J X u««u«..^ see that the officers executmg the bonds and 

Such questions are bemg asked of bankers ^^,,g^g, ^..^ duly elected to their respective 

all over the United States this year. 1 he offices and have received from the stockholders 

mortgage on a farm or other real estate is and board of directors proper authority to sign 

certainly the most widely held form of in- this particular obligation. All 9ther legal points 

^ • -.u- * AT««„ rv^^wrromo connected with the issue are mvestigated with 

vestment m this country. Many mortgage- ^^^ ^^^^ ^^j^.^^j ^^^^ 

holders, however, are deciding to put part x^e officers of the banking-house that is buy- 

of their money into bonds. Perhaps they ing the bonds carefully examine the reports of 

want a security more readily convertible into the appraisers and lawyers and make such other 

, J k V •^♦-™«. ic ^r>^o •oe.'Ur investigation as appears necessary. In the nght 

cash, and one who^e interest is more easily ^^ ^^^^ ^,j^^ experience in handling such se- 

collected, or else do not want to give the per- curities they then decide, in all conservatism, 

sonal supervision which a mortgage entails; whether or not this issue is safe and desirable, 

or perhaps they realize the advantage of hav- H. satisfied with the security and yield they sub- 

. ^1 . • ^ '^^„ ^^^^^^^^^x^rr mit the whole matter to their board of directors 

mg their money m enterprises representing ^^ partners,-men peculiariy fitted to take a 

different parts of the country. broad view of financial matters and to judge the 

Now any one who has ever handled a real- value of any security. If they approve, the issue 

estate mortgage will instantly understand the is purchased and the banking-house assumes the 

. . I T X. *. u -, 1 T* •« «r^*U risk of collecting the principal sum and interest. 

principle of the mortgage bond. It is notn- c» y f 

ing more than a section of a mortgage on After a banking-house has bought an issue 
some corporation property, and exactly the of bonds it recommends them to its circle of 
same precautions must be taken in its pur- clients whom it may have served for many 
chase. What is the property offered as se- years, and who have confidence in its judg- 
curity worth? What will it probably be ment. These may include banks, insurance 
worth when the mortgage falls due ? Where companies, hospitals, colleges, guardians, 
IS the money coming from to pay the interest trustees, and individual investors. Each pur- 
each quarter or half year, and the principal chaser examines into the bonds on his own 
when due? Who is going to see that taxes account in greater or less detail. But it is 
and assessments and insurance are paid ? the original banking-house which is primarily 
Who is responsible for keeping up the physi- responsible for the issuing of the bond under 
cal condition of the property? The same proper conditions. 

questions must be answered in both cases. Trustees are required to see that the prop- 
Only in the case of the mortgage bond the erty is kept up physically, that taxes and as- 
problems are larger and more complicated sessments are promptly paid, and that the in- 
and call for expert opinion of a higher order, surance does not lapse. 

However, this feature is really an advan- The philosophy of the mortgage bond, 

tage, because in the case of the mortgage, the therefore, may be summed up by a compari- 

buyer has to pay for the opinion of the real- son with the familiar real estate mortgage, 

estate appraiser, the lawyer, etc. ; whereas The latter is the fundamental form of Ameri- 

the examination of conditions surrounding can investment and may well form the 

mortgage bonds is conducted by the banking- nucleus of the average man's incomc-produc- 

house which offers the bond. The great Ing capital. The former, however, is usually 

point for the purchaser then is to assure him- needed in addition to the latter to make a 

self that the banking-house is a responsible well-balanced investment. It allows the 

one and has already made a reputation for owner to distribute his risks throughout dif- 

success in this sort of business. ferent parts of the country ; it offers greater 

The history of a bond properly underwrit- convenience in the collection of interest; if 

ten and issued is thus sketched by the Ticker: Jt is purchased " tax-exempt," its yield may 

In the first place, the property is appraised by be as high as that of the mortgage; and there 

expert engineers and real-estate men who are is no reason why it should not be just as safe 

competent to judge of its present value and to ^ ^^it latter, provided only that it has bene- 

ai^d^^^^in „?ate=" *'^ '""^ '"^ '™'""'' fitcd by the attention of a banking finn with 

Then an abstract of title is prepated by the ability and reputation. 




*•••/ ♦/ # » • 



THE NEW BOOKS. 

RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 

NATURE AND OUT-OF-DOOR BOOKS. tains much fresh and interesting material con- 

Thc Book of Fish and Fishing. By Louis cerning a subject that certainly deserves an up- 

Rhcad. Scribners. 306 pp., ill. $1.50. to-date treatment. The chapters on ;* The Sani- 

_ , . . 1. , , ^» T^, , tation and Economic Value of the Kitchen Gar- 

In this compact little volume Mr. Rhead ^en," " How to Maintain Fertility," " Tools 

answers the maximum number of questions con- ^viiich Make Gardening Easy," and " The Gar- 

cerning fishing in the mmimum space. Unlike j^n's Enemies" are full of suggestions, many 

most compilers of fishing manuals, he does not ^f ^^^ich will appeal with peculiar force to 

confine his attention to fresh-water fishing but amateur gardeners everywhere. There are also 

includes full information about the favorite ^ practical directions which will be appre- 

game sought by salt-water anglers and the local- ^ja^^d by the novice, together with rules for 

ities where it may be found The reader need cooking and serving vegetables. 

not expect to fina in this book the scientific 

names and descriptions of fish, but he will find The Way of the Woods. By Edward Breck. 

much practical advice as to how and where to Putnam. 436 pp. ill $1 75 

pursue thfj sport of angling in American waters. . . * 

. ._ -n XT TV 11 This is a manual for sportsmen and campers 

Amencan Insects. By Vernon L. Kellogg, jn ^he northeastern United States and Canada. 

Holt. 694 pp., ill. $5. It deals with the practical details of camp life. 

This second edition of Professor Kellogg's giving minute directions as to clothing, per- 

comprehensive work includes an additional sonal outfit, camp baggage, tents, provisions, 

chapter on the subject of insect behavior and cookery, and the various forms of sport m- 

psychology. Both because of the authority of dulged in by Americans in the woods. Not only 

the text and the accuracy and general excel- ^^es Dr. Breck tell his readers what they should 

Icnce of the original illustrations contributed have on a camping expedition, but he also tells 

by Miss Mary Wellman this work has made a them where to find it and what it costs. 

place of its own in scientific literature. For rj.,^ « u^.'^ _r d *• <- j r>.. 1 

the American naturalist it is indispensable. ^^^ Sanitation of Recreation Camps and Parks. 

»« •. T-r T> IT 1 r- w. u 11 T> . ^y ^'■- Harvey B. Bashore. New York: 

n^ *U^ in^ Mitchell. Put- j^^^n wiley & Sons. 109 pp.. ill. $1. 

^, . . * \ r xt- 1 's. This little book ought to have a wide circula- 
This IS an account of the known mosquitoes ^ion during the summer months, and many of 
of the United States, based on the investiga- j^, suggestions, if followed, can hardly fail to 
tions of the late Dr. James William Dupree, contribute materially toward a lowering of the 
Surgeon-General of Louisiana, and upon origi- summer death-rate. It is a subject that has 
nal observations by the writer The illustra- b^^^ ^^o long neglected, but as more and more 
tions used in the work are chiefly from original ^^ ^^^ ,^ ^^^ resorting to camp life for a 
drawmgs by the author made for Dr. Dupree. ^^ ^r shorter portion of their summer, the 
The work contains a full discussion of the re- .^^ious bearings of such problems as water sup- 
lation of mosquitoes to malaria, giving the re- , and disposal of waste are becoming more 
suits of the observations made by Dr Dupree and more obvious. Dr. Bashore not only points 
during a period of several years. One may ^^^ ^^e sources of danger but at the same time 
learn from this book a great deal about the suggests practicable means by which the danger 
lives of mosquitoes, — how and where they j^ay be oljviated 
breed, how they bite, how they transmit dis- 
ease, how long and on what they live, how they Poison Ivy and Swamp Sumach. By Annie 
may be identified in their various stages, and Qakes Huntington. Jamaica Plain, Mass.: 
finally how they may be locally controlled. t> ui- u j t. .^ .t. o •« * 

•^ "^ "^ Published by the author. 58 pp., ill. $0.75. 

The Book of Garden Pests. By R. Hooper ,,. „ u.. ♦• ^ 1, r a r 1 

-J T 1- T r* Ml * ^"ss Huntington has performed a useful 

Pearson. John Lane Company. 214 pp., ill. ?i. service in presenting a series of photographs of 

This book, like its companion volumes in the poison ivy and swamp sumach which make it 

series of Handbooks of Practical Gardening possible for even the casual reader to recognize 

edited by Harry Roberts, is an English work leaves, flowers, fruit, and buds, and thereby to 

especially intended for the use of English cul- be protected against injury. A study of the 

tivators. Much of it, of course, does not apply accompanying text will enable the man who 

to American conditions. Nevertheless, the goes fishing early in the spring to distinguish 

American gardener will find its chapters sug- the poisonous sumach without its leaves. There 

gestive and in some instances directly useful. is also a chapter on the treatment of the poison- 

Thc Vegetable Garden. By Ida D. Bennett. °"^ eruption. 

McQure. 260 pp., ill. $1.50. "Whose Home Is the Wilderness." By Will- 

This volume in the Country Home Library, Jam J. Long. Boston: Ginn & Co. 230 pp., 

by the author of "The Flower Garden," con- ill. $1.25. 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REVIEU^S. 




HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Russia's Message. By William English Walling. 

Doubleday, Page & Co. 476 pp., ill. $3. 

More than one keen observer possessed of 
the abilitj; to detach himself from the events he 
is observing has remarked upon the similarity 
between the present political upheaval in Russia 
iind the Revolution in France. This compari- 
son, despite I lie many dissimilarities between 
the two world movements, is justified. Uke 
the French Revolution, the Russian upheaval 
lias a message for the world. Mr. Walling is 
the first or among the first foreigners to go 
beyond a mere description of the disorder and 
atrocities and point out the true world import 
of the movement. Mr. Walling, who repre- 
sented a number of English and American jour- 
nals in Russia during 1905 and igo6, an- 
nounces in his preface to this volume that he 
has not set out to suggest what the world can 
do for Russia, but rather what Russia has to 
offer us. The struggle now going on in the 
Oar's empire has a vital .signihcance for the 
future of human society, and Mr. Walling's 
clear-cut style drives home this truth with great 
force. The (lory of the persecution of the Jews 
is the central theme of the book, — not, as he 
says, because the persecution of the Jews is 
worse than that of any other people of Russia, 
nor because the Jews are more important than 
other oppressed tiationalitie.s, but " because they 
have themselves been selected by the Govern- 
ment as the center of the whole persecution 
system." Consideration is given also to the per- 
secutions of the other subject races. In fact, the 
whole "Russian question" is discussed. This 
volume is illustrated with forty-six pages of 
photographs, most of them taken by the author 
himself, and an excellent map. 



General History of Western Nations. By Emit 

Reich Macmillan 2 vols 964 pp. $4. 
Foundations of Modern Europe. By Emil 
Reich Macmillan 250 pp $1.50. 
Dr Reich s general equipment for writing a 
work on the phUosophy of history is too well 
known to need repetition here In " The Gen- 
era] History of European Nations " he has given 
the result of twenty seven years' study of the 
literary and monumental sources of history and 
of close observation and analysis in loco of 
twenty different types of contemporary civiliza- 
tion In this work which covers the period 
from 5000 B C to 1900 A D, Dr. Reich at- 
tempts to do for the history of Western nations 
what Savigny did for Roman law, treating 
mainly of the series of " some twenty or thirty 
general facts which singly and still more by 
meeting blending or antagonizing one another 
create a multitude of particular facts," en- 
deavoring also in each case to discover the real 
cause that is the human factor, the psycho- 
logical motive underlying each of th» general 
facts as Its prime cause These two volumes 
treat of Antiquity The third volume in the 
series will treat of the rise of Christianity, and 
further \olumes will bring the story of the 
Western nations to the end of the nineleenlh 
century The Foundations of Modern Eu- 
rope " is a second revised edition 'ol the useful 
work under this title, published four years ago, 
containing a summary of the twelve lectures de- 
livered by Dr. Reich at the University of I»n- 

John and Sebastian Cabot. By Frederick A. 

Ober. Harpers. 300 pp., ill. $1. 
Juan Ponce de Leon. By Frederick A. Ober. 

Harpers. 288 pp., ill. $1. 

These volumes, in the series of Heroes of 
American History, retell in modem language 
the life stories and achievements of those old 
explorers. The volume on the Cabols is par- 
ticularly interesting from the illustration point 
of view. 

The Life of Sir Haiti day Macartney. By 
Demetrius C. Boulger. New York: John 
Lane Company. 515 pp., ill. $6, 
Sir Halliday Macartney was for more than 
twenty years commander of Li Hung Chang's 
trained forces, particularly during the time of 
the Taeping rebellion. He was founder of the 
Chinese arsenal and for thirty years councillor 
and secretary to the Chinese legation in Lon- 
don. This volume has an introduction by Sir 
James Crich ion -Browne. There 



Uust rations. 
The Roman Empire. By H. Stuart Jones. Put- 

nams. 476 pp., ill. $1.50. 

This volume is one of the " Story of the Na- 
tion" series. Mr. Jones, who was formerly 
tutor of Trinity College. Oxford, and director 
of the British school at Rome, disclaims the in- 
tention of telling the story of the Roman Ein- 
pire in its fulness. He only aims to present in 
a graphic narrative the picturesque and note- 



TH£ mw BOOKS. 



'of the 



worthy periods and episodes of Roman history 

in their philosophical relations to each other as 

wlH as to universal history 

Granada Present and Bygone By Albert F 
Calverl Dutton 343 pp ill $250 
This slory of the fascinating old 1 

Moorish and Christian splendor is one 
Spanish Series by Ihc same author it is 

illustrated with a number of colored pictures 

and pen sketches 

The Passing of Morocco By Frederick Moore 
Houghton MifQui & Co 189 pp ill $150 
Mr Moore was for many years special corre- 
spondent in Morocco for two Ejiglish daily 
newspapers He spent a year in Tangier and 
uas m Casablanca immediately after the first 
attack bj the French warships The lUustra 
tions in the volume are from photographs by 
thi. author 

\ Canadian History for Boys and Girls By 
Cmil> P Weaker Toronto William Briggs 
373 PP ill $050 

This IS a revised and enlarged edit on with 
new illustrations of the original work issued 
some >ears ago the present edition being in 
tended especially for use during the period of 
world interest in ihe tercentenary 01 Quebec. 
Miss Weaver's style is suggestive and clear. 

Ludwig H., King of Bavaria. By Clara Tschudi. 

Dutton. 274 pp., por. $2,5a 

TTiis volume is translated from the Nor- 
wegian by Ethel Harriet Heam. It is full of 

interesting personal anecdotes about the reign- 
ing monarchs of Europe contemporary with the 
mad Bavarian King. 





Wboee lite b»8 heva written by Demetrius C. Boulgcr. 



A Royal Tragedy. By Chedomille Mijatovich. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 230 pp., ill. $2.5a 
This story of the assassination of King Alex- 
ander and Queen Draga of Servia in the sum- 
mer of 1903 is graphically told, lo the accom- 
paniment of some excellent illustrations from 
photographs by Dr. Mijatovich, who was for- 
merly Servian Miif'ster at the Court of St. 
James. Dr. Mijatovich was for many years 
connected with I lie Obrenovich dynasty. He 
was private secretary of King Milan, many 
times cabinet minister, and once a state adviser 
lo King Alexander himself, besides represent- 
ing Servia at a number of European courts. 
While not denying the faults of both King 
Alexander and his unfortunate mistress, the 
author of this book somehow makes the reader 
a little more sympathetic with the victims of 
the terrible tragedy of five years ago in Bel- 
grade. He believes and almost makes the reader 
believe that the ill-starred marriage and terrible 
death of the Servian monarchs were both pre- 
arranged by Russia. 

STUDIES IN CRIMINOLOGY. 

On the Witness Stand. By Hugo Munsterberg. 

McClure. 269 pp. $i.5a 
The Young Malefactor. By Thomas Travis. 

New York: T. Y. Crowell & Co, 243 pp. $1.50. 

Professor Miinsterberg's book consists of a 
number of essays on psychology and crime, at- 
tempting to set forth in popular language the 
results of Ihe experiments and demonstrations 
in the lifty psychological laboratories in the 
United Stales. Professor Miinsterberg en- 
deavors to tell us, as he himself says, a little 
about the " chronoscopes and kymographs, the 
lachistoscopes and ergc^raphs," — lo mention 



256 THE AMERICAN REy/EtV OF REyiEU^S. 

but a few of the new instruments at work en- sembles in convenient form all the provisions 
deavoring to determine the physical manifesta- of the American State and federal constitu- 
tions of psychological states. The lawyer, the tions, giving at the same time the history, origin, 
judge, and the jurymen, says Professor Miin- and present tendency of those constitutions, 
sterberg, all need the experimental psychologist, with a comparative study of their principles. 
There is a good deal of interesting and per- The presentation is brought fully up to date, 
haps profitable information in what the pro- including the Oklahoma constitution of last 
fessor tells us in his chapters on " Illusions," year, and discussing with especial pertinency 
** The Memory of the Witness," " The Detec- the rapid extension of the principle of direct 
tion of Crime," "The Traces of Emotions," legislation, especially in the Western States of 
" Untrue Confessions," " Suggestions in Court," the Union. As a book of reference it is indis- 
" Hypnotism and Crime," and " The Prevention pcnsable to every student of American politics, 
of Crime." Dr. Travis has studied the juvenile ...^ •,tt'jo 
criminal at close range and through many years. Constitutional Government m the United States. 

His earnest advice set forth in this volume is By Woodrow Wilson. Macmillan. 236 pp. $1.50. 

i"/T.?H<,"*^R^' f-nnll 'iVTrnlT? l!lv.J!fv President Wilson's Columbia University lec- 

Cour »«"•«=« *"<= intended, as he states in a prefatory 

note, to present the character and operation of 

NOTEWORTHY BOOKS OF REFERENCE. the United States Government in some of its 

Tu v . c^u^ff u^^^«^ T7««.,«i^««^u ^f T>^ more salient features from a fresh point of 

The New Schaflf-Herzog Encyclopedia of Re- ^,j^^ j^ ^^^ jj^j,^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^j^ ^^ ^^^ ^1^^^. 

hgious Knowledge, Vol. I. Edited by Samuel ^^ter and operation of constitutional govem- 

Macaulcy Jackson. Funk & Wagnalls. ment. No American publicist is better fitted 

500 pp. $5. ^h^" President Wilson to make such a presenta- 

_ . , . . ,, ' t % ^^<^"f since his studies for many years have been 

This work IS virtually a reconstruction of the directed along these lines. Of special value and 

famous encyclopedia originally edited by Pro- interest are his chapters on "The President of 

fcssor Herzog and later adapted to the Amen- the United States,'* " The House of Representa- 

can pubhc by his intimate friend, Prof. Philip tives," " The Senate," " The Courts," " The 

.?S^^^u r^i;?,^"^^^^l,^* ^^^"^,Fy J^SV.^^^ °^ states and the Federal Government," and 

The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious " party Government in the United States." 
Knowledge has been familiar to scholars on 

both sides of the Atlantic. The present revision essays AND DISCUSSIONS. 

follows the same general plan as did the old Good Citizenship. By Grover Cleveland. Phila- 

work, while there have been added hundreds of j^i^i,;^ . u^«^„ au^^..^ i^ r^ ^q «,x «^ -/^ 

sketches of living persons and a large number , delphia: Henry AUemus & Co 78 pp^ $o.:,o 

of articles upon new topics. More than 600 An Open Letter to Cardinal Gibbons. By Paul 

scholars and specialists have been engaged in Sabatier. Boston: Sherman, French & Co. 

the preparation of this new encyclopedia under gg pp^ $0.60. 

the supervision of Dr. Samuel Macauley Jack- . ,, * , ., ' ^. 

son, who was associated with Dr. Schaff in the Things Worth While. By Thomas Wentworth 

editing of the first American edition. So far Higginson. New York: B. W. Huebsch & 

as we are able to judge from the first volume, Co. 73 pp. $0.50. 

the revised encyclopedia will present when com- __,, __ , . t- m t> t- , t> x- • 

Dieted a remarkably full conspectus of its field. Where Knowledge Fails. By Earl Barnes. New 

We shall have more to say about this important York : B. W. Huebsch & Co. 60 pp. $0.50. 

work as subsequent volumes appear. Optimism. By Horace Fletcher. McClurg. 79 

Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, pp. $0.75. 

Vol. IV. Edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland. Did Jesus Really Live? Record of a Debate 

Macmillan. 808 pp., ill. $5. Between Rev. Dr. Algernon S. Crapsey and 

The preceding three volumes of this notable Mr. M. M. Mangasarian. Chicago: Original 

work have been noticed in these pages as they Research Society. 63 pp. 

have appeared. The series will be completed * , * * t ,• » % , 

with the fifth volume. This dictionary offers a A sheaf of noteworthy httle volumes on ab- 

comprehensive treatment of all important topics sorbing modem topics of discussion. Good 

related to music, together with biographical Citizenship was an address delivered by the 

sketches of noteworthy musicians of all times. J?,^e Groycr Qeyeland before the Commercial 

The authoritative character of the work is un- flu^ of Chicago m October, 1903. M. Sabatier s 

questioned, the articles being signed by con- Open Letter to Cardinal Gibbons was 

tributors of known literary and musical stand- ^?^^^^^ ^» *?« Catholic prelate s recently pub- 

jng. lished interview on the separation of Church 

coNiiTiTiiTTONAi T AW ANH oovpRNMRNT ^"^ ^^**® "* Francc. Thc translation is by 

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW AND GOVERNMENT, j^j,^ Richard Slattery. "Things Worth While" 

The Law of the Federal and State Constitu- and " Where Knowledge Fails " are included in 

tions of the United States. By Frederic ^^^ Art of Life series which Edward Howard 

Jesup Stimson. Boston Book Company. ^"8gs is editing. " Optimism " is a cheerful 

on ^ essay, "a warning against the disease of 

386 pp. $3.50. pessimism." " Did Jesus Really Live ? " as has 

This is a most useful work and one to which been already noted, is the record of a debate in 

appeal will frequently be made during the politi- which Dr. Crapsey has taken the positive and 

cal debates of the present campaign. It as- Mr. Mangasarian the negative. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER, 1908. 



The Late William B. Allison. . .Frontispiece 
The Progress of the World— 

Mr. Taft Stands on His Record 259 

Mr. Brvan Also Has Stated His Case 259 

MethocU of Campaigning 259 

Organizing the New Voters 260 

Personnel of the Republican Campaign 260 

The Democratic Organization 260 

Appealing for Funds 261 

Notification Affairs 262 

Socialirts in This Year's Politics 263 

The Prohibitionists. 264 

Mr. Watson States His Case 264 

Th 'I Hearst Party Now Launched 265 

A Summary of Current Issues 266 

The Harmonious Trend of American Opinion. 266 
Taft or Bryan Must Move with the Tiae .... 266 

Hisgen the Candidate. 267 

Mr. John Temple Graves 268 

Taf t's Statement of the Issues. 266 

Mr# Bryan's Clever Speech 269 

Arc Platforms Binding ? 269 

Confuting the Party in Power 270 

Western Primary elections 270 

The People on Top. 272 

Why Not in New York ? 273 

Convention versus Primary 273 

The Iowa Senatorship 273 

Senator Allison's Death. 274 

A Proposed Lincoln Memorial 274 

Mob Frenzy at Springfield 275 

The IHeet in Australian Waters 275 

The Political Campaign in Canada 276 

The Spirit of the Quebec Celebration 276 

The Ejections in Cuba 277 

Porto Rico, Colombia, and Brazil 277 

Castro's Dilute with Holland 277 

Politics in Great Britain 276 

Lord Cromer Predicts War.. 279 

Sir Edward Grey on Germany's ** Isolation.". 279 

The " Revolutionarv Strike " in Paris. 279 

Happeninos in the Ruisian Empire. 260 

Is It Revolution in Turkey > 261 

A Turkish Constitution 261 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 



Record of Current Events 263 

With illustrations. 

Some Political Cartoons of the Month 267 
The Socialist Party in the Campaign 293 

By Robert Hunter. 
With portraits of Eugene V. Debs and Ben Hanford. 

The Prohibitionists and Their Cause. 300 

By Samuel Dickie. 
With portraits of Eugene W. Ohafln and Aaron S. Watkins. 

Why I Am Still a Populist 303 

By Thomas E. Wation. 
With portraits of Mr. Watson and Samuel W. Williams. ' 



Mission of the Independence Party . . 307 

By John Temple Graves. 

With portraits of Thomas L. Hisgen and 
John Temple Graves. 

Real Navigation of the Air 310 

By George H. Guy. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

The Warfare Against Tuberculosis. . 323 

By O. F. Lewis. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

Modem Curative Methods with Tu- 
berculosis 330 

By Eldwin L. Sabin. 
With illustrations. 

What Shall the Lincoln Memorial Be? 334 

By James T. McClcary. 
With 11 lustrations. 

English - Speaking Lands in the 
South Pacific 342 

With illustrations. 

Old-Age Pensions in England 345 

By Guernsey Jones. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

Labor's Choice Between the Parties 347 

Political Campaigning in Ensland and America 349 
'*True Inwardness*' of the Portsmouth Treaty 351 

The Character of Samuel de Champlain 352 

Industrial Development ip Sweden. 333 

Municipal Superrision of Architecture 355 

Detroit Competinfl with Egypt — Proposal to 

Duplicate the Great Pyramid of Gizeh 357 

Indian Tribes of Labrador 358 

Crimes of Violence in Chicago and New York